The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in the Americas beginning in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to take control of any independent state in North or South America would be viewed as "the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States." At the same time, the doctrine noted that the U. S. would recognize and not interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries. The Doctrine was issued on December 2, 1823 at a time when nearly all Latin American colonies of Spain and Portugal had achieved, or were at the point of gaining, independence from the Portuguese and Spanish Empires. President James Monroe first stated the doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress; the term "Monroe Doctrine" itself was coined in 1850. By the end of the 19th century, Monroe's declaration was seen as a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States and one of its longest-standing tenets.
It would be invoked by many U. S. statesmen and several U. S. presidents, including Ulysses S. Grant, Theodore Roosevelt, John F. Kennedy, Ronald Reagan; the intent and impact of the Monroe Doctrine persisted with only small variations for more than a century. Its stated objective was to free the newly independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention and avoid situations which could make the New World a battleground for the Old World powers, so that the U. S. could exert its own influence undisturbed. The doctrine asserted that the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate spheres of influence, for they were composed of separate and independent nations. After 1898, Latin American lawyers and intellectuals reinterpreted the Monroe doctrine in terms of multilateralism and non-intervention. In 1933, under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the U. S. went along with the new reinterpretation in terms of the Organization of American States. The U. S. government feared the victorious European powers that emerged from the Congress of Vienna would revive monarchical government.
France had agreed to restore the Spanish monarchy in exchange for Cuba. As the revolutionary Napoleonic Wars ended, Prussia and Russia formed the Holy Alliance to defend monarchism. In particular, the Holy Alliance authorized military incursions to re-establish Bourbon rule over Spain and its colonies, which were establishing their independence. Great Britain shared the general objective of the Monroe Doctrine, albeit from an opposite standpoint and ultimate aim, wanted to declare a joint statement to keep other European powers from further colonizing the New World; the British Foreign Secretary George Canning wanted to keep the other European powers out of the New World fearing that its trade with the New World would be harmed if the other European powers further colonized it. In fact, for many years after the Monroe Doctrine took effect, through the Royal Navy, was the sole nation enforcing it, the U. S. lacking sufficient naval capability. Allowing Spain to re-establish control of its former colonies would have cut Great Britain off from its profitable trade with the region.
For that reason, Canning proposed to the U. S. that they mutually enforce a policy of separating the New World from the Old. The U. S. resisted a joint statement because of the recent memory of the War of 1812, leading to the Monroe administration's unilateral statement. However, the immediate provocation was the Russian Ukase of 1821 asserting rights to the Pacific Northwest and forbidding non-Russian ships from approaching the coast. Despite America's beginnings as an isolationist country, the seeds for the Monroe Doctrine were being laid during George Washington's presidency. According to S. E. Morison, "as early as 1783 the United States adopted the policy of isolation and announced its intention to keep out of Europe; the supplementary principle of the Monroe Doctrine, that Europe must keep out of America, was still over the horizon". While not the Monroe Doctrine, Alexander Hamilton desired to control the sphere of influence in the western hemisphere in North America but was extended to the Latin American colonies by the Monroe Doctrine.
But Hamilton, writing in the Federalist Papers, was wanting to establish America as a world power and hoped that America would become strong enough to keep the European powers outside of the Americas, despite the fact that the European countries controlled much more of the Americas than the U. S. itself. Hamilton expected that the United States would become the dominant power in the new world and would, in the future, act as an intermediary between the European powers and any new countries blossoming near the U. S. In fact, in a note from James Madison, Thomas Jefferson's Secretary of State and a future president, to the U. S. ambassador for Spain, the federal government expressed the opposition of the American government to further territorial acquisition by European powers. Madison's sentiment might have been meaningless because, as was noted before, the European powers held much more territory in comparison to the territory held by the U. S. Although Thomas Jefferson was pro-French, in an attempt to keep the British–French rivalry out the U.
