Battle of Huoyi
The Battle of Huoyi was fought in China on 8 September,617, between the forces of the rebel Duke of Tang, Li Yuan, and the army of the ruling Sui dynasty. Li Yuan, with an army of around 25,000, was advancing south along the Fen River towards the imperial capital, Daxingcheng. His advance was stalled for two weeks due to rainfall and he was met at the town of Huoyi by an elite Sui army of 20,000 men. Li Yuans cavalry, cut off their retreat, the battle was followed by the capture of weakly defended Huoyi, and the advance on Daxingcheng, which fell to the rebels in November. In the next year, Li Yuan deposed the Sui and proclaimed himself emperor, during the reign of the second emperor of the Sui dynasty, the dynastys authority began to wane. The main reason was the material and human cost of the protracted. Coupled with natural disasters, the conscription of more and more men for the war, with the Emperors withdrawal from the scene, local governors and magnates emerged to claim power. Nine major contenders emerged, some claiming the title for themselves, like Li Mi in Henan, contending themselves, for the time being.
Among the most well-positioned contenders was Li Yuan, Duke of Tang, a scion of a noble family related to the Sui dynasty, and with a distinguished career behind him, Li Yuan was an obvious candidate for the throne. His province possessed excellent natural defences, a heavily militarized population and was located near the capitals of Daxingcheng and Luoyang. Traditional historiography emphasizes Li Yuans initial reluctance to revolt against the Sui, in reality, Li Yuan was considering a rebellion at least by the time of his appointment to Taiyuan in early 617. In mid-617, Li began raising troops from his province. Initially, however, Li Yuan portrayed himself a Sui loyalist, Li Yuans campaign is recorded in detail by his chief secretary, Wen Daya. In mid-July, a first expedition, under Li Yuans eldest sons Li Jiancheng, Li Yuans sons succeeded in capturing the province within a few days and returned to Taiyuan. Finally, after his preparations were complete, on 10 August, Li Yuan began his march south and his fifteen-year-old son Li Yuanji was left behind to guard Taiyuan, while Li Jiancheng and Li Shimin accompanied their father as his lieutenants.
A small force under Zhang Lun was detached to advance parallel to the army and captured the loyalist commanderies further west. When Li Yuans army learned of Song Laoshengs presence, some advocating a retreat to Taiyuan, fearing that in their absence the Turks might break the treaty. A council was held, at which Li Yuan sided with his sons, thus, on 8 September, after the rains stopped, Li Yuans army set out from its encampment
Philip of Swabia
Philip of Swabia was a prince of the House of Hohenstaufen and King of Germany from 1198 to 1208. In the long-time struggle for the German throne upon the death of Emperor Henry VI between the Hohenstaufen and Welf dynasties, he was the first German king to be assassinated. Philips great uncle Conrad III was the first scion of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty to be elected King of the Romans in 1138, the newborn was probably named after Fredericks valued ally and confidant Archbishop Philip of Cologne. In 1190 or 1191 Philip was elected Prince-bishop of Würzburg, though without being consecrated and his brother Henry had expanded the Hohenstaufen domains by marrying Queen Constance of Sicily in 1186, suspiciously eyed by the Roman Curia. In his retinue in Italy was the Minnesinger Bernger von Horheim, on 26 December 1194, Queen Constance finally gave birth to a son, the Emperor Frederick II. To secure his succession, his father Henry had the two-year-old elected King of the Romans before he prepared for the Crusade of 1197, in early 1195, Philip was made Duke of Tuscany and received the disputed Matildine lands.
His rule there earned him the enmity of Pope Celestine III, in 1196 his brother Conrad died and he succeeded him as Duke of Swabia. His marriage to Irene took place in 1197 near Augsburg, Philip enjoyed his brothers confidence to a very great extent, and appears to have been designated as guardian of Henrys minor son Frederick II, in case of his fathers early death. In September 1197 he had set out to fetch Frederick from Apulia for his coronation as German king, while staying in Montefiascone, he heard of the emperors sudden death in Messina and returned at once to Germany. He appears to have desired to protect the interests of his nephew and to quell the disorder which arose on Henrys death, but was overtaken by events. The hostility to the kingship of a child was growing, nevertheless, he knew that he had to settle the conflict with Otto and his supporters. A first attempt to mediate by the Mainz archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach in 1199 was rejected by the Welf, both sides strived for the coronation as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Innocent III.
