Tegucigalpa, commonly referred to as Téguz, is the capital of Honduras and seat of government of the Republic, along with its twin sister Comayagüela. Claimed on September 29,1578 by the Spaniards, Tegucigalpa became the capital on October 30,1880 under President Marco Aurelio Soto. After a failed attempt to create a Central American republic in 1821, on January 30,1937, Article 179 of the 1936 Honduran Constitution was changed under Decree 53 to establish Tegucigalpa and Comayagüela as a Central District. Tegucigalpa is located in the highland region known as the department of Francisco Morazán of which it is the departmental capital. It is situated in a valley, surrounded by mountains and Comayagüela, being sister cities, are physically separated by the Choluteca River. The Central District is the largest of the 28 municipalities in the Francisco Morazán department, Tegucigalpa is Honduras largest and most populous city as well as the nations political and administrative center. Tegucigalpa is host to 25 foreign embassies and 16 consulates and it is the home base of several state-owned entities such as ENEE and Hondutel, the national energy and telecommunications companies, respectively.
The city is home to the countrys most important public university. The capitals international airport, Toncontín, is known for its short runway. The Central District Mayors Office is the governing body, headed by a mayor and 10 aldermen forming the Municipal Corporation. Being the departments seat as well, the office of Francisco Morazán is located in the capital. In 2008, the city operated on a budget of 1.555 billion lempiras. In 2009, the city government reported a revenue of 1.955 billion lempiras, Tegucigalpas infrastructure has not kept up with its population growth. Deficient urban planning, densely condensed urbanization, and poverty are ongoing problems, heavily congested roadways where current road infrastructure is unable to efficiently handle over 400,000 vehicles create havoc on a daily basis. Both current national and local governments have taken steps to improve, most sources indicate the origin and meaning of the word Tegucigalpa is derived from the Nahuatl language. Another source suggests that Tegucigalpa derives from another language in which it means painted rocks, other theories indicate it may derive from the term Togogalpa which refers to tototi and Toncontín, a small town near Tegucigalpa.
In Mexico, it is believed the word Tegucigalpa is from the Nahuatl word Tecuztlicallipan, meaning place of residence of the noble or Tecuhtzincalpan, meaning place on the home of the beloved master. Tegucigalpa was founded by Spanish settlers as Real de Minas de San Miguel de Tegucigalpa on September 29,1578 on the site of a native settlement of the Pech, Tolupans
United States Department of War
The Secretary of War, a civilian with such responsibilities as finance and purchases and a minor role in directing military affairs, headed the War Department throughout its existence. Retired senior General Henry Knox, in civilian life, served as the first United States Secretary of War and organizing the department and the army fell to Secretary Knox. On November 8,1800 the War Department building with its records, foundation of the new military academy at West Point along the Hudson River upstream from New York City in 1802 was important to the future growth of the American army. The multiple failures and fiascos of the War of 1812 convinced Washington that thorough reform of the War Department was necessary, winfield Scott became the senior general until the start of the American Civil War in 1861. The bureau chiefs acted as advisers to the Secretary of War while commanding their own troops, the bureaus frequently conflicted among themselves, but in disputes with the commanding general, the Secretary of War generally supported the bureaus.
Congress regulated the affairs of the bureaus in detail, and their chiefs looked to that body for support, during the American Civil War, the War Department responsibilities expanded. It handled the recruiting, supply, medical care, transportation, a separate command structure took charge of military operations. In the late stages of the war, the Department took charge of refugees and freedmen in the American South through the Bureau of Refugees, during Reconstruction, this bureau played a major role in supporting the new Republican governments in the southern states. When military Reconstruction ended in 1877, the U. S. Army removed the last troops from military occupation of the American South, and the last Republican state governments in the region ended. The Army comprised hundreds of small detachments in forts around the West, dealing with Indians, the United States Army, with 39,000 men in 1890 was the smallest and least powerful army of any major power in the late 19th century. By contrast, France had an army of 542,000, temporary volunteers and state militia units mostly fought the Spanish–American War of 1898.