S. the federal government under Jefferson made it clear to its ambassadors that the U. S. would not support any future colonization efforts on the North American continent. The full document of the Monroe Doctrine, written chiefly by future-President and Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, is long and couched in diplomatic language, but its essence is expressed in two key passages; the first is the introductory statement, which asserts that the Ne
Capture of Rome
The Capture of Rome, on 20 September 1870 was the final event of the long process of Italian unification known as the Risorgimento, marking both the final defeat of the Papal States under Pope Pius IX and the unification of the Italian peninsula under King Victor Emmanuel II of the House of Savoy. The capture of Rome ended the approximate 1,116-year reign of the Papal States under the Holy See and is today memorialized throughout Italy with the Via XX Settembre street name in every town of any size. For Italy, Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour died soon after the proclamation of her unity, leaving to his successors the solution of the knotty Venetian and Roman problems; the Austrians were still in Venetia and the pope was still in Rome. Cavour had believed that without Rome as the capital, Italy's unification be sadly incomplete. "To go to Rome", said his successor, Riscasoli, "is not a right. In regard to the future relations between church and state, Cavour's famous dictum was, "A free Church in a free State".
During the Second Italian War of Independence, much of the Papal States had been conquered by the Piedmontese Army, the new unified Kingdom of Italy was created in March 1861, when the first Italian Parliament met in Turin. On 27 March 1861, the Parliament declared Rome the capital of the Kingdom of Italy. However, the Italian government could not take its seat in Rome because it did not control the territory. In addition, a French garrison was maintained in the city by Emperor Napoleon III in support of Pope Pius IX, determined not to hand over temporal power in the States of the Church. In July 1870, at the last moment of the Church's rule over Rome, the First Vatican Council was held in the city – affirming the doctrine of papal infallibility. In July 1870, the Franco-Prussian War began. In early August, Napoleon III recalled his garrison from Rome; the French not only needed the troops to defend their homeland, but there was real concern in Paris that Italy might use the French presence in Rome as a pretext to go to war with France.
In the earlier Austro-Prussian War, Italy had allied with Prussia and Italian public opinion favoured the Prussian side at the start of the war. The removal of the French garrison eased tensions between France. Italy remained neutral in the Franco-Prussian War. With the French garrison gone, widespread public demonstrations demanded that the Italian government take Rome, but Rome remained under French protection on paper, therefore an attack would still have been regarded as an act of war against the French Empire. Furthermore, although Prussia was at war with France, it had gone to war in an uneasy alliance with the Catholic South German states that it had fought against just four years earlier. Although Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarck was no friend of the papacy, he knew any war that put Prussia and the Holy See in opposing alliances would certainly have upset the delicate pan-German coalition, with it his own laid-out plans for national unification. For both Prussia and Italy, any misstep that caused the breakup of the pan-German coalition brought with it the risk of Austro-Hungarian intervention in a wider European conflict.
Above all else, Bismarck made every diplomatic effort to keep Prussia's conflicts of the 1860s and 1870s localized and prevent them from spiraling out of control into a general European war. Therefore, not only was Prussia unable to offer any sort of alliance with Italy against France, but had to make diplomatic efforts to maintain Italian neutrality and keep the peace on the Italian peninsula, at least until the potential of a conflict there becoming intertwined with her own war with France had passed. Moreover, the French Army was still regarded as the strongest in Europe - and until events elsewhere took their course, the Italians were unwilling to provoke Napoleon, it was only after the surrender of Napoleon and his army at the Battle of Sedan the situation changed radically. The French Emperor was forced into exile; the best French units had been captured by the Germans, who followed up their success at Sedan by marching on Paris. Faced with a pressing need to defend its capital with its remaining forces, the new French government was not in a military position to retaliate against Italy.
In any event, the new government was far less sympathetic to the Holy See and did not possess the political will to protect the Pope's position. With the French government on a more democratic footing and the harsh German peace terms becoming public knowledge, Italian public opinion shifted away from the German side in favour of France. With that development, the prospect of a conflict on the Italian peninsula provoking foreign intervention all but vanished. King Victor Emmanuel II sent Count Gustavo Ponza di San Martino to Pius IX with a personal letter offering a face-saving proposal that would have allowed the peaceful entry of the Italian Army into Rome, under the guise of protecting the pope. Along with the letter, the count carried a document that Lanza had prepared, setting out ten articles to serve as the basis for an agreement between Italy and the Holy See; the Pope would retain the inviolability and prerogatives attaching to him as a sovereign. The Leonine City would remain "under the full jurisdiction and sovereignty of the Pontiff".