The pope himself acted tactically, trying to wrest the affirmation of the sovereignty of his Papal States, the pope began to work energetically in favour of Otto, who beforehand had solemnly renounced any intentions to affiliate the Sicilian kingdom with the Holy Roman Empire. The festival was rendered in a poem by Walther von der Vogelweide in order to spread the reputation of King Philip as a capable ruler. Again in Magdeburg Cathedral, Philip celebrated the elevation of Saint Cunigunde of Luxembourg on 9 September 1201, in 1201, Philip was visited by his cousin Boniface of Montferrat, the leader of the Fourth Crusade. Although Bonifaces exact reasons for meeting with Philip are unknown, while at Philips court he met Alexius Angelus, the two succeeding years were still more unfavourable to Philip. The Přemyslid ruler Ottokar I, though he had received the hereditary Bohemian regality, another former ally, Landgrave Hermann of Thuringia, drove him from northern Germany, thus compelling him to seek by abject concessions, but without success, reconciliation with Innocent.
Philip was soon joined by Archbishop Adolph of Cologne, though against the will of the Cologne citizens, by Duke Henry of Brabant and even by Ottos brother Count Palatine Henry V
Duchy of Greater Poland
The Duchy of Greater Poland was a historical Polish province established in 1138 according to the Testament of Bolesław III Krzywousty. It existed during the period of fragmentation of Poland until 1320, centered at Poznań, upon the death of Polish Piast duke Bolesław III Wrymouth in 1138, his country was divided by his will into 4-5 hereditary provinces distributed among his sons. The late duke had established the Seniorate Province of Kraków for the eldest Władysław II, as one of these provinces, Greater Poland was given to Mieszko III the Old, the third son of late Duke Bolesław. Duke Mieszko III the Old at first ruled over the part of the Greater Polish lands at Poznań. His dominion bordered on the Polish Duchy of Silesia in the south, on the Seniorate Province in the east and on the Pomeranian lands in the north. In the west the Greater Polish lands stretched up to Lubusz Land on the western Polish border, where in 1157 the Ascanian count Albert the Bear established the Imperial Margraviate of Brandenburg.
After the death of his Mieszkos brother Bolesław IV the Curly in 1173, casimir assumed the high ducal title, while in 1179 Odon even expelled his father from the Greater Polish lands. Mieszko fled to the Duchy of Pomerania at the court of Duke Bogislaw I, with support by Pomeranian forces, Mieszko in 1181 was able to return to his duchy and to conquer the adjacent lands of Gniezno and Kalisz, formerly part of the Seniorate Province. Odon was forced to leave Poznań and only retained a small strip of south of the Obra river. When Mieszko the Younger died in 1193, his father reconciled with his eldest son Odon, by 1994 Mieszko the Old had outlived his brothers. However, Casimirs son Leszek I the White, like his father, upon Mieszkos death in 1202, his son Władysław soon was confronted with the rivaling claims raised by his cousin. In 1206 Władysław Spindleshanks finally lost the ducal title to Leszek and furthermore had to deal with his rebellious nephew Władysław Odonic. Władysław Odonic claimed the lands of Kalisz, which his father had held in 1193/94 and was able to gain the support by the Archbishop of Gniezno, nevertheless his attempts to depose his uncle failed.
