Marion County, Tennessee
Marion County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 28,237, its county seat is Jasper. Marion County is part of the TN -- GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Marion County is in the Central time zone. Marion County was established in 1817 from lands acquired from the Cherokee. In 1779 Cherokee chief Dragging Canoe moved down the Tennessee River from Chickamauga Creek to Running Water creek, he helped establish the town of Nickajack at the entrance of Nickajack Cave. In 1794, the town was attacked and burned by militiamen commanded by Colonel James Orr of Nashville, Tennessee; the town was rebuilt and the Chickamauga Indians continued to live here until 1838, when all of the remaining Indians were removed from Tennessee and Georgia by the Trail of Tears. During the spring of 1861, early in the American Civil War, Robert Cravens of Chattanooga began mining saltpeter, the main ingredient of gunpowder, at Nickajack Cave; the operation was soon taken over by the Confederate Niter Bureau.
At one point, Nickajack Cave was one of the main sources of saltpeter for the Confederate States of America. However, its operation was halted in late 1862. Nickajack Cave was visited by thousands of soldiers of both side troops, who travelled up and down the Tennessee River on steamboats. Another important mine during the Civil War was Monteagle Saltpeter Cave, located in Cave Cove, about 4 miles southeast of Monteagle. During the war, it was referred to as Battle Creek Cave. A 1917 visitor reported that about 30 old hoppers still remained in the cave. By the late 19th and early 20th centuries and iron mining industries had come to dominate Marion County's economy. Mines operated in Inman, while iron smelters were at South Pittsburg. Hales Bar Dam, built on the Tennessee River in Marion County between 1905 and 1913, was one of the first major dams constructed in the United States across a navigable stream. In the 1960s, the Tennessee Valley Authority replaced Hales Bar with Nickajack Dam, further downstream in the 1960s, though the Hales Bar powerhouse still stands as a boathouse.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 512 square miles, of which 498 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Marion is one of three Tennessee counties, along with Bledsoe and Sequatchie, located in the Sequatchie Valley, a long, narrow valley slicing through the southeastern Cumberland Plateau; the Sequatchie River, which drains the valley, empties into the Tennessee River just south of Jasper. Nickajack Dam is located along the Tennessee River near Jasper; the section of the river downstream from the dam is part of Guntersville Lake. The Raccoon Mountain Pumped-Storage Plant is located in the extreme southeastern part of the county. Grundy County Sequatchie County Hamilton County Dade County, Georgia Jackson County, Alabama Franklin County Chimneys State Natural Area Cummings Cove Wildlife Management Area Franklin State Forest Hicks Gap State Natural Area Prentice Cooper State Forest Sequatchie Cave State Natural Area South Cumberland State Park As of the census of 2010, there were 28,237 people, 11,403 households, 8,030 families residing in the county.
The population density was 57 people per square mile. There were 12,954 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.9% White, 3.6% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. 1.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.80% under the age of 18 and 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43.9 years. The female population was 50.9%. The median income for a household in the county was $31,419, the median income for a family was $36,351. Males had a median income of $30,236 versus $21,778 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,419. About 10.80% of families and 14.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.00% of those under age 18 and 14.30% of those age 65 or over. The schools in Marion County are: Jasper Elementary School Jasper Middle School Marion County High School Monteagle Elementary School South Pittsburg Elementary South Pittsburg High School Whitwell Elementary School Whitwell Middle School Whitwell High School Richard Hardy Memorial School Marion County is served by numerous local and national media outlets which reach one million people in four states including: Tennessee, Alabama and North Carolina.
The Marion County News: Jasper Journal and South Pittsburg Hustler Combined has incorporated the Jasper Journal and the South Pittsburg Hustler into a single weekly publication. The periodical focuses its energy on highlighting events and people in Marion County, TN. Marion County is part of the Chattanooga Arbitron radio market; the following radio stations are licensed to cities within Marion County: AMWEPG 910 AM – News Talk & Variety Hits FMWUUQ 97.3 – Classic Country Q-97.3/99.3 WJCR-LP-94.9 - Jasper Christ-Centered Radio Marion County is part of the Chattanooga DMA. Cable TV companies in Marion County include Charter Communications and Trinity Cable Marion County Airport known as Brown Field, is a county-owned, public-use airport located four nautical miles southeast of the central business district of Jasper. I-24 US 41 US 64 US 72 SR
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Warren County, Tennessee
Warren County is a county located in the central part of the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 39,839, its county seat is McMinnville. Warren County comprises TN Micropolitan Statistical Area. Warren County was created in 1807 from a portion of White County, named for Joseph Warren, a soldier in the American Revolution; the revised Tennessee State Constitution of 1834 stated that no new county could be within 12 miles of the county seat of the county from which it was formed. The boundaries of five counties formed from Warren— Grundy, Van Buren, Coffee and DeKalb— were 12 miles from Warren's county seat, McMinnville, giving the county its distinctive round shape. Warren County citizens voted to secede from the Union before the American Civil War in February 1861 in a State referendum. However, Tennessee overall decided to remain in the Union in that time, but when Abraham Lincoln demanded that Tennessee provide troops to fight against the Southern state in April 1861, this was viewed as a violation of Article 3, Section 3 of the U.