The Italian state would guarantee the pope's freedom to commu
Second French Empire
The Second French Empire the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France. Many historians disparaged the Second Empire as a precursor of fascism. By the late 20th century some were celebrating it as leading example of a modernizing regime. Historians have given the Empire negative evaluations on its foreign-policy, somewhat more positive evaluations of domestic policies after Napoleon liberalized his rule after 1858, he promoted French business, exports. The greatest achievements came in material improvements, in the form of a grand railway network that facilitated commerce and tied the nation together and centered it on Paris, it had the effect of stimulating economic growth, bringing prosperity to most regions of the country. The Second Empire is given high credit for the rebuilding of Paris with broad boulevards, striking public buildings, attractive residential districts for upscale Parisians. In international policy, Napoleon III tried to emulate his uncle, engaging in numerous imperial ventures around the world as well as several wars in Europe.
Using harsh methods, he built up the French Empire in North Africa and in Southeast Asia. Napoleon III sought to modernize the Mexican economy and bring it into the French orbit, but this ended in a fiasco, he badly mishandled the threat from Prussia, by the end of his reign, Napoleon III found himself without allies in the face of overwhelming German force. On 2 December 1851, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, elected President of the Republic, staged a coup d'état by dissolving the National Assembly without having the constitutional right to do so, he thus became sole ruler of France, re-established universal suffrage abolished by the Assembly. His decisions were popularly endorsed by a referendum that month that attracted an implausible 92 percent support. At that same referendum, a new constitution was approved. Formally enacted in January 1852, the new document made Louis-Napoléon president for 10 years, with no restrictions on reelection, it concentrated all governing power in his hands. However, Louis-Napoléon was not content with being an authoritarian president.
As soon as he signed the new document into law, he set about restoring the empire. In response to inspired requests for the return of the empire, the Senate scheduled a second referendum in November, which passed with 97 percent support; as with the December 1851 referendum, most of the "yes" votes were manufactured out of thin air. The empire was formally re-established on 2 December 1852, the Prince-President became "Napoléon III, Emperor of the French"; the constitution had concentrated so much power in his hands that the only substantive changes were to replace the word "president" with the word "emperor" and to make the post hereditary. The popular referendum became a distinct sign of Bonapartism, which Charles de Gaulle would use. With dictatorial powers, Napoleon III made building a good railway system a high priority, he consolidated three dozen incomplete lines into six major companies using Paris as a hub. Paris grew in terms of population, finance, commercial activity, tourism. Working with Georges-Eugène Haussmann, Napoleon III spent lavishly to rebuild the city into a world-class showpiece.
The financial soundness for all six companies was solidified by government guarantees. Although France had started late, by 1870 it had an excellent railway system, supported as well by good roads and ports. Napoleon, in order to restore the prestige of the Empire before the newly awakened hostility of public opinion, tried to gain the support from the Left that he had lost from the Right. After the return from Italy, the general amnesty of August 16, 1859 had marked the evolution of the absolutist or authoritarian empire towards the liberal, parliamentary empire, to last for ten years; the idea of Italian unification – based on the exclusion of the temporal power of the popes – outraged French Catholics, the leading supporters of the Empire. A keen Catholic opposition sprang up, voiced in Louis Veuillot's paper the Univers, was not silenced by the Syrian expedition in favour of the Catholic Maronite side of the Druze–Maronite conflict. Ultramontane Catholicism, emphasizing the necessity for close links to the Pope at the Vatican played a pivotal role in the democratization of culture.
The pamphlet campaign led by Mgr Gaston de Ségur at the height of the Italian question in February 1860 made the most of the freedom of expression enjoyed by the Catholic Church in France. The goal was to mobilize Catholic opinion, encourage the government to be more favorable to the Pope. A major result of the ultramontane campaign was to trigger reforms to the cultural sphere, the granting of freedoms to their political enemies: the Republicans and freethinkers; the Second Empire favored Catholicism, the official state religion. However, it tolerated Protestants and Jews, there were no persecutions or pogroms; the state dealt with the small Protestant community of Calvinist and Lutheran churches, whose members included many prominent businessmen who supported the regime. The emperor's Decree Law of 26 March 1852 led to greater government interference in Protestant church affairs, thus reducing self-regulation. Catholic bureaucrats both were biased against it; the administration of their policies affected not only church-state relations but the internal lives of Protestant communities.
