Pope St. Pontian, was the Bishop of Rome from 21 July 230 to 28 September 235. In 235, during the persecution of Christians in the reign of the Emperor Maximinus the Thracian, Pontian was arrested and he resigned to make the election of a new pope possible. Pontians pontificate was relatively peaceful under the reign of the Emperor Severus Alexander, according to early church historian Eusebius of Caesarea, the next emperor, overturned his predecessors policy of tolerance towards Christianity. Both Pope Pontian and the Antipope Hippolytus of Rome were arrested and exiled to labor in the mines of Sardinia, in light of his sentence, Pontian resigned as bishop on 28 September 235, so as to allow an orderly transition in the Church of Rome. This action ended a schism that had existed in the Roman Church for eighteen years and he was beaten to death with sticks. Neither Hippolytus nor Pontian survived, reconciling with one another there before their deaths, Pope Fabian had the bodies of both Pontian and Hippolytus brought back to Rome in 236 or 237 and buried in the papal crypt in the Catacomb of Callixtus on the Appian Way.
The slab covering his tomb was discovered in 1909, on it is inscribed in Greek, Ποντιανός Επίσκ. The inscription Μάρτυρ, MARTUR had been added in another hand, pontians feast day was previously celebrated on 19 November, but since 1969 both he and Hippolytus are commemorated jointly on 13 August. List of Catholic saints List of popes Herbermann, Charles, ed. Pope St. Pontian
Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Wenceslaus I, Wenceslas I, Václav the Good or Saint Wenceslaus was the duke of Bohemia from 921 until his assassination in 935. His younger brother, Boleslaus the Cruel, was complicit in the murder and his martyrdom and the popularity of several biographies gave rise to a reputation for heroic goodness that resulted in his elevation to sainthood. He was posthumously declared to be a king and came to be seen as the saint of the Czech state. He is the subject of the well-known Good King Wenceslas, a carol for Saint Stephens Day, Wenceslas was the son of Vratislaus I, Duke of Bohemia from the Přemyslid dynasty. His grandfather, Bořivoj I of Bohemia, was converted to Christianity by Saints Cyril and his mother, Drahomíra, was the daughter of a pagan tribal chief of the Havelli, but was baptized at the time of her marriage. His paternal grandmother, Ludmila of Bohemia, oversaw his education, in 921, when Wenceslas was about thirteen, his father died and his grandmother became regent. Jealous of the influence that Ludmila wielded over Wenceslas, Drahomíra arranged to have her killed, Ludmila was at Tetín Castle near Beroun when assassins murdered her on September 15,921.
She is said to have been strangled by them with her veil. She was at first buried in the church of St. Michael at Tetín, but her remains were removed, probably by Wenceslas, to the church of St. George in Prague. Drahomíra assumed the role of regent and immediately initiated measures against the Christians, when Wenceslas came of age, he took control of the government. He placed the duchy under the protection of Germany, introduced German priests, and favoured the Latin rite instead of the old Slavic, to prevent disputes between him and his younger brother Boleslav, they divided the country between them, assigning to the latter a considerable territory. To withstand Saxon overlordship, Wenceslass father Vratislaus had forged an alliance with the Bavarian duke Arnulf, the alliance became worthless, when Arnulf and Henry reconciled at Regensburg in 921. In 924 or 925, at about the age of 18 and he defeated a rebellious duke of Kouřim named Radslav. He founded a rotunda consecrated to St. Vitus at Prague Castle in Prague, Henry had been forced to pay a huge tribute to the Magyars in 926 and needed the Bohemian tribute, which Wenceslas probably refused to pay after the reconciliation between Arnulf and Henry.
