Bed-Ins For Peace
As the Vietnam War raged in 1969, John Lennon and his wife Yoko Ono held two week-long Bed-Ins for Peace, one at the Hilton Hotel in Amsterdam and one at Fairmont The Queen Elizabeth in Montreal, each of which were intended to be non-violent protests against wars, experimental tests of new ways to promote peace. The idea is derived from a "sit-in", in which a group of protesters remains seated in front of or within an establishment until they are evicted, arrested, or their demands are met; the public proceedings were filmed, turned into a documentary movie. The film Bed Peace was made available for free on YouTube in August 2011 by Yoko Ono, as part of her website "Imagine Peace". Knowing their March 20, 1969 marriage would be a huge press event and Yoko decided to use the publicity to promote world peace, they spent their honeymoon in the presidential suite at the Amsterdam Hilton Hotel for a week between March 25 and 31, inviting the world's press into their hotel room every day between 9 a.m. and 9 p.m.
After their nonconformist artistic expressions, such as the nude cover of the Two Virgins album, the press were expecting them to be having sex, but instead the couple were just sitting in bed, wearing pajamas—in John's words "like angels"—talking about peace with signs over their bed reading "Hair Peace" and "Bed Peace". After seven days, they flew to Vienna, where they held a Bagism press conference. During April 1969, John and Yoko sent acorns to the heads of state in various countries around the world in hopes that they would plant them as a symbol of peace. For eight months, the couple was not granted a single visit with any world leader, their marriage, the first Bed-In, the Vienna press conference, the acorns were all mentioned in the song "The Ballad of John and Yoko". Due to John and Yoko's public image, the Amsterdam Bed-In was greeted by fans, received a great deal of press coverage. Following the event, when asked if he thought the Bed-In had been successful, John became rather frustrated.
He insisted that the failure of the press to take the couple was part of what he and Yoko wanted: "It's part of our policy not to be taken seriously. Our opposition, whoever they may be, in all manifest forms, don't know, and we are humorous." Their second Bed-In was planned to take place in New York, but Lennon was not allowed into the U. S. because of his 1968 cannabis conviction. Instead they intended to hold the event in the Bahamas at the Sheraton Oceanus Hotel, flying there on May 24, 1969, but after spending one night in the heat, they decided to move to Montreal, they flew to Montreal on May 26 where they stayed in Rooms 1738, 1740, 1742 and 1744 at the Queen Elizabeth Hotel. During their seven-day stay, they invited Timothy Leary, Tommy Smothers, Dick Gregory, Murray the K, Al Capp, Allen Ginsberg and others, all but Capp sang on the peace anthem "Give Peace a Chance", recorded by André Perry in the hotel room on June 1, 1969; the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation conducted interviews from the hotel room.
The event received mixed reaction from the American press. In December 1969 John and Yoko spread their messages of peace with billboards reading "WAR IS OVER! If You Want It – Happy Christmas From John and Yoko"; these billboards went up in eleven major world cities. The Bed-in performance has since been re-interpreted and re-used in protests by a number of artists since 1969, most notably Marijke van Warmerdam with her gallerist Kees van Gelder at the same Amsterdam Hilton in 1992 and the Centre of Attention in 2005 in Miami. A fictional Bed-In protest was featured in a 2006 Viva Voce music video. In 2010, Liverpool's centre for the contemporary arts, Blue-coat, staged a 62-day event, Bed-In at the Blue-coat, which used Lennon & Ono's event as a template for 62 daily performances by artists, community groups and others to do "something for a better world." Yoko sent a video message. The project started on 9 October, on what would have been Lennon's 70th birthday, ended on 9 December, which marked 30 years since his death.
The event was referenced in the Oasis song "Don't Look Back in Anger", in which lead singer Noel Gallagher sings "I'm gonna start a revolution from my bed /'Cause you said the brains I had went to my head ". The latter lyric was said by Lennon during a taped conversation he had at his room at the Dakota Hotel. In the music video for the Marcy Playground song, "It's Saturday", the group finds their way to the bed of John Lennon and Yoko during their bed in. Linkin Park members Chester Bennington and Mr. Hahn imitated the incident in a photograph taken by Greg Watermann in their book From the Inside: Linkin Park's Meteora. In late 2006, Billie Joe Armstrong, lead singer of Californian rock band Green Day, his wife, Adrienne Armstrong, did a similar bed-in, featuring Billie Joe and Adrienne lying on the bed, with a poster above their heads saying "Make Love Not War" in Spanish. On Lewis Black's Root of All Evil, comedian Andy Daly exhibits a video clip showing that he has attempted a bed in to protest the War in Iraq.