S. Constitution. At a new referendum in June, 1861, Warren County, along with a majority of Tennessee's counties, voted for independence. Unlike some states, slavery was not mentioned as one of the reasons in Tennessee's secession proclamation. Men from Warren County and surrounding upper Cumberland region formed and served in many units in Tennessee's defense, including the 16th Tennessee Infantry led by McMinnville, TN resident Col. John Houston Savage; the Confederate monument next to the county courthouse is dedicated in the memory of the men who served and died in the 16th and lists their names. Men from Warren County and upper Cumberland area joined the 16th TN Infantry Regiment, among others; this is the flag of the 16th H Company. The flag now resides in the Texas'Civil War' Museum in Fort Worth TX. http://home.freeuk.com/gazkhan/tenn_battle-flags_h-company.htm. Warren County was the site of several saltpeter mines. Saltpeter is the main ingredient of gunpowder and was obtained by leaching the earth from several local caves.
Hubbards Cave, near Camp Woodlee, was a major operation. Henshaw Cave on Cardwell Mountain and Solomon Saltpeter Cave on Ben Lomond Mountain were small mining operations. Most saltpeter mining occurred in the Civil War. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 434 square miles, of which 433 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. The county lies long the Eastern Highland Rim, near the Cumberland Plateau; the Caney Fork forms part of the county's borders with DeKalb counties to the north. The Rocky River, a tributary of the Caney Fork, forms part of the county's western border with Van Buren County; the Collins River a tributary of the Caney Fork, flows through the county, the Barren Fork, a tributary of the Collins, flows through McMinnville. Cardwell Mountain is an imposing natural feature located five miles due east of McMinnville, it is an erosional remnant of the nearby Cumberland Plateau. Cardwell Mountain is noted for Cumberland Caverns, an exceptionally long cave which lies underneath the mountain.
DeKalb County White County Van Buren County Sequatchie County Grundy County Coffee County Cannon County U. S. Route 70S State Route 8 State Route 30 State Route 55 State Route 56 State Route 108 State Route 136 Hubbard's Cave State Natural Area Morrison Meadow State Natural Area Rock Island State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 38,276 people, 15,181 households, 10,824 families residing in the county; the population density was 88 people per square mile. There were 16,689 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 91.66% White, 3.16% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 3.56% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 4.92% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 15,181 households out of which 31.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.20% were married couples living together, 11.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.70% were non-families.
25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 29.40% from 25 to 44, 23.40% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,920, the median income for a family was $37,835. Males had a median income of $28,409 versus $20,863 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,759. About 13.00% of families and 16.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.40% of those under age 18 and 17.20% of those age 65 or over. Rock Island State Park is located on the northeastern border with White County; this park is the site of the Tennessee Valley Authority's Great Falls Dam, includes many hiking trails, offers whitewater rafting.
Cumberland Caverns, located east of McMinnville under Cardwell Mountain, is Tennessee's largest show cave. It is the second longest mapped cave in Tennessee with 27.6 miles of passages, displays some of the largest cave rooms in eastern North America. Cumberland Caverns is the 15th longest cave in the United States. H
Coke is a grey and porous fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, made by heating coal or oil in the absence of air — a destructive distillation process. It is an important industrial product, used in iron ore smelting, but as a fuel in stoves and forges when air pollution is a concern; the unqualified term "coke" refers to the product derived from low-ash and low-sulfur bituminous coal by a process called coking. A similar product called pet coke, is obtained from crude oil in oil refineries. Coke may be formed by geologic processes. Historical sources dating to the 4th century describe the production of coke in ancient China; the Chinese first used coke for heating and cooking no than the ninth century. By the first decades of the eleventh century, Chinese ironworkers in the Yellow River valley began to fuel their furnaces with coke, solving their fuel problem in that tree-sparse region. In 1589, a patent was granted to Thomas Proctor and William Peterson for making iron and steel and melting lead with "earth-coal, sea-coal and peat".