Another possible reason for the attack was the formation of the alliance between Bohemia, the Polabian Slavs, and the Magyars. In September 935, a group of nobles allied with Wenceslass younger brother Boleslav plotted to kill him. After Boleslav invited Wenceslas to the feast of Saints Cosmas and Damian in Stará Boleslav, three of Boleslavs companions, Tira, Česta, and Hněvsa, fell on the duke, as the duke fell, Boleslav ran him through with a lance. According to Cosmas of Prague, in his Chronica Boëmorum of the early 12th century, because of the ominous circumstance of his birth, the infant was named Strachkvas, which means a dreadful feast
Battle of Tinchebray
The Battle of Tinchebray was fought 28 September 1106, in Tinchebray, between an invading force led by King Henry I of England, and his older brother Robert Curthose, the Duke of Normandy. Henrys knights won a victory, capturing Robert and imprisoning him in England. Henry invaded Normandy in 1105, taking Bayeux and Caen and he broke off his campaign because of political problems arising from the Investiture Controversy. With these settled, he returned to Normandy in the spring of 1106, after quickly taking the fortified abbey of Saint-Pierre-sur-Dives, Henry turned south and besieged Tinchebray Castle, on a hill above the town. Tinchebray is on the border of the county of Mortain, in the southwest of Normandy, and was held by William, Count of Mortain, Duke Robert brought up his forces to break the siege. After some unsuccessful negotiations, Duke Robert decided that a battle in the open was his best option, Henrys army was organized into three groups. Ranulf of Bayeux, Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester, a reserve, commanded by Elias I of Maine, remained out of sight on the flank.
Alan IV, Duke of Brittany, Count of Évreux, Ralph of Tosny, Robert of Montfort, Count of Mortain, and Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury fought with Robert Curthose. The battle only lasted an hour, Henry dismounted and ordered most of his knights to dismount. This was unusual for Norman battle tactics, and meant the infantry played a decisive role, Count of Évreux, charged the front line, with men from Bayeux and the Cotentin. Most of Roberts army was captured or killed and those captured included Robert, Edgar Atheling, and William, Count of Mortain. Robert de Bellême, commanding the Dukes rear guard, led the retreat, most of the prisoners were released, but Robert Curthose and William of Mortain spent the rest of their lives in captivity. Robert Curthose had a son, William Clito, whose claims to the dukedom of Normandy led to several rebellions that continued through the rest of Henrys reign. The battle is depicted in Rosemary Sutcliffs 1960 historical fiction novel Knights Fee
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Norman conquest of England
Williams claim to the English throne derived from his familial relationship with the childless Anglo-Saxon King Edward the Confessor, who may have encouraged Williams hopes for the throne. Edward died in January 1066 and was succeeded by his brother-in-law Harold Godwinson, within days, William landed in southern England. Harold marched south to confront him, leaving a significant portion of his army in the north, Harolds army confronted Williams invaders on 14 October at the Battle of Hastings, Williams force defeated Harold, who was killed in the engagement. Although Williams main rivals were gone, he faced rebellions over the following years and was not secure on his throne until after 1072. The lands of the resisting English elite were confiscated, some of the elite fled into exile, to control his new kingdom, William granted lands to his followers and built castles commanding military strongpoints throughout the land. More gradual changes affected the classes and village life, the main change appears to have been the formal elimination of slavery.
There was little alteration in the structure of government, as the new Norman administrators took over many of the forms of Anglo-Saxon government. In 911 the Carolingian French ruler Charles the Simple allowed a group of Vikings under their leader Rollo to settle in Normandy as part of the Treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte. In exchange for the land, the Norsemen under Rollo were expected to provide protection along the coast against further Viking invaders and their settlement proved successful, and the Vikings in the region became known as the Northmen from which Normandy and Normans are derived. The Normans quickly adopted the culture, renouncing paganism and converting to Christianity. They adopted the langue doïl of their new home and added features from their own Norse language, in 1002 King Æthelred the Unready married Emma of Normandy, the sister of Richard II, Duke of Normandy. Their son Edward the Confessor, who spent many years in exile in Normandy and embroiled in conflict with the formidable Godwin, Earl of Wessex and his sons, Edward may have encouraged Duke William of Normandys ambitions for the English throne.