This conflict demonstrated the need for effective control over the department. Elihu Root enlarged the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York and established the United States Army War College and he changed the procedures for promotions and organized schools for the special branches of the service. He devised the principle of rotating officers from staff to line, Secretary Taft exercised little power, President Theodore Roosevelt made the major decisions. In 1911, Secretary Henry L. Stimson and Major General Leonard Wood, his chief of staff, the general staff assisted them in their efforts to rationalize the organization of the army along modern lines and in supervising the bureaus. Assisted by industrial advisers, they reorganized the system of the army. General March reorganized the general staff along similar lines and gave it authority over departmental operations. After the war, the Congress again granted the bureaus their former independence, in the 1920s, General John J.
Pershing realigned the general staff on the pattern of his American Expeditionary Force field headquarters, which he commanded
The usurper is named Gaumata in the Behistun inscription of Darius I, named Smerdis in Herodotus Histories, and is named Sphendadates in the surviving fragments of Ctesias. In Darius trilingual Behistun inscription, the prince being impersonated is named Pirtiya in Elamite, Bardiya in Old Persian, in the Histories, the prince and his imposter have the same name. For Ctesias, Sphendadates poses as Tanyoxarces, other Greek sources have various other names for the figure being impersonated, including Tanoxares and Mardos. The three oldest surviving sources agree that Gaumata/Pseudo-Smerdis/Sphendadates is overthrown by Darius and others in a coup détat, most sources have Darius as part of a group of seven conspirators. In Greek and Latin sources, Darius subsequently gains kingship by cheating in a contest, the evaluation of the primary sources has been cause for much disagreement in modern scholarship. The key argument against a fabrication is that there is no evidence for it, the key argument for a fabrication is that Darius had reason to invent the story since he had no particular rights to the throne.
Cambyses had Bardiya killed, and succeeded in keeping that a secret from the people, while Cambyses was away in Egypt, rebellions developed in Persia and in Media and in other provinces. A maguish by the name of Gaumata began to proclaim himself as Bardiya, still in Egypt, committed suicide. Out of fear of retribution from Gaumata, the people remained quiet, a section of the Behistun inscription of a date has another rebel, a certain Vahyazdata, claiming to be Bardiya. A longer version of the story appears in Book 3 of Herodotus Histories, jealous of his brother Smerdis skill with a particular bow brought from the king of Ethiopia, Cambyses sends Smerdis back to Persis. Cambyses has a dream in which Smerdis would supplant him, the assassination succeeds and is meant to be kept secret. One of the few that know of Smerdis death is Patizeithes and that steward has a brother who greatly resembles Smerdis in appearance, and whose name is Smerdis. The steward puts his brother on the throne, and has him pretend that he is the brother of Cambyses, the false Smerdis succeeds in the deception by not allowing anyone who knew the real Smerdis into his presence.
Still in Egypt, Cambyses learns of the false Smerdis, and knowing that the real Smerdis is dead, Cambyses readies his army to return to Susa, but while mounting his horse accidentally injures his thigh with the point of his sword. Cambyses dies from the wound a few days later, on his death bed, Cambyses perceives Smerdis as favouring a return to Median hegemony. Meanwhile, Otanes, a nobleman of Persis, suspects that the king is not the brother of Cambyses, but rather the Smerdis whose ears Cyrus had commanded be cut off for some grave reason. To confirm his suspicion, Otanes asks his daughter Phaidyme – who is a member of the harem, Phaidyme does as asked, and one night while the king is asleep, confirms that the king does not in fact have ears. His suspicions confirmed, Otanes gathers six noblemen and plots to get rid of the false Smerdis, a seventh nobleman, arrives at the capital shortly thereafter, and is included in the group
Pope Gregory IX
Pope Gregory IX Latin, Gregorius IX, was Pope from 19 March 1227 to his death in 1241. The successor of Pope Honorius III, he inherited the traditions of Pope Gregory VII and of his cousin Pope Innocent III. The date of his birth varies in sources between c.1145 and 1170 and he received his education at the Universities of Paris and Bologna. He was created Cardinal-Deacon of the church of SantEustachio by his cousin Innocent III in December 1198, in 1206 he was promoted to the rank of Cardinal Bishop of Ostia e Velletri. He became Dean of the Sacred College of Cardinals in 1218 or 1219, upon the special request of Saint Francis, in 1220, Pope Honorius III appointed him Cardinal Protector of the order of the Franciscans. As Cardinal Bishop of Ostia, he cultivated a wide range of acquaintances, among them the Queen of England, Gregory IX was elevated to the papacy in the papal election of 1227. He took the name Gregory because he assumed the papal office at the monastery of Saint Gregory ad Septem Solia.