Trying to mimic Lennon and Yoko's original bed in, he climbs into the bed of an Asian woman, who pepper-sprays Daly. Japanese pop duo Puffy AmiYumi made a homage to the Bed-in on the cover of their album Nice. American singer Jhené Aiko imitated the image with Childish Gambino of John Lennon and Yoko Ono in their bed for her single "Bed Peace" off her EP Sail Out. In 2010, the city of Montreal unveiled a commemorative artwork in Mount Royal Park commemorating the famous bed-in; the work by Linda Covit and Marie-Cla
A hippie is a member of the counterculture of the 1960s a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district; the term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco with Herb Caen, a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle. The origins of the terms hip and hep are uncertain. By the 1940s, both had meant "sophisticated; the Beats adopted the term hip, early hippies inherited the language and countercultural values of the Beat Generation. Hippies created their own communities, listened to psychedelic music, embraced the sexual revolution, many used drugs such as marijuana, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms to explore altered states of consciousness. In 1967, the Human Be-In in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, Monterey Pop Festival popularized hippie culture, leading to the Summer of Love on the West Coast of the United States, the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast.
Hippies in Mexico, known as jipitecas, formed La Onda and gathered at Avándaro, while in New Zealand, nomadic housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted sustainable energy at Nambassa. In the United Kingdom in 1970, many gathered at the gigantic Isle of Wight Festival with a crowd of around 400,000 people. In years, mobile "peace convoys" of New Age travelers made summer pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge and elsewhere. In Australia, hippies gathered at Nimbin for the 1973 Aquarius Festival and the annual Cannabis Law Reform Rally or MardiGrass. "Piedra Roja Festival", a major hippie event in Chile, was held in 1970. Hippie and psychedelic culture influenced 1960s and early 1970s young culture in Iron Curtain countries in Eastern Europe. Hippie fashion and values had a major effect on culture, influencing popular music, film and the arts. Since the 1960s, mainstream society has assimilated many aspects of hippie culture; the religious and cultural diversity the hippies espoused has gained widespread acceptance, their pop versions of Eastern philosophy and Asian spiritual concepts have reached a larger audience.
Lexicographer Jesse Sheidlower, the principal American editor of the Oxford English Dictionary, argues that the terms hipster and hippie derive from the word hip, whose origins are unknown. The word hip in the sense of "aware, in the know" is first attested in a 1902 cartoon by Tad Dorgan, first appeared in prose in a 1904 novel by George Vere Hobart, Jim Hickey: A Story of the One-Night Stands, where an African-American character uses the slang phrase "Are you hip?" The term hipster was coined by Harry Gibson in 1944. By the 1940s, the terms hip and hepcat were popular in Harlem jazz slang, although hep came to denote an inferior status to hip. In Greenwich Village in the early 1960s, New York City, young counterculture advocates were named hips because they were considered "in the know" or "cool", as opposed to being square. In the April 27, 1961 issue of The Village Voice, "An open letter to JFK & Fidel Castro", Norman Mailer utilizes the term hippies, in questioning JFK's behavior. In a 1961 essay, Kenneth Rexroth used both the terms hipster and hippies to refer to young people participating in black American or Beatnik nightlife.
According to Malcolm X's 1964 autobiography, the word hippie in 1940s Harlem had been used to describe a specific type of white man who "acted more Negro than Negroes". Andrew Loog Oldham refers to "all the Chicago hippies," in reference to black blues/R&B musicians, in his rear sleeve notes to the 1965 LP The Rolling Stones, Now! The word hippie was used in reference to Philadelphia in at least two popular songs in 1963: South Street by The Orlons, You Can't Sit Down by The Dovells. In both songs, the term is applied to residents of Philadelphia's South Street. Although the word hippies made other isolated appearances in print during the early 1960s, the first use of the term on the West Coast appeared in the article "A New Paradise for Beatniks" by San Francisco journalist Michael Fallon. In that article, Fallon wrote about the Blue Unicorn Cafe, using the term hippie to refer to the new generation of beatniks who had moved from North Beach into the Haight-Ashbury district. New York Times editor and usage writer Theodore M. Bernstein said the paper changed the spelling from hippy to hippie to avoid the ambiguous description of clothing as hippy fashions.