When King Edward died at the beginning of 1066, the lack of a clear heir led to a succession in which several contenders laid claim to the throne of England. Edwards immediate successor was the Earl of Wessex, Harold Godwinson, Harold was immediately challenged by two powerful neighbouring rulers. William and Harald at once set about assembling troops and ships to invade England, in early 1066, Harolds exiled brother, Tostig Godwinson, raided southeastern England with a fleet he had recruited in Flanders, joined by other ships from Orkney. Threatened by Harolds fleet, Tostig moved north and raided in East Anglia and Lincolnshire, but he was back to his ships by the brothers Edwin, Earl of Mercia. Deserted by most of his followers, he withdrew to Scotland, King Harald Hardrada invaded northern England in early September, leading a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying perhaps 15,000 men. Haralds army was augmented by the forces of Tostig, who threw his support behind the Norwegian kings bid for the throne
Hippolytus of Rome
Hippolytus of Rome was the most important 3rd-century theologian in the Christian Church in Rome, where he was probably born. He came into conflict with the popes of his time and seems to have headed a group as a rival to the Bishop of Rome. He opposed the Roman bishops who softened the penitential system to accommodate the number of new pagan converts. However, he was probably reconciled to the Church when he died as a martyr. Starting in the 4th century AD, various legends arose about him and he has been confused with another martyr of the same name. As a presbyter of the church at Rome under Pope Zephyrinus, Hippolytus was distinguished for his learning and it was at this time that Origen of Alexandria, a young man, heard him preach. He accused Pope Zephyrinus of modalism, the heresy which held that the names Father, Hippolytus championed the Logos doctrine of the Greek apologists, most notably Justin Martyr, which distinguished the Father from the Logos. An ethical conservative, he was scandalized when Pope Callixtus I extended absolution to Christians who had committed grave sins, Hippolytus himself advocated an excessive rigorism.
At this time, he seems to have allowed himself to be elected as a rival Bishop of Rome, G. Salmon suggests that Hippolytus was the leader of the Greek-speaking Christians of Rome. Allen Brent sees the development of Roman house-churches into something akin to Greek philosophical schools gathered around a compelling teacher, under the persecution at the time of Emperor Maximinus Thrax and Pontian were exiled together in 235 AD to Sardinia, likely dying in the mines. It is quite probable that, before his death there, he was reconciled to the party at Rome, under Pope Fabian, his body. The facts of his life as well as his writing were soon forgotten in the West, perhaps by reason of his criticism of the bishops of Rome and because he wrote in Greek. In the Passionals of the 7th and 8th centuries he is represented as a converted by Saint Lawrence. He was confused with a martyr of the name who was buried in Portus, of which city he was believed to have been a bishop. According to Prudentius account, Hippolytus was dragged to death by horses, a striking parallel to the story of the mythological Hippolytus.
He described the tomb of the saint and states that he saw there a picture representing Hippolytus’ execution. He confirms August 13 as the date on which a Hippolytus was celebrated but this refers to the convert of Lawrence. The latter account led to Hippolytus being considered the saint of horses
Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia
His mother may have been Biagota, a mysterious figure known only known from her coins. According to some historians, she was the wife of Boleslaus I, Boleslaus II took over the rule of the Duchy of Bohemia as kníže on his fathers death in 972. Like his father, Boleslaus II initially quarrelled with the Ottonian kings of Germany, in 974 he and Duke Mieszko I of Poland supported the rebellious Duke Henry II of Bavaria in his civil war against the rule of Emperor Otto II. In 976, Henry was defeated and fled to Boleslaus court at Prague Castle, finally in 978, Boleslaus solemnly pledged allegiance to the emperor at the Easter festivities in Quedlinburg. In turn, the relations with Poland deteriorated from about 980 onwards, when Boleslaus occupied the Saxon Margravate of Meissen, he thwarted the plans of Mieszkos son Bolesław, who had married a daughter of Margrave Ricdag. In 987 Boleslav had to retire from Meissen, from about 990, he sparked a conflict with Poland around the lands of Silesia. In 992 he approached to King Otto III and participated in a campaign against the Lutici tribes in the wake of the 983 Great Slav Rising.
