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Iron Age in India

In the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent, an "Iron Age" is recognized as succeeding the Late Harappan culture. The main Iron Age archaeological cultures of present-day northern India are the Painted Grey Ware culture and the Northern Black Polished Ware; this corresponds to the transition of the Janapadas or principalities of the Vedic period to the sixteen Mahajanapadas or region-states of the early historic period, culminating in the emergence of the Maurya Empire towards the end of the period. The earliest evidence of iron smelting predates the emergence of the Iron Age proper by several centuries. A team of archaeologists discovered several iron artefacts, including small knives, in Telangana in 2015, dating back to 1,800 BCE to 2,400 BCE; these iron artefacts were tested at the National Geophysical Research Institute. R. Tewari radiocarbon dated iron artefacts in Uttar Pradesh, including furnaces and slag between c. 1800 and 1000 BCE. Iron using and iron working was prevalent in the Central Ganga Plain and the Eastern Vindhyas from the early second millennium BCE.

The beginning of the use of iron has been traditionally associated with the eastward migration of the Vedic people, who are considered as an agency which revolutionised material culture in eastern Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Scholar Rakesh Tewari states that their dates suggest the need for a fresh review. According to him, the evidence corroborates the early use of iron in other areas of the country, attests that India was indeed an independent centre for the development of the working of iron; the earliest Iron Age sites in South India are Hallur and Adichanallur, Tamil Nadu at around 1000 BCE. Kenoyer, J. M. 1998 Ancient Cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. Oxford University Press and American Institute of Pakistan Studies, Karachi. Kenoyer, J. M. 1991a The Indus Valley Tradition of Western India. In Journal of World Prehistory 5: 331-385. Kenoyer, J. M. 1995a Interaction Systems, Specialized Crafts and Culture Change: The Indus Valley Tradition and the Indo-Gangetic Tradition in South Asia.

In The Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity, edited by G. Erdosy, pp. 213–257. Berlin, W. DeGruyter. Shaffer, J. G. 1992 The Indus Valley and Helmand Traditions: Neolithic Through Bronze Age. In Chronologies in Old World Archaeology, edited by R. Ehrich, pp. 441–464. Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Chakrabarti, D. K. 1974. Beginning of Iron in India: Problem Reconsidered, in A. K. Ghosh, Perspectives in Palaeoanthropology: 345-356. Calcutta: Firma K. L. Mukhopadhyay. 1976. The Beginning of Iron in India. Antiquity 4: 114-124. 1992. The Early Use of Iron in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press. 1999. India An Archaeological History. Delhi: Oxford University Press. Chakrabarti, Dilip K. "Mahajanapada States of Early Historic India", A Comparative Study of Thirty City-state Cultures: An Investigation, Kgl. Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, pp. 375–393, ISBN 8778761778

Fall of the Hulks

"Fall of the Hulks" is a 2010 comic book crossover storyline published by Marvel Comics. It ran throughout the ongoing Hulk and Incredible Hulk series, as well as a self-titled limited series. "Fall of the Hulks" was April 2010 by Marvel Comics. A hardcover collection of the issues was released on May 19, 2010; the story details the supervillain cabal the Intelligencia's evil plot, the reaction of the various Hulks and supporting characters. This story leads to the storyline called World War Hulks; as of March 2010, the following issues are announced as being part of Fall of the Hulks: Fall of the Hulks: Alpha Fall of the Hulks: Gamma Fall of the Hulks: Red Hulk #1-4 Fall of the Hulks: The Savage She-Hulks #1-3 Hulk #18-21 Incredible Hulk #606-608 Fall of the hulks: M. O. D. O. K. #1 The storyline begins by revealing that MODOK is a part of a loose-knit cabal of scientists called Intelligencia. They have gathered the knowledge that MODOK uses to create the Red Hulk; the group makes it explicitly clear.

The Intelligencia's plan has yet to be revealed in its entirety but has a wide influence on the Marvel Universe as a whole. Red Hulk fights and kills General Thunderbolt Ross at the behest of Bruce Banner, with whom he has formed an alliance. Betty Ross and Glenn Talbot come to Ross' funeral. Lyra is seen in the company of Red She-Hulk and MODOK and has joined their ranks for unknown reasons. Red Hulk has been running missions in the alliance with Banner — including a trip to a secret A. I. M. base which houses not only cloned bodies of MODOK. While trying to destroy the Cosmic Hulk, he accidentally powered it with a small charge of his own cosmic energies; the Cosmic Hulk made quick work of both A-Bomb and Red Hulk before being called off by the Leader. Red Hulk and Rick return to Banner, reporting on the events that occurred, Red Hulk reveals to Bruce that Bruce has a daughter. After telling him Lyra is Thundra's daughter, he remembers telling Thundra about Intelligencia and told her to accept their offer but to secretly be in contact with him.

He recalls how she saved him from Samson and how they forced Wizard and his allies to stand back and how they went to Castle Doom to steal his time machine. In the present day after being attacked by vampire creatures in Castle Doom they teleport one day into the future and to the desert where Red Hulk hides the time machine and sends Thundra home after sharing a kiss with her, but he is being watched by A-Bomb. He is attacked by A-Bomb, who leaves having managed to obtain what he wanted to know: the agents that took him to an ambulance were not S. H. I. E. L. D, but A. I. M. Working for The Leader and MODOK, how Red Hulk killed Abomination to get his blood, how Marlo was the one to release him from the base, how a mental message was left in his mind by Doc Samson to kill Bruce Banner, it is shown that Bruce Banner was the one who told him to attack Red Hulk and after a discussion of why he cannot change back to Rick Jones, the Red Hulk arrives in anger. However, he revealed why he was attacked, they trigger Rick's mental message by having Red Hulk beat Banner.

Rick manages to overcome the message when Bruce tells him he is not angry for Rick's involvement in Bruce becoming the Hulk, that it was not Rick's fault. In a flashback, Red Hulk tells the Intelligencia that their plan will fail, which causes MODOK to attack him. After their calculations end in Banner killing The Leader, they use the time machine of the desert to see a future that they control. Lyra attacks Thundra, in the desert where her mother is searching for water. After revealing details about the future, Thundra beats her, she is approached by Wizard, sent by the Intelligencia. They had watched her fight with her mother. Lyra battles him and the Frightful Four, her future team members, until Red She-Hulk arrives and beats her until Wizard stops her. Wizard and his allies leave, she accepts, once she has gained their trust, she searches for Jennifer Walters finding her in stasis. Lyra, after having her intelligence increased four levels by Bruce Banner, releases Jennifer Walters and explains that she joined the ranks of the Intelligencia in order to find her.

Bruce contacts Lyra through the remains of her technological watch, tells her to wait for his strike on the base. Jennifer talks to Lyra about her childhood with Bruce and her origins, to which Lyra revealed in her time they believed she transformed in order to avenge her mother at the hands of male soldiers. Jennifer says. Lyra speaks of her confrontation with her mother and how she believes Thundra to be evil, they are attacked by Red She-Hulk and afterwards Jennifer tries to convince her to join them, believing she was being manipulated by the Intelligencia. After assisting the Fantastic Four in defeating the Moloids in New York City, Skaar is proclaimed a hero and the city holds a parade in his honor. During the parade, Uatu the Watcher appears. Banner sees his deceased wife in the crowd. Convinced his wife has come back, Bruce teleports to speak to his secret partner, the Red Hulk, warning him that he had better not have had anything to do with his wife's return; the Red Hulk proceeds to insult Banner, saying he hardly considers him a threat, baiting him and making him angry enough to begin his transformation into the Hulk, but Banner telepor