A July 1968 Time magazine study on hippie philosophy credited the foundation of the hippie movement with historical precedent as far back as the sadhu of India, the spiritual seekers who had renounced the world by taking "Sannyas". The counterculture of the Ancient Greeks, espoused by philosophers like Diogenes of Sinope and the cynics were early forms of hippie culture, it named as notable influences the religious and spiritual teachings of Henry David Thoreau, Hillel the Elder, Buddha, St. Francis of Assisi, J. R. R. Tolkien; the first signs of modern "proto-hippies" emerged in fin de siècle Europe. Late 1890s to early 1900s, a German youth movement arose as a countercultural reaction to the organized social and cultural clubs that centered around "German folk music". Known as Der Wandervogel, the hippie movement opposed the formality of traditional German clubs, instead emphasizing folk music and singing, creative dress, outdoor
Peace camps are a form of physical protest camp, focused on anti-war activity. They are set up outside military bases by members of the peace movement who oppose either the existence of the military bases themselves, the armaments held there, or the politics of those who control the bases, they began in the 1920s and became world-famous in 1982 due to the tremendous worldwide publicity generated by the Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp. They were a phenomenon of the United Kingdom in the 1980s where they were associated with sentiment against American imperialism but Peace Camps have existed at other times and places since the 1920s. In the United Kingdom, people came to live outside military bases at protest camps in order to witness their opposition to and nonviolently protest against the presence of nuclear weapons in Europe that were directed against the Soviet Union by the United States, calling for nuclear disarmament; the women at Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp were against the placing of US cruise missiles there, something they claimed made the area a direct target of Soviet Union aggression.
During the 1980s the United States Air Force had land-based cruise missiles at several of the above locations, not only Greenham Common. Due to these factors the concept of the peace camp remains alive today; the first peace camps are known to have originated in the 1920s. The first modern peace camps were the various women-only peace camps at the military base at Greenham Common, set up in 1981. Greenham Common Women's Peace Camp maintained a presence at the camp until 2000. Women-only peace camps were based at Waddington, Lincs from April – September 1982 and Capenhurst October 1982 – March 1983. Other, mixed-sex, peace camps sprang up at the military bases of Upper Heyford, Daws Hill in High Wycombe, RAF Molesworth, Lakenheath and Faslane. Faslane Peace Camp, established in 1982, is still in existence today. A bunker was constructed for RAF Strike Command on National Trust land near High Wycombe, England between 1983 and 1985. Naphill Peace camp oppose this construction; the Angry Pacifist magazine was produced out of Naphill Peace camp.
Thomas and Concepcion Picciotto are founders of the longest running peace vigil in the US. The White House Peace Vigil has been located opposite the White House at Lafayette Square on the 1600 block of Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D. C. since June 3, 1981. The Brambles Farm Peace Camp was set up in 1982 on the site of a research and development facility for the production of the Spearfish 7525 torpedo for the Royal Navy; the camp, although anti-war and anti-nuclear in its beliefs, was supported and attended by local people demonstrating against the loss of green space and the lack of public consultation. The protesters held up the construction work for a number of months and was visited by some 3,000 people from this country and abroad. A Torpedo Town festival was held in the area for a number of years afterwards, the largest in 1991 at Liphook in Hampshire when some 25,000 people danced to the Spiral Tribe sound system; these festivals fell foul of the rave party and free festival crackdown in the early 1990s by the Tory government.
In 1983, feminists established the Seneca Women's Encampment for a Future of Peace and Justice in Romulus, New York, the site of the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, to demand the abolition of nuclear weapons. In 2001 Brian Haw set up the Parliament Square Peace Campaign outside the Houses of Parliament in London. In August 2007 others who had joined him were evicted. There has been a women's peace camp at Aldermaston for one weekend a month since 1985 that continues to meet. A peace camp was set up at Fairford on 17 February 2003. On May 13, 2005, protesters set up a peace camp on Drake's Island, just off Plymouth. In February 2005, peace activists and residents began a peace camp at the village of Daechuri, South Korea, in opposition to the expansion of Camp Humphreys, which declared autonomy from Korea on February 7, 2006; as of October 2006, resisting residents remain on-site, despite demolition of homes owned by residents who have accepted compensation. In August 2005, Cindy Sheehan set up Camp Casey, a peace camp named after her son, outside the Texas ranch of United States President George W. Bush, through which she has attracted considerable media attention.