Boleslauss reign is most notable for the foundation of the Diocese of Prague in 973, the Bohemian diocese was placed at that time within the jurisdiction of the Archbishop of Mainz and Emperor Otto II enforced the appointment of the Saxon monk Thietmar as first bishop. Meanwhile, the struggle with the rivalling Slavník dynasty flared up again from 981 onwards, upon Bishop Dětmars death in 982, Soběslavs brother Adalbert was appointed his successor until he abandoned his primacy to lead a mission to the Old Prussians in 994. On 28 September 995, Boleslaus forces and the confederate Vršovci clan stormed Libice Castle in southern Bohemia, boleslauss brutal triumph ensured the unity of Bohemia under a single ruler. Boleslauss first wife Adiva may have been a daughter of the English king Edward the Elder and his second wife was Emma of Mělník. The internal struggles of the Přemyslid dynasty shook the Bohemian duchy, joanna A. Sobiesiak, Bolesław II Przemyślida, Dynasta i jego państwo
Procopius was a Roman usurper against Valens, and a member of the Constantinian dynasty. According to Ammianus Marcellinus, Procopius was a native and spent his youth in Cilicia, on his mothers side, Procopius was related, a maternal cousin, to Emperor Julian, since their maternal grandfather was Julius Julianus. In 358, during Constantius II reign, he was sent with Lucillianus as an envoy to the Sassanid court, Procopius entered in Julians retinue and took part in his campaign against the Sassanids, in 363. However, Julian died and, when Procopius reached the main Roman army near Thilsaphata, according to Zosimus, Julian had given Procopius an imperial robe, explaining his act only to him. Ammianus, who based part of his account on the testimony of Strategius, tells that a rumor spread. After Jovians death, the new emperors, Valentinian I and Valens, Procopius feared a betrayal, and decide to go to Constantinople, to ask to Strategius for help. Procopius immediately moved to declare himself Emperor and he bribed two legions that were resting at Constantinople to support his efforts, and took control of the imperial city.
Shortly after this he proclaimed himself Emperor on September 28,365, and quickly took control of the provinces of Thrace, Valens was left with the task of dealing with this rebel, and over the next months struggled with both cities and units that wavered in their allegiance. Eventually their armies met at the Battle of Thyatira, and Procopius forces were defeated and he fled the battlefield, but was betrayed to Valens by two of his remaining followers. Valens had all three executed 27 May 366
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility, Pompeys immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a commander in Sullas Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs, after the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar contended for the leadership of the Roman state, when Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Romes subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire, Pompeys family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC.
Pompeys father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was an equestrian from Picenum. He fought the Social War against Romes Italian allies and he supported Sulla, who belonged to the optimates, the pro-aristocracy faction, against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sullas first civil war. He died during the siege of Rome by the Marians in 87 BC, either as a casualty of an epidemic and his twenty-year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, and the loyalty of his legions. Pompey had served two years under his fathers command, and had participated in the part of the Social War. When his father died, Pompey was put on due to accusations that his father stole public property. As his father’s heir Pompey could be held to account and he discovered that this was committed by one of his fathers freedmen. Following his preliminary bouts with his accuser, the took a liking to Pompey and offered his daughter. Another civil war broke out between the Marians and Sulla, Cassius Dio added that Pompey had sent a detachment to pursue him, but he outstripped them by crossing the River Phasis.