The patent contains a distinct allusion to the preparation of coal by "cooking". In 1590, a patent was granted to the Dean of York to "purify pit-coal and free it from its offensive smell". In 1620, a patent was granted to a company composed of William St. John and other knights, mentioning the use of coke in smelting ores and manufacturing metals. In 1627, a patent was granted to Sir John Hacket and Octavius de Strada for a method of rendering sea-coal and pit-coal as useful as charcoal for burning in houses, without offense by smell or smoke. In 1603, Hugh Plat suggested that coal might be charred in a manner analogous to the way charcoal is produced from wood; this process was not employed until 1642. It was considered an improvement in quality, brought about an "alteration which all England admired"—the coke process allowed for a lighter roast of the malt, leading to the creation of what by the end of the 17th century was called pale ale. In 1709, Abraham Darby I established a coke-fired blast furnace to produce cast iron.
Coke's superior crushing strength allowed blast furnaces to become larger. The ensuing availability of inexpensive iron was one of the factors leading to the Industrial Revolution. Before this time, iron-making used large quantities of charcoal, produced by burning wood; as the coppicing of forests became unable to meet the demand, the substitution of coke for charcoal became common in Great Britain, coke was manufactured by burning coal in heaps on the ground so that only the outer layer burned, leaving the interior of the pile in a carbonized state. In the late 18th century, brick beehive ovens were developed, which allowed more control over the burning process. In 1768, John Wilkinson built a more practical oven for converting coal into coke. Wilkinson improved the process by building the coal heaps around a low central chimney built of loose bricks and with openings for the combustion gases to enter, resulting in a higher yield of better coke. With greater skill in the firing and quenching of the heaps, yields were increased from about 33% to 65% by the middle of the 19th century.
The Scottish iron industry expanded in the second quarter of the 19th century, through the adoption of the hot-blast process in its coalfields. In 1802, a battery of beehives was set up near Sheffield, to coke the Silkstone seam for use in crucible steel melting. By 1870, there were 14,000 beehive ovens in operation on the West Durham coalfields, capable of producing 4,000,000 long tons of coke; as a measure of the extent of the expansion of coke making, it has been estimated that the requirements of the iron industry were about 1,000,000 long tons a year in the early 1850s, whereas by 1880 the figure had risen to 7,000,000 long tons, of which about 5,000,000 long tons were produced in Durham county, 1,000,000 long tons in the South Wales coalfield, 1,000,000 long tons in Yorkshire and Derbyshire. In the first years of steam railway locomotives, coke was the normal fuel; this resulted from an early piece of environmental legislation. This was not technically possible to achieve until the firebox arch came into use, but burning coke, with its low smoke emissions, was considered to meet the requirement.
This rule was dropped, cheaper coal became the normal fuel, as railways gained acceptance among the public. In the US, the first use of coke in an iron furnace occurred around 1817 at Isaac Meason's Plumsock puddling furnace and rolling mill in Fayette County, Pennsylvania. In the late 19th century, the coalfields of western Pennsylvania provided a rich source of raw material for coking. In 1885, the Rochester and Pittsburgh Coal and Iron Company constructed the world's longest string of coke ovens in Walston, with 475 ovens over a length of 2 km, their output reached 22,000 tons per month. The Minersville Coke Ovens in Huntingdon County, were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. Between 1870 and 1905, the number of beehive ovens in the US skyrocketed from about 200 to 31,000, which produced nearly 18,000,000 tons of coke in the Pittsburgh area alone. One observer boasted that if loaded into a train, “the year's production would make up a train so long that the engine in front of it would go to
The Sequatchie River is a 116-mile-long waterway that drains the Sequatchie Valley, a large valley in the Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee. It empties into the Tennessee River downstream from Chattanooga near the Tennessee-Alabama state line; the Sequatchie River originates from several springs at or near Devilstep Hollow Cave, including the spring, Head of the Sequatchie. Dye traces establish the origin of their water as originating from Grassy Cove, the pastoral limestone sinkhole located to the north-east; the Sequatchie River follows the general trend of the Sequatchie Valley, flowing south-west for 182.12 mi. The stream crosses into Bledsoe County near the head of the Sequatchie Valley; the Sequatchie Valley is traversed throughout much its length by U. S. Highway 127; the first sizeable town on the Sequatchie is the county seat of Bledsoe. State Route 30, which descends Walden's Ridge into the Valley and climbs the escarpment back onto the plateau, crosses here. Crossing into Sequatchie County, the stream flows into Dunlap.
Just north of Dunlap, U. S. 127 turns southeastward, beginning the ascent