Napoleon III manipulated a range of politicized poli
The Bersaglieri, singular Bersagliere, are a speciality of the infantry corps of the Italian Army. They were created by General Alessandro La Marmora on 18 June 1836 to serve in the Army of the Kingdom of Sardinia to become the Royal Italian Army, they have always been a high-mobility light infantry unit, can still be recognized by the distinctive wide brimmed hat that they wear, decorated with black capercaillie feathers. The feathers are applied to their combat helmets. Another distinctive trait of the Bersaglieri is the fast jog pace they keep on parades, instead of marching; the Bersaglieri were a high-mobility light infantry at their inception in 1836, with their specific situation evolving with changes in warfare. In the nineteenth century, Bersaglieri acted as skirmishers or shock troops, moving from place to place by running. An elaborate system of bugle calls allowed their units to be deployed and commanded singly or in combination; the tradition of running continues today during barracks duty.
In World War I, some Bersaglieri served as bicycle troops, better to execute their mission of maneuver warfare. During the Cold War, the Bersaglieri were employed as mechanized infantry. Bersaglieri are well-known for their extraordinary performances in parades and military tattoos, always running instead of marching, with hundreds of black capercaillie feathers flowing from their wide-brimmed black hats; these feathers are worn on Bersaglieri combat helmets. They once served a military purpose, acting as camouflage and as a sunshade for the marksman's shooting eye. Today, they are a badge of honor, fostering esprit among their wearers; the poor Kingdom of Sardinia could not afford large numbers of cavalry, so a quick-moving infantry corps of marksmen were needed. These troops were trained to high physical and marksmanship standards. Like the French chasseurs à pied, a level of independence and initiative was encouraged so that they could operate in looser formations, in which direct command and control was not required.
They fired individually and carried 60 rounds instead of the standard 40 rounds of traditional line infantry. The first uniform was black with brimmed hats, called "vaira"; these were intended to defend the head from sabre blows. The first public appearance of the Bersaglieri was on the occasion of a military parade on 1 July 1836; the First Company marched through Turin with the rapid, high-stepping gait still used by the Bersaglieri in World War II and later. The modern Bersaglieri still run both on parade and during barracks duty - on penalty of punishment if they do not; the new corps impressed King Charles Albert, who had them integrated as part of the Piedmontese regular army. The corps grew and by 1852 there were 10 battalions, each with four companies. Throughout the nineteenth century the Bersaglieri filled the role of skirmishers, screening the slow-moving line and column formations, but acting as special shock troops if required, they were intended to serve as mountain troops, as well.
When the Alpini Corps were created in 1872 a strong rivalry arose between the two elite corps. During the First War of Italian Independence the Bersaglieri distinguished themselves by storming the bridge at Goito. In 1855 the Bersaglieri provided five battalions for the Sardinian Expeditionary Corps in the Crimean War, where they were involved in the Siege of Sevastopol and the Battle of the Cernaia. Most of the casualties were suffered due to a cholera epidemic, their bravery at the Cernaia was recognized and played a key role in gaining Piedmont-Sardinia a seat in the negotiations at the war's end. For their effort in the Crimea the Bersaglieri were rewarded a red fez with a blue tassel, in honor from the French zouaves troops, with whom they served, as they watch the Bersaglieri's bravery in the battle; when the Armata Sarda became the Regio Esercito in 1860, the existing 36 battalions were used to create six Bersaglieri regiments, which had administrative and disciplinary duties. The regiments were assigned to the army corps', with the regiment's battalions assigned to the divisions in the corps as reconnaissance units.
1st Bersaglieri Regiment under I Army Corps with the I, IX, XIII, XIX, XXI and XXVII battalions 2nd Bersaglieri Regiment under II Army Corps with the II, IV, X, XV, XVII and XVIII battalions 3rd Bersaglieri Regiment under III Army Corps with the III, V, VIII, XX, XXIII and XXV battalions 4th Bersaglieri Regiment under IV Army Corps with the VI, VII, XI, XII, XXXV and XXXVI battalions 5th Bersaglieri Regiment under V Army Corps with the XIV, XVI, XXII, XXIV, XXVI and XXXIV battalions 6th Bersaglieri Regiment under VI Army Corps with the XXVIII, XXIX, XXX, XXXI, XXXII and XXXIII battalionsThe most famous action of the Bersaglieri occurred on 20 September 1870, when the 12th Bersaglieri battalion stormed Rome through a breach created by Italian artillery in the Aurelian Walls near Porta Pia leading to the capture of Rome and end of the temporal power of the Pope, thus completing the unification of Italy. A monument was erected in 1932 in front of Porta Pia to commemorate the event at the same time as the National Museum of the Bersaglieri corps was moved to Porta Pia, where it resides still today.