He reached the Maeotis and stayed in the Cimmerian Bosporus and he had his son Machares, who ruled it and gone over to the Romans and recovered that country. Meanwhile, Pompey set up a colony for his soldiers at Nicopolitans in Cappadocia, in Plutarchs account Pompey was invited to invade Armenia by Tigranes’ son, who rebelled against his father. The two men received the submission of several towns, when they got close Artaxata Tigranes, knowing Pompey’s leniency and allowed a Roman garrison in his palace. Pompey offered the restitution of the Armenian territories in Syria, Cilicia, Galatia and he demanded an indemnity and ruled that the son should be king of Sophene
Kingdom of Valencia
The Kingdom of Valencia, located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon. When the Crown of Aragon merged by dynastic union with the Crown of Castile to form the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Valencia was formally created in 1238 when the Moorish taifa of Valencia was taken in the course of the Reconquista. It was dissolved by Philip V of Spain in 1707, by means of the Nueva Planta decrees, the boundaries and identity of the present Spanish Autonomous Community of Valencia are essentially those of the former Kingdom of Valencia. Shortly after, in 1233, Borriana and Peniscola were taken from the بلنسية Balansiyya taifa, a second and more relevant wave of expansion took place in 1238, when James I defeated the Moors from the Balansiya taifa. He entered the city of Valencia on 9 October 1238, which is regarded as the dawn of the Kingdom of Valencia. The Treaty of Almizra established the line of Aragonese expansion in the line formed by the villes of Biar and Busot.
Everything south of line, including what would be the Kingdom of Murcia, was reserved by means of this treaty for Castile. He led important rebellions in 1244,1248 and 1276, during the first of these, he briefly regained Muslim independence for the lands South of the Júcar, but he had to surrender soon after. During the second revolt, king James I was almost killed in battle, during the third rebellion, Al-Azraq himself was killed but his son would continue to promote Muslim unrest and local rebellions remained always at sight. James II called Jaume II el Just or the Just, a grandson of James I, the campaign under James II was successful to the point of extending the limits of the Kingdom of Valencia well south of the previously agreed border with Castile. His troops took Orihuela and Murcia, at the end of the process, four taifas had been wiped out, Alpuente and Murcia. The new territories would be only to the king. This development was part of a growing trend evident in the Middle Ages and it is by this historiographical approach that the repopulation of the Kingdom is assessed today.
The Kingdom was initially populated by Muslims and often subject to popular revolts. This fact marked the Christian colonization of the acquired territories. Finally the Aragonese nobles were granted several domains, but they managed to only the interior lands, mostly mountainous. These actions had consequences, The interior was mostly repopulated by speakers of the Aragonese language. The coastal lands were repopulated by speakers of the Valencian language from the Principality of Catalonia
James I of Aragon
James I the Conqueror was King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276, King of Majorca from 1231 to 1276, and Valencia from 1238 to 1276. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and his part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia. As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Llibre del Consolat de Mar, which governed maritime trade and he was an important figure in the development of the Catalan language, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign, the Llibre dels fets. James was born at Montpellier as the son of Peter II of Aragon. Peter endeavoured to placate the northern crusaders by arranging a marriage between his son James and Simons daughter, when the former was only two years old. He entrusted the boy to be educated in Montforts care in 1211, Montfort would willingly have used James as a means of extending his own power had not the Aragonese appealed to Pope Innocent III, who insisted that Montfort surrender him.
James was handed over to the papal legate Peter of Benevento at Carcassonne in May or June 1214, the kingdom was given over to confusion until, in 1217, the Templars and some of the more loyal nobles brought the young king to Zaragoza. In 1221, he was married to Eleanor, daughter of Alfonso VIII of Castile, the next six years of his reign were full of rebellions on the part of the nobles. By the Peace of Alcalá of 31 March 1227, the nobles, in 1228, James faced the sternest opposition yet from a vassal. Guerau IV de Cabrera occupied the County of Urgell in opposition to Aurembiax, the heiress of Ermengol VIII, who had died without sons in 1208. Although Aurembiaxs mother, had made herself a protegée of Jamess father, upon her death in 1220 Guerau occupied the county and displaced Aurembiax, James intervened on behalf of Aurembiax, to whom he owed protection. He bought Guerau off and allowed Aurembiax to reclaim her territory and she surrendered Lleida to James and agreed to hold Urgell in fief for him.