Gregorys Bull Parens scientiarum of 1231, after the University of Paris strike of 1229 and this pope, being a remarkably skillful and learned lawyer, caused to be prepared Nova Compilatio decretalium, which was promulgated in numerous copies in 1234. The supplement completed the work, which provided the foundation for papal legal theory, in the 1234 Decretals, he invested the doctrine of perpetua servitus iudaeorum – perpetual servitude of the Jews – with the force of canonical law. According to this, the followers of the Talmud would have to remain in a condition of political servitude until Judgment Day, the doctrine found its way into the doctrine of servitus camerae imperialis, or servitude immediately subject to the Emperors authority, promulgated by Frederick II. The Jews were thus suppressed from having influence over the political process. In 1239, under the influence of Nicholas Donin, a Jewish convert to Christianity, following a public disputation between Christians and Jewish theologians, this culminated in a mass burning of some 12,000 handwritten Talmudic manuscripts on 12 June 1242, in Paris.
Gregory was a supporter of the mendicant orders which he saw an excellent means for counteracting by voluntary poverty the love of luxury and he was a friend of Saint Dominic as well as Clare of Assisi. On 17 January 1235, he approved the Order of Our Lady of Mercy for the redemption of captives. He appointed ten cardinals and canonized Saints Elisabeth of Hungary, Dominic de Guzmán, Anthony of Padua and he transformed a chapel to Our Lady in the church of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome. Gregory IX endorsed the Northern Crusades and attempts to bring Orthodox Slavic peoples in Eastern Europe under Papacys fold, at the coronation of Frederick II in Rome,22 November 1220, the emperor made a vow to embark for the Holy Land in August 1221. Gregory IX began his pontificate by suspending the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, Frederick II appealed to the sovereigns of Europe complaining of his treatment. The suspension was followed by excommunication and threats of deposition, as deeper rifts appeared, Frederick II went to the Holy Land and in fact managed to take possession of Jerusalem
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
Frederick II was a Holy Roman Emperor and King of Sicily in the Middle Ages, a member of the House of Hohenstaufen. His political and cultural ambitions, based in Sicily and stretching through Italy to Germany, his enemies, especially the popes and his dynasty collapsed soon after his death. As such, he was King of Germany, of Italy, at the age of three, he was crowned King of Sicily as a co-ruler with his mother, Constance of Hauteville, the daughter of Roger II of Sicily. His other royal title was King of Jerusalem by virtue of marriage, Pope Gregory IX went so far as to call him an Antichrist. Speaking six languages, Frederick was a patron of science. He played a role in promoting literature through the Sicilian School of poetry. His Sicilian royal court in Palermo, from around 1220 to his death, saw the first use of a form of an Italo-Romance language. The poetry that emanated from the school had a significant influence on literature and he was the first king who explicitly outlawed trials by ordeal as they were considered irrational.