In 1871, the Bersaglieri corps added another four battalions and the regiments were increased from six to 10 and given operational command of the battalions. In 1883 a further two regiments were added for a total of 12 Bersaglieri regiments, one for each army corps with three battalions per regiment
Benito Pablo Juárez García was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca. He was of poor, indigenous origins, but he became a well-educated, urban professional and politician, who married a prominent woman of Oaxaca City, Margarita Maza, he identified as a Liberal and wrote only about his indigenous heritage. He held power during the tumultuous decade of French invasion. In 1858 as head of the Supreme Court, he became president of Mexico by the succession mandated by the Constitution of 1857 when moderate liberal President Ignacio Comonfort was forced to resign by Mexican conservatives. Juárez remained in the presidential office until his death by natural causes in 1872, he weathered the War of the Reform, a civil war between Liberals and Conservatives, the French invasion, supported by Mexican Conservatives. Never relinquishing office although forced into exile in areas of Mexico not controlled by the French, Juárez tied Liberalism to Mexican nationalism and maintained that he was the legitimate head of the Mexican state, rather than Emperor Maximilian.
When the French-backed Second Mexican Empire fell in 1867, the Mexican Republic with Juárez as president was restored to full power. In his success in ousting the European incursion, Latin Americans considered his a "second struggle for independence, a second defeat for the European powers, a second reversal of the Conquest."He is now "a preeminent symbol of Mexican nationalism and resistance to foreign intervention." Juárez was a skilled politician, controversial in his lifetime and beyond. He had an understanding of the importance of a working relationship with the United States, secured its recognition for his liberal government during the War of the Reform. Although many of his positions shifted during his political life, he held fast to particular principles including the supremacy of civil power over the Catholic Church and part of the military. In his lifetime he sought to strengthen the national government and asserted the supremacy of central power over states, a position that both radical and provincial liberals opposed.
He was the subject of polemical attacks both beyond. However, the place of Juárez in Mexican historical memory has enshrined him as a major Mexican hero, beginning in his own lifetime, his birthday is a national public and patriotic holiday in Mexico, the only individual Mexican so honored. Juárez was born on 21 March 1806, in a small adobe house in San Pablo Guelatao, located in the mountain range now known as the Sierra Juárez, his parents, Brígida García and Marcelino Juárez, were Zapotec peasants and died of complications of diabetes when he was three years old. Shortly afterward, his grandparents died as well, he described his parents as "indios de la raza primitiva del país," that is, "Indians of the original race of the country." He worked in the cornfields and as a shepherd until the age of 12, when he walked to the city of Oaxaca to attend school. At the time, he could speak only Zapotec. In the city, where his sister worked as a cook, he took a job as a domestic servant for Antonio Maza.
His formal education began when a lay Franciscan and bookbinder, Antonio Salanueva, was impressed by Juárez's intelligence and desire for learning. Salanueva arranged for his placement at the city's seminary so that he could train to become a priest, his earlier education was rudimentary, but he began studying Latin, completing the secondary curriculum too young to be ordained. Juárez had no calling to become a priest and began studying law at the Institute of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1827 in the state capital, it was a center of liberal intellectual life in Oaxaca and Juárez graduated from it in 1834. Prior to his graduation, he sought political office, was elected to the Oaxaca city council in 1831. In 1841, he was appointed a civil judge. In 1843, when he was in his late 30s, Benito married Margarita Maza, the daughter of his sister's patron; the family was of European part of Oaxaca's respectable society. With the marriage Juárez gained social standing. Margarita Maza accepted his proposal and said of Juárez, "He is homely, but good."
Their ethnically mixed marriage was unusual, but not noted in standard biographies. However, Enrique Krauze notes that "In this uncommon instance, a white woman had been conquered by an Indian, not a native woman by a Spaniard." Their marriage lasted until her death from cancer in 1871. Juárez and Maza had twelve children together, his wife's remains are buried in the Juárez mausoleum in Mexico City. Juárez's experiences in political life in Oaxaca were crucial to his success as a leader, his political affiliation with liberalism developed at the Institute of Arts and Science and his ability to rise in Oaxaca state politics was due to the lack of an entrenched political class of criollos, Mexicans of European descent. The relative openness of the system allowed him and other newcomers to enter politics and gain patronage, he gained an understanding of political maneuvering. Following Juárez's graduation as a lawyer in 1834 and service as a civil judge in 1841, he became part of the Oaxaca state government, led by liberal governor Antonio León.