However, even with the help of the Pomerelian duke, Władysław Odonic only was able to conquer the Greater Polish lands of Ujście in 1223, in 1227 Swietopelk raided a ducal assembly at Gąsawa, whereby High Duke Leszek was killed and Duke Henry the Bearded seriously wounded. Władysław Spindleshanks did not attend the meeting, which saved his life. Furthermore, he got rid of his long-time rival Leszek, whom he now could succeed as high duke, Władysław Odonic, accused of involvement in the assault, retired to the Duchy of Masovia, where he forged another alliance with Duke Konrad I. With both Pomerelian and Masovian support he was enabled to take the whole Duchy of Greater Poland from Władysław Spindleshanks in 1229, Władysław Spindleshanks fled to Silesia and died without issue two years later, whereafter his nephew became the sole heir of the Greater Polish line. Nevertheless, he was confronted by claims raised by the Silesian duke Henry I the Bearded, Polish high duke from 1232, when Henry I was succeeded by his son Henry II the Pious in 1238, Władysław Odonic was confined to the lands around Ujście
Pope Innocent IV
Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 25 June 1243 to his death in 1254. Born in Genoa in an year, Sinibaldo was the son of Beatrice Grillo and Ugo Fieschi. The Fieschi were a merchant family of Liguria. Sinibaldo received his education at the universities of Parma and Bologna and, for a time and it is pointed out by Agostino Paravicini-Bagliani, that there is no documentary evidence of such a professorship. From 1216-1227 he was Canon of the Cathedral of Parma and he was considered one of the best canonists of his time, and was called to serve Pope Honorius III in the Roman Curia as Auditor causarum, from 11 November 1226 to 30 May 1227. He was promoted to the office of Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church, though he retained the office, Vice-Chancellor Sinibaldo Fieschi was created Cardinal Priest of San Lorenzo in Lucina on 18 September 1227 by Pope Gregory IX. He served as governor of the March of Ancona. It is widely repeated, from the 17th century on, that he became bishop of Albenga in 1235, Innocents immediate predecessor was Pope Celestine IV, elected 25 October 1241, whose reign lasted a mere fifteen days.
The two prelates remained incarcerated and missed the conclave that immediately elected Celestine, the conclave that reconvened after his death fell into camps supporting contradictory policies about how to treat with the emperor. After a year and a half of debate and coercion. Cardinal de Fieschi very reluctantly accepted election as Pope 25 June 1243, as Cardinal de Fieschi, Sinibaldo had been on friendly terms with Frederick, even after his excommunication. The Emperor greatly admired the cardinals wisdom, having enjoyed discussions with him from time to time, following the election the witty Frederick remarked that he had lost the friendship of a cardinal but made up for it by gaining the enmity of a pope. Negotiations leading to this objective began shortly afterwards, but proved abortive, the Emperors machinations caused a good deal of anti-papal feeling to rise in Italy, particularly in the Papal States, and imperial agents encouraged plots against papal rule. Realizing how untenable his position in Rome was growing, Innocent IV secretly and hurriedly withdrew, traveling in disguise, Innocent made his way to Sutri and Civitavecchia, to Genoa, his birthplace, where he arrived on 7 July.
From there, on 5 October, he fled to France, making his way to Lyon, where he arrived on November 29,1244, Innocent was happily greeted by the magistrates of the city. The bishops met for three sessions,28 June,5 July, and 17 July 1245. Their principal business was to subjugate the Emperor Frederick II, Gregory IX, had issued letters on 9 June 1239, ordering all the bishops of France to confiscate all Talmuds in the possession of the Jews. Agents were to raid each synagogue on the first Saturday of Lent of 1240, the Bishop of Paris was ordered to see to it that copies of the Popes mandate reached all the bishops of France, Aragon, Castile and León, and Portugal
The Tang dynasty was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It is generally regarded as a point in Chinese civilization. Its territory, acquired through the campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The dynasty was founded by the Lǐ family, who seized power during the decline, the dynasty was briefly interrupted when Empress Wu Zetian seized the throne, proclaiming the Second Zhou dynasty and becoming the only Chinese empress regnant. In two censuses of the 7th and 8th centuries, the Tang records estimated the population by number of registered households at about 50 million people. Various kingdoms and states paid tribute to the Tang court, while the Tang conquered or subdued several regions which it controlled through a protectorate system. Besides political hegemony, the Tang exerted a powerful influence over neighboring states such as those in Korea, Japan. Like the previous Sui dynasty, the Tang dynasty maintained a service system by recruiting scholar-officials through standardized examinations and recommendations to office.
This civil order was undermined by the rise of military governors known as jiedushi during the 9th century. Chinese culture flourished and further matured during the Tang era, it is considered the greatest age for Chinese poetry. Two of Chinas most famous poets, Li Bai and Du Fu, belonged to this age, as did many famous painters such as Han Gan, Zhang Xuan, there was a rich variety of historical literature compiled by scholars, as well as encyclopedias and geographical works. The adoption of the title Tängri Qaghan by the Tang Emperor Taizong in addition to his title as emperor was eastern Asias first simultaneous kingship, there were many notable innovations during the Tang, including the development of woodblock printing. Buddhism became an influence in Chinese culture, with native Chinese sects gaining prominence. However, Buddhism would be persecuted by the state, subsequently declining in influence, although the dynasty and central government were in decline by the 9th century and culture continued to flourish.