On her death in 1231, James exchanged the Balearic Islands for Urgell with her widower, Peter of Portugal, from 1230 to 1232, James negotiated with Sancho VII of Navarre, who desired his help against his nephew and closest living male relative, Theobald IV of Champagne. Pope Gregory IX was required to intervene, in the end, James accepted Theobalds succession. James endeavoured to form a state straddling the Pyrenees in order to counterbalance the power of France north of the Loire, as with the much earlier Visigothic attempt, this policy was victim to physical and political obstacles. As in the case of Navarre, he declined to launch into perilous adventures, by the Treaty of Corbeil, signed in May 1258, he ended his conflict with Louis IX of France, securing the renunciation of French claims to sovereignty over Catalonia. After his false start at uniting Aragon with the Kingdom of Navarre through a scheme of mutual adoption, James turned to the south, James conquered Majorca on 31 December 1229, and Minorca and Ibiza were acquired during the reconquest
Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia
Boleslaus I the Cruel, called Boleslav I, was the ruler of the Duchy of Bohemia from 935 to his death. He was the son of Vratislaus I and the brother of his predecessor. Boleslaus is notorious for the murder of his brother Wenceslaus, through which he became Duke of Bohemia, according to tradition, Wenceslaus was murdered during a feast at precisely the time when a son of Boleslaus was born. The child was given a name, which means a dreadful feast. Remorseful for what he had done, Boleslaus promised to have his son educated as a clergyman, despite his complicity in fratricide, Boleslaus is generally respected by Czech historians as an energetic ruler who significantly strengthened the Bohemian state and expanded its territory. His accomplishments include significant economic development due to an expansion in trade, the introduction of mining and the minting of the first local coinage. There is evidence that Boleslauss pagan mother influenced him against his brother and Christianity, though he repented.
In no way did he impede the growth of Christianity in Bohemia, and in fact, he sent his daughter Mlada. One of Boleslauss major concerns was the tribute paid yearly to the German kings as stipulated in the treaty that Henry the Fowler had established with Boleslauss brother Wenceslaus. He stopped the payment shortly after he ascended the throne, which led to a war with King Otto the Great. Boleslaus attacked an ally of the Saxons in northwest Bohemia in 936, the war deteriorated to border raids and reached its conclusion in 950, when Otto besieged a castle owned by Boleslauss son. This prompted Boleslaus to sign a treaty with Otto. Although he remained undefeated, he promised to resume the payment of tribute, five years later, the armies of Czechs and Germans allied against the Magyars in the victorious Battle of Lechfeld on 10 August 955. Boleslaus helped Otto to crush an uprising of Slavs on the Lower Elbe in Mecklenburg in 953, the defeat of invading Hungarians brought the same benefits to both Germans and Czechs.
Less obvious is what Boleslaus wanted to gain from his participation in the war against the Obotrite Slavic dukes in far north and he probably wanted to ensure that his powerful German neighbors did not interfere with him in expanding the Bohemian territories to the east. After the Battle of Lech, the remainder of the huge Magyar army turned to Bohemia, as a result of this victory, Boleslaus freed Moravia from Magyar raids and expanded his territory to Upper Silesia and Lesser Poland. To strengthen the Bohemian-Polish alliance, Boleslavs daughter Dobrawa married the pagan Piast prince Mieszko I in 965 and he was succeeded by his eldest son Boleslaus the Pious. Boleslavs wife may have been Biagota and it is unknown if she was the mother of all his four adult children, Doubravka of Bohemia, Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia, Strachkvas of Bohemia, Mlada of Bohemia