After his death, his line died out and the House of Hohenstaufen came to an end. Born in Iesi, near Ancona, Frederick was the son of the emperor Henry VI and he was known as the puer Apuliae. Some chronicles say that his mother, the forty-year-old Constance, gave birth to him in a square in order to forestall any doubt about his origin. In 1196 at Frankfurt am Main the infant Frederick was elected King of the Germans and his rights in Germany were disputed by Henrys brother Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick. At the death of his father in 1197, Frederick was in Italy travelling towards Germany when the bad news reached his guardian, Conrad of Spoleto. Frederick was hastily brought back to his mother Constance in Palermo, Constance of Sicily was in her own right queen of Sicily, and she established herself as regent. Upon Constances death in 1198, Pope Innocent III succeeded as Fredericks guardian, Fredericks tutor during this period was Cencio, who would become Pope Honorius III. However, Markward of Annweiler, with the support of Henrys brother, Philip of Swabia, reclaimed the regency for himself, in 1200, with the help of Genoese ships, he landed in Sicily and one year seized the young Frederick.
He thus ruled Sicily until 1202, when he was succeeded by another German captain, William of Capparone, Frederick was subsequently under tutor Walter of Palearia, until, in 1208, he was declared of age. His first task was to reassert his power over Sicily and southern Italy, Otto of Brunswick had been crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III in 1209
Battle of Auray
The Battle of Auray took place on 29 September 1364 at the French town of Auray. This battle was the confrontation of the Breton War of Succession. He entered the town of Auray and besieged the castle, which was blockaded by sea by the ships of Nicolas Bouchart coming from Le Croisic, without food supplies, the besieged agreed to surrender the place, if help did not arrive before Michaelmas. Two days before, Charles of Blois had arrived east of the abbey of Lanvaux, bertrand du Guesclin, who commanded the vanguard of the French troops, was in nearby Brandivy. On 28 September, du Guesclin landed on the bank of the river. To avoid being caught between the castle and the French Army, Montfort evacuated Auray and took up a position facing the enemy, on the 29 September, attempts at agreement having failed, Charles of Blois prepared for the attack. His army crossed the river and lined up facing south, considered a bad position by some of his commanders because it was on a plain north of the town.
Montfort followed the movement and lined up facing north, in a dominating position. Rejecting the advice of du Guesclin, Charles of Blois ordered the attack against Montforts forces, on the left the Count of Auxerre, on the right Du Guesclin, in the center Charles of Blois. A weak reserve was not used, each division had roughly 1,000 men. On the right Olivier de Clisson, on the left the Englishman Sir Robert Knolles, in the centre Montfort, a significant reserve, under Sir Hugh Calveley, was on hand ready to intervene. The battle began with a skirmish between the French arbalesters and the English archers. Then the men-at-arms engaged directly without seeking to maneuver and it was a bloody combat, because all wanted this battle to be decisive and put an end to the long and cruel war. Moreover, orders were given on both sides not to give quarter to captives, each Anglo-Breton corps was attacked head on, one after the other, but the reserves restored the situation. Then the right wing of the Franco-Breton position was counterattacked and driven back and, the left wing folded in turn, the Count of Auxerre was captured, and the troops of Charles of Blois broke and fled.
Charles, having struck down by a lance, was finished off by an English soldier. Du Guesclin, having all his weapons, was obliged to surrender to the English commander Chandos. Du Guesclin was taken into custody and ransomed by Charles V for 100,000 francs and this victory put an end to the war of succession
1st United States Congress
With the initial meeting of the First Congress, the United States federal government officially began operations under the new frame of government established by the 1787 Constitution. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the provisions of Article I, Section 2, both chambers had a Pro-Administration majority. April 1,1789, House of Representatives first achieved a quorum and elected its officers April 6,1789, Senate first achieved a quorum and elected its officers. Held March 4,1789, through September 29,1789, at Federal Hall in New York City June 1,1789, An act to regulate the time and manner of administering certain oaths, ch. 1,1 Stat.23 July 4,1789, Hamilton Tariff,2,1 Stat.24 July 27,1789, United States Department of State, was established, originally named the Department of Foreign Affairs, ch. Regulation of the Collection of Duties on Tonnage and Merchandise, ch.5,1 Stat.29, august 7,1789, Department of War was established, ch. September 2,1789, United States Department of the Treasury was established,12,1 Stat.65 September 24,1789, Judiciary Act of 1789, ch.