He became a pr
The Aurelian Walls are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Probus. They superseded the earlier Servian Wall built during the 4th century BC; the walls enclosed all the seven hills of Rome plus the Campus Martius and, on the left bank of the Tiber, the Trastevere district. The river banks within the city limits appear to have been left unfortified, although they were fortified along the Campus Martius; the size of the entire enclosed area is 1,400 hectares. The wall cut through populated areas: in reality the city at the time embraced 2,400 hectares or 6,000 acres. Pliny the Elder in the first century A. D. suggested that the densely populated areas,'extrema tectorum' extended 2.8 kilometers from the Golden Milestone in the Forum. The full circuit ran for 19 km surrounding an area of 13.7 km2. The walls were constructed in brick-faced concrete, 3.5 m thick and 8 m high, with a square tower every 100 Roman feet. In the 4th century, remodelling doubled the height of the walls to 16 m.
By 500 AD, the circuit possessed 383 towers, 7,020 crenellations, 18 main gates, 5 postern gates, 116 latrines, 2,066 large external windows. By the third century AD, the boundaries of Rome had grown far beyond the area enclosed by the old Servian Wall, built during the Republican period in the late 4th century BC. Rome had remained unfortified during the subsequent centuries of expansion and consolidation due to lack of hostile threats against the city; the citizens of Rome took great pride in knowing that Rome required no fortifications because of the stability brought by the Pax Romana and the protection of the Roman Army. However, the need for updated defences became acute during the crisis of the Third Century, when barbarian tribes flooded through the Germanic frontier and the Roman Army struggled to stop them. In 270, the barbarian Juthungi and Vandals invaded northern Italy, inflicting a severe defeat on the Romans at Placentia before being driven back. Further trouble broke out in Rome itself in the summer of 271, when the mint workers rose in rebellion.
Several thousand people died in the fierce fighting that resulted. Aurelian's construction of the walls as an emergency measure was a reaction to the barbarian invasion of 270, it may have been intended to send a political signal as a statement that Aurelian trusted that the people of Rome would remain loyal, as well as serving as a public declaration of the emperor's firm hold on power. The construction of the walls was by far the largest building project that had taken place in Rome for many decades, their construction was a concrete statement of the continued strength of Rome; the construction project was unusually left to the citizens themselves to complete as Aurelian could not afford to spare a single legionary for the project. The root of this unorthodox practice was due to the imminent barbarian threat coupled with the wavering strength of the military as a whole due to being subject to years of bloody civil war and the Plague of Cyprian; the walls were built in the short time of only five years, though Aurelian himself died before the completion of the project.
Progress was accelerated, money saved, by incorporating existing buildings into the structure. These included the Amphitheatrum Castrense, the Castra Praetoria, the Pyramid of Cestius, a section of the Aqua Claudia aqueduct near the Porta Maggiore; as much as a sixth of the walls is estimated to have been composed of pre-existing structures. An area behind the walls was cleared and sentry passages were built to enable it to be reinforced in an emergency; the actual effectiveness of the wall is disputable, given the small size of the city's garrison. The entire combined strength of the Praetorian Guard, cohortes urbanae, vigiles of Rome was only about 25,000 men – far too few to defend the circuit adequately. However, the military intention of the wall was not to withstand prolonged siege warfare. Instead, they carried out hit-and-run raids against ill-defended targets; the wall was a deterrent against such tactics. Parts of the wall were doubled in height by Maxentius, who improved the watch-towers.
In 401, under Honorius, the walls and the gates were improved. At this time, the Tomb of Hadrian across the Tiber was incorporated as a fortress in the city defenses; the Aurelian Walls continued as a significant military defense for the city of Rome until September 20, 1870, when the Bersaglieri of the Kingdom of Italy breached the wall near the Porta Pia and captured Rome. The walls defined the boundary of the city of Rome up until the 19th century, with the built-up area being confined within the walled area; the Aurelian Walls remain remarkably well-preserved today the result of their constant use as Rome's primary fortification until the 19th century. The Museo delle Mura near the Porta San Sebastiano offers information on the walls' construction and how the defenses operated; the best-preserved sections of the walls are found from the Muro Torto to Corso d'Italia to Castro Pretorio. List of gates, from the northernmost and clockwise: Porta del Popolo – here begins via Flaminia Porta Pinciana Porta Salaria – here begins via Salaria Porta Pia – h