The term peace camp is used for a form of anti-war protest camp prevalent in the UK in the 1980s, however, it is sometimes used to describe political factions before or during wartime that are opposed to a particular war. These are not a physical camps but political alliances. There is an Israeli peace camp. In addition, the term is sometimes used for summer camps that bring together youth from different groups in conflict to work towards transformation and improvement of mutual relations. While the organizers of such camps support peaceful solutions, participants may not do so or at least not to the same extent. In addition, these camps are not intended as a "protest camp", but rather to constructively work towards their goals and bring about change in the participants, which are intended to serve as disseminators of peaceful attitudes in their home communities. In the early 19th Century, "Apaches de Paz" or Apache peace camps were established for the purpose of religious conv
Casualties of the September 11 attacks
During the September 11 attacks of 2001, 2,996 people were killed and more than 6,000 others injured. These immediate deaths included 265 on the four planes, 2,606 in the World Trade Center and in the surrounding area, 125 at the Pentagon; the attacks were the deadliest terrorist act in world history, the most devastating foreign attack on United States soil since the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Most of those who perished were civilians except for 343 firefighters and 71 law enforcement officers who died in the World Trade Center and on the ground in New York City, another law enforcement officer who died when United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into a field near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, 55 military personnel who died at the Pentagon in Arlington County and the 19 terrorists who died on board the four aircraft. Overall, 2,605 U. S. citizens, including 2,135 civilians, died in the attacks, while an additional 372 non-U. S. Citizens perished, which represented about 12% of the total.
More than 90 countries lost citizens in the attacks, including the United Kingdom, the Dominican Republic, India. 2,974 victims were confirmed to have died in the initial attacks. In 2007, the New York City medical examiner's office began to add people who died of illnesses caused by exposure to dust from the site to the official death toll; the first such victim was a woman, a civil rights lawyer, who had died from a chronic lung condition in February 2002. In September 2009, the office added a man who died in October 2008, in 2011, a male accountant who had died in December 2010; this raises the number of victims at the World Trade Center site to 2,753, the overall 9/11 death toll to 2,996. As of August 2013, medical authorities concluded that 1,140 people who worked, lived, or studied in Lower Manhattan at the time of the attack have been diagnosed with cancer as a result of "exposure to toxins at Ground Zero", it has been reported that over 1,400 9/11 rescue workers who responded to the scene in the days and months after the attacks have since died.
At least 11 pregnancies were lost as a result of 9/11. Most tall buildings in the United States at the time were not designed for complete evacuation during a crisis after the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, it was procedural for announcements in the case of high-rise fire safety for individuals to stay in their offices unless they were near the burning floor. The buildings housed three stairwells in the center core of each tower, with the stairwells being 70 feet apart in the North Tower and about 200 feet apart in the South Tower; the three stairwells were labeled A, B, C, were as tall as the buildings with two built to 44 inches in width and the third was 56 inches wide. At the time of the attacks, media reports suggested that tens of thousands might have been killed, as on any given day upwards of 100,000 people could be inside the towers. Estimates of the number of people in the Twin Towers when attacked on Tuesday, September 11, 2001, range between 14,000 and 19,000; the National Institute of Standards and Technology estimated that 17,400 civilians were in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks.
Turnstile counts from the Port Authority indicate that the number of people in the Twin Towers by 10:30 am was 14,154. In interviews with 271 survivors, researchers in 2008 found that only about 8.6% had fled as soon as the alarm was raised while about 91.4% stayed behind to wait for more information or carrying out at least one additional task. The interviews showed that 82% of those who were evacuating stopped at least once during their way down, due to congestion on the stairs, take a rest, or due to environmental conditions. In the moments after Flight 11 struck the North Tower, the 8,000 people on the floors below the point of impact were faced with a harrowing scenario; the towers of the World Trade Center complex had not been designed to facilitate a mass evacuation of everybody in the buildings, in each tower there were only three narrow stairwells descending to the ground level. Another hindrance to the evacuation of the World Trade Center was that as the planes struck, the force of the impact caused the buildings to shift enough to jam doors in their frames, stairwells became blocked by broken wall boards, trapping dozens of people throughout the building on the floors closer to the impact zone.