This family was known as the Longxi Li lineage, which includes the Tang poet Li Bai, the Tang Emperors had Xianbei maternal ancestry, from Emperor Gaozu of Tangs Xianbei mother Duchess Dugu. He had prestige and military experience, and was a first cousin of Emperor Yang of Sui, Li Yuan rose in rebellion in 617, along with his son and his equally militant daughter Princess Pingyang, who raised and commanded her own troops. In winter 617, Li Yuan occupied Changan, relegated Emperor Yang to the position of Taishang Huang or retired emperor, and acted as regent to the puppet child-emperor, Emperor Gong of Sui. On the news of Emperor Yangs murder by General Yuwen Huaji on June 18,618, Li Yuan declared himself the emperor of a new dynasty, the Tang
Pope John XXI
Pope John XXI, born Peter Juliani, was Pope from 8 September 1276 to his death in 1277. Apart from Damasus I, he has been the only Portuguese pope and he is usually identified with the logician and herbalist Peter of Spain, which would make him the only pope to have been a physician. Pope John XXI was actually the 20th pope named John, pedro Julião was probably born in Lisbon between 1210 and 1220. He started his studies at the school of Lisbon Cathedral and joined the University of Paris. Wherever he studied, he concentrated on medicine, logic, metaphysics and he is traditionally and usually identified with the medical author Peter of Spain, an important figure in the development of logic and pharmacology. Peter of Spain taught at the University of Siena in the 1240s, at the court in Lisbon, he was the councilor and spokesman for King Afonso III in church matters. Later, he became prior of Guimarães and he was Archdeacon of Vermoim in the Archdiocese of Braga. He tried to become bishop of Lisbon but was defeated, instead, he became the Master of the school of Lisbon.
Peter became the physician of Pope Gregory X early in his reign, in March 1273 he was elected Archbishop of Braga, but did not assume that post, instead, on 3 June 1273, Pope Gregory X created him Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum. After the death of Pope Adrian V on 18 August 1276 and he was crowned a week on 20 September. Though much of John XXIs brief papacy was dominated by the powerful Cardinal Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, John attempted to launch a crusade for the Holy Land, pushed for a union with the Eastern church, and did what he could to maintain peace between the Christian nations. He launched a mission to convert the Tatars, but he died before it could start, to secure the necessary quiet for his medical studies, he had an apartment added to the papal palace at Viterbo, to which he could retire when he wished to work undisturbed. On 14 May 1277, while the pope was alone in this apartment, it collapsed, John was buried under the ruins and he was buried in the Duomo di Viterbo, where his tomb can still be seen.
After his death, it was rumored that John XXI had actually been a necromancer and it was said that his death had been an act of God, stopping him from completing a heretical treatise. Guiraud, J. and L. Cadier, Les registres de Grégoire X et de Jean XXI, Fritz, Die Politik der Kurie unter Gregor X. Stapper, Papst Johannes XXI. Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle Ages, Volume V. part 2, second edition, H. D. Sedgwick, Italy in the Thirteenth Century Volume II. Pietro Hispano papa Giovanni XXI, Rivista di storia della medicina 15, Joseph, Un pape portugais, Jean XXI, dénommé Pierre dEspagne, Teoresi 24, 391-407. Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. Chronicle of the Popes, The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present, Thames & Hudson,2002, p.119
The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance. It was succeeded by the Tang dynasty, which inherited its foundation. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Changan and they spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire. By the middle of the dynasty, the unified empire entered a golden age of prosperity with vast agricultural surplus that supported rapid population growth. A lasting legacy of the Sui dynasty was the Grand Canal, the dynasty, which lasted only thirty-seven years, was undermined by ambitious wars and construction projects, which overstretched its resources. Particularly, under Emperor Yang, heavy taxation and compulsory labor duties would eventually induce widespread revolts, the dynasty is often compared to the earlier Qin dynasty for unifying China after prolonged division. Wide-ranging reforms and construction projects were undertaken to consolidate the newly unified state, after crushing an army in the eastern provinces, Yang Jian usurped the throne to become Emperor Wen of Sui.
In a bloody purge, he had fifty-nine princes of the Zhou royal family eliminated, Emperor Wen abolished the anti-Han policies of Zhou and reclaimed his Han surname of Yang. In his campaign for southern conquest, Emperor Wen assembled thousands of boats to confront the forces of the Chen dynasty on the Yangtze River. The largest of ships were very tall, having five layered decks. They were outfitted with six 50-foot-long booms that were used to swing and damage enemy ships, besides employing Xianbei and other Chinese ethnic groups for the fight against Chen, Emperor Wen employed the service of people from southeastern Sichuan, which Sui had recently conquered. In 588, the Sui had amassed 518,000 troops along the bank of the Yangtze River. The Chen dynasty could not withstand such an assault, by 589, Sui troops entered Jiankang and the last emperor of Chen surrendered. Although Emperor Wen was famous for bankrupting the treasury with warfare and construction projects. He established granaries as sources of food and as a means to market prices from the taxation of crops.
The large agricultural surplus supported rapid growth of population to historical peak, the state capital of Changan, while situated in a military-secured heartland of Guanzhong, was remote from the economic centers to the east and south of the empire. Emperor Wen initiated the construction of the Grand Canal, with completion of the first route that directly linked Changan to the Yellow River, Later Emperor Yang would enormously enlarge the scale of the Grand Canal construction. Externally, the emerging nomadic Turkic Khaganate in the north posed a threat to the newly founded dynasty
Emperor Gaozu of Tang
Emperor Gaozu of Tang, born Li Yuan, courtesy name Shude, was the founder of the Tang Dynasty of China, and the first emperor of this dynasty from 618 to 626. Under the Sui dynasty, Li Yuan was the governor in the area of modern-day Shanxi, in 615, Li Yuan was assigned to garrison Longxi. He gained much experience by dealing with the Göktürks of the north and was able to pacify them. Li Yuan was able to support from these successes and, with the disintegration of the Sui dynasty in July 617. Using the title of Great Chancellor, Li Yuan installed a puppet emperor, Emperor Gong. His son and successor Li Shimin honoured him as Gaozu after his death, Emperor Gaozus reign was concentrated on uniting the empire under the Tang. Aided by Li Shimin, whom he created the Prince of Qin, he defeated all the contenders, including Li Gui, Dou Jiande, Wang Shichong, Xue Rengao. By 628, the Tang Dynasty had succeeded in uniting all of China and he abandoned the harsh system of law established by Emperor Yang of Sui as well as reforming the judicial system.
These acts of reform paved the way for the reign of Emperor Taizong, which ultimately pushed Tang to the height of its power. In 626, Li Shimin, in a dispute with his brothers Li Jiancheng, the Crown Prince, and Li Yuanji, fearful of what Li Shimin might do next, Emperor Gaozu passed the throne to him and became Taishang Huang. According to the genealogy of the Tang ruling house, Li Yuans seventh-generation ancestor was Li Gao. After Western Liangs destruction, Li Gaos grandson Li Chonger served as a Northern Wei official, Li Yuans grandfather Li Hu served as a major general under Western Weis paramount general Yuwen Tai, and was created the Duke of Longxi and given the Xianbei surname Daye. Li Hu died before Yuwen Tais son Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou founded Northern Zhou and his son and Li Yuans father Li Bing, of Han ethnicity, inherited the title of the Duke of Tang and married a daughter of the prominent Xianbei general Dugu Xin. At some point, he married Lady Dou, a daughter of Dou Yi the Duke of Shenwu and Northern Zhous Princess Xiangyang as his wife, during Emperor Wens reign, Li Yuan served three terms as provincial governor.
Early in the reign of Emperor Wens son Emperor Yang, Li Yuan served as commandery governor, when Emperor Yang carried out his second campaign against Goguryeo in 613, Li Yuan was in charge of part of the logistics operation. Li Yuan took the opportunity to talented people to his staff. In fear, Li Yuan took up drinking and receiving bribes to try to show Emperor Yang that he did not have great ambitions, in 615, Emperor Yang placed him in charge of the operations against agrarian rebels in the Hedong region, but recalled him in 616. Later that year, Emperor Yang put him in charge of the key city of Taiyuan, traditional accounts, compiled during the reign of Li Yuans second son by the Duchess Dou, Li Shimin, emphasize the latters initiative and major role in instigating his fathers rebellion