2,1 Stat.101 March 26,1790, Naturalization Act of 1790,3,1 Stat.103 April 10,1790, Patent Act of 1790, ch. 7,1 Stat.109 April 30,1790, Crimes Act of 1790,9,1 Stat.112 May 31,1790, Copyright Act of 1790, ch. 15,1 Stat.124 July 6,1790, Residence Act,130, established Washington, D. C. as the seat of government of the United States. July 22,1790, Indian Intercourse Act of 1790, ch,137, regulated commerce with the Indian tribes. Held December 6,1790, through March 3,1791, at Congress Hall in Philadelphia February 25,1791, First Bank of the United States,10,1 Stat.191 March 3,1791, Whiskey Act, ch. 199, which triggered the Whiskey Rebellion September 25,1789, Constitution establishing specific guarantees of personal freedoms and rights, clear limitations on government power, and submitted them to the state legislatures for ratification. 97, Article one has not been ratified and is pending before the states. Article two was ratified on May 7,1992 as the Twenty-seventh Amendment. Articles three through twelve, known as the Bill of Rights, were ratified on December 15,1791.
November 21,1789, North Carolina became the 12th state to ratify the United States Constitution, may 26,1790, Territory South of the River Ohio organized from land ceded by North Carolina. May 29,1790, Rhode Island became the 13th state to ratify the United States Constitution, there were no political parties in this Congress
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, usually known in English as Pompey /ˈpɒmpiː/ or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic. He came from a wealthy Italian provincial background, and his father had been the first to establish the family among the Roman nobility, Pompeys immense success as a general while still very young enabled him to advance directly to his first consulship without meeting the normal requirements for office. His success as a commander in Sullas Second Civil War resulted in Sulla bestowing the nickname Magnus. He was consul three times and celebrated three triumphs, after the deaths of Julia and Crassus, Pompey sided with the optimates, the conservative faction of the Roman Senate. Pompey and Caesar contended for the leadership of the Roman state, when Pompey was defeated at the Battle of Pharsalus in 48 BC, he sought refuge in Egypt, where he was assassinated. His career and defeat are significant in Romes subsequent transformation from Republic to Empire, Pompeys family first gained the position of Consul in 141 BC.
Pompeys father, Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo, was an equestrian from Picenum. He fought the Social War against Romes Italian allies and he supported Sulla, who belonged to the optimates, the pro-aristocracy faction, against Marius, who belonged to the populares, in Sullas first civil war. He died during the siege of Rome by the Marians in 87 BC, either as a casualty of an epidemic and his twenty-year-old son Pompey inherited his estates, and the loyalty of his legions. Pompey had served two years under his fathers command, and had participated in the part of the Social War. When his father died, Pompey was put on due to accusations that his father stole public property. As his father’s heir Pompey could be held to account and he discovered that this was committed by one of his fathers freedmen. Following his preliminary bouts with his accuser, the took a liking to Pompey and offered his daughter. Another civil war broke out between the Marians and Sulla, Cassius Dio added that Pompey had sent a detachment to pursue him, but he outstripped them by crossing the River Phasis.
He reached the Maeotis and stayed in the Cimmerian Bosporus and he had his son Machares, who ruled it and gone over to the Romans and recovered that country. Meanwhile, Pompey set up a colony for his soldiers at Nicopolitans in Cappadocia, in Plutarchs account Pompey was invited to invade Armenia by Tigranes’ son, who rebelled against his father. The two men received the submission of several towns, when they got close Artaxata Tigranes, knowing Pompey’s leniency and allowed a Roman garrison in his palace. Pompey offered the restitution of the Armenian territories in Syria, Cilicia, Galatia and he demanded an indemnity and ruled that the son should be king of Sophene