For those that were above the point of impact many were trapped within their offices, with one victim relaying to 911 after the first plane hit that the stairs were inaccessible for the 106th floor. At least 28 people were freed on the 86th and 89th floors by members of the Port Authority office workers who had to pry open jammed doors. Many people began to evacuate via the stairs on their own, while others chose to wait for instructions from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Others who chose to evacuate were pushed into action by loved ones, able to contact them; as evacuees descended down the staircases in the North Tower, they were directed to descend to the concourse level beneath the World Trade Center complex, where the mall was located. Others who managed to escape credit the "Survivors Staircase" an outdoor staircase that survived the disaster, World Trade Center workers who knew escape routes. A survivor stated "Between the 9th floor, we wound through this maze; when we got to the plaza level we were walking through and there was one emergency light on.
There was water up to our calves. All of a sudden there was a voice. We saw someone in
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism. A less common usage is by supporters of a non-interventionist foreign policy. People who categorize themselves as anti-imperialists state that they are opposed to colonialism, colonial empires, hegemony and the territorial expansion of a country beyond its established borders; the phrase gained a wide currency after the Second World War and at the onset of the Cold War as political movements in colonies of European powers promoted national sovereignty. Some anti-imperialist groups who opposed the United States supported the power of the Soviet Union, such as in Guevarism, while in Maoism this was criticized as social imperialism. In the late 1870s, the term "imperialism" was introduced to the English language by opponents of the aggressively imperial policies of British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli.
It was shortly appropriated by supporters of "imperialism" such as Joseph Chamberlain. For some, imperialism designated a policy of philanthropy. John A. Hobson and Vladimir Lenin added a more theoretical macroeconomic connotation to the term. Many theoreticians on the left have followed either or both in emphasizing the structural or systemic character of "imperialism"; such writers have expanded the time period associated with the term so that it now designates neither a policy, nor a short space of decades in the late 19th century, but a global system extending over a period of centuries going back to Christopher Columbus and in some facts to the Crusades. As the application of the term has expanded, its meaning has shifted along five distinct but parallel axes: the moral, the economic, the systemic, the cultural and the temporal; those changes reflect—among other shifts in sensibility—a growing unease with the fact of power Western power. The relationships among capitalism and imperialism have been discussed and analysed by theoreticians, political scientists such as John A. Hobson and Thorstein Veblen, Joseph Schumpeter and Norman Angell.
Those intellectuals produced much of their works about imperialism before the World War I, yet their combined work informed the study of the impact of imperialism upon Europe and contributed to the political and ideologic reflections on the rise of the military–industrial complex in the United States from the 1950s onwards. John A. Hobson influenced the anti-imperialism of both Marxists and liberals, worldwide through his 1902 book on Imperialism, he argued that the "taproot of imperialism" is not in Capitalism. As a form of economic organization, imperialism is unnecessary and immoral, the result of the mis-distribution of wealth in a capitalist society; that created an irresistible desire to extend the national markets into foreign lands, in search of profits greater than those available in the Mother Country. In the capitalist economy, rich capitalists received a disproportionately higher income than did the working class. If the owners invested their incomes to their factories, the increased productive capacity would exceed the growth in demand for the products and services of said factories.
Lenin adopted Hobson's ideas to argue that capitalism was doomed and would be replaced by socialism, the sooner the better. Hobson was influential in liberal circles the British Liberal Party. Historians Peter Duignan and Lewis H. Gann argue that Hobson had an enormous influence in the early 20th century that caused widespread distrust of imperialism: Hobson's ideas were not original, his ideas influenced German nationalist opponents of the British Empire as well as French Anglophobes and Marxists. In days to come they were to contribute to American distrust of Western Europe and of the British Empire. Hobson helped make the British averse to the exercise of colonial rule. On the positive side, Hobson argued that domestic social reforms could cure the international disease of imperialism by removing its economic foundation. Hobson theorized that state intervention through taxation could boost broader consumption, create wealth and encourage a peaceful multilateral world order. Conversely, should the state not intervene, rentiers would generate negative wealth that fostered imperialism and protectionism.
As a self-conscious political movement, anti-imperialism originated in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in opposition to the growing European colonial empires and the United States control of the Philippines after 1898. However, it reached its highest level of popular support in the colonies themselves, where it formed the basis for a wide variety of national liberation movements during the mid-20th century and later; these movements, their anti-imperialist ideas, were instrumental in the decolonization process of the 1950s and 1960s, which saw most European colonies in Asia and Africa achieving
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence. The word pacifism was coined by the French peace campaigner Émile Arnaud and adopted by other peace activists at the tenth Universal Peace Congress in Glasgow in 1901. A related term is ahimsa, a core philosophy in Hinduism and Jainism. While modern connotations are recent, having been explicated since the 19th century, ancient references abound. In modern times, interest was revived by Leo Tolstoy in his late works in The Kingdom of God Is Within You. Mohandas Gandhi propounded the practice of steadfast nonviolent opposition which he called "satyagraha", instrumental in its role in the Indian Independence Movement, its effectiveness served as inspiration to Martin Luther King Jr. James Lawson, James Bevel, Thich Nhat Hanh and many others in the civil rights movement. Pacifism covers a spectrum of views, including the belief that international disputes can and should be peacefully resolved, calls for the abolition of the institutions of the military and war, opposition to any organization of society through governmental force, rejection of the use of physical violence to obtain political, economic or social goals, the obliteration of force, opposition to violence under any circumstance defence of self and others.
Historians of pacifism Peter Brock and Thomas Paul Socknat define pacifism "in the sense accepted in English-speaking areas" as "an unconditional rejection of all forms of warfare". Philosopher Jenny Teichman defines the main form of pacifism as "anti-warism", the rejection of all forms of warfare. Teichman's beliefs have been summarized by Brian Orend as "... A pacifist believes there are no moral grounds which can justify resorting to war. War, for the pacifist, is always wrong." In a sense the philosophy is based on the idea. Pacifism may be based on moral principles or pragmatism. Principled pacifism holds that at some point along the spectrum from war to interpersonal physical violence, such violence becomes morally wrong. Pragmatic pacifism holds that the costs of war and interpersonal violence are so substantial that better ways of resolving disputes must be found. Pacifists reject theories of Just War; some pacifists follow principles of nonviolence, believing that nonviolent action is morally superior and/or most effective.
Some however, support physical violence for emergency defence of self or others. Others support destruction of property in such emergencies or for conducting symbolic acts of resistance like pouring red paint to represent blood on the outside of military recruiting offices or entering air force bases and hammering on military aircraft. Not all nonviolent resistance is based on a fundamental rejection of all violence in all circumstances. Many leaders and participants in such movements, while recognizing the importance of using non-violent methods in particular circumstances, have not been absolute pacifists. Sometimes, as with the civil rights movement's march from Selma to Montgomery in 1965, they have called for armed protection; the interconnections between civil resistance and factors of force are complex. An absolute pacifist is described by the British Broadcasting Corporation as one who believes that human life is so valuable, that a human should never be killed and war should never be conducted in self-defense.
The principle is described as difficult to abide by due to violence not being available as a tool to aid a person, being harmed or killed. It is further claimed that such a pacifist could logically argue that violence leads to more undesirable results than non-violence. Although all pacifists are opposed to war between nation states, there have been occasions where pacifists have supported military conflict in the case of civil war or revolution. For instance, during the American Civil War, both the American Peace Society and some former members of the Non-Resistance Society supported the Union's military campaign, arguing they were carrying out a "police action" against the Confederacy, whose act of Secession they regarded as criminal. Following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, French pacifist René Gérin urged support for the Spanish Republic. Gérin argued that the Spanish Nationalists were "comparable to an individual enemy" and the Republic's war effort was equivalent to the action of a domestic police force suppressing crime.
In the 1960s, some pacifists associated with the New Left supported wars of national liberation and supported groups such as the Viet Cong and the Algerian FLN, arguing peaceful attempts to liberate such nations were no longer viable, war was thus the only option. Advocacy of pacifism can be found far back in literature. During the Warring States period, the pacifist Mohist School opposed aggressive war between the feudal states, they took this belief into action by using their famed defensive strategies to defend smaller states from invasion from larger states, hoping to dissuade feudal lords from costly warfare. The Seven Military Classics of ancient China view warfare negatively, as a last resort. For example, the Three Strategies of Huang Shigong says: "As for the military, it is not an auspicious instrument; the Taoist scripture "Classic of Great Peace" foretells "the coming Age of Great Peace". The Taiping Jing advocates "a world full of peace"; the Lemba religion of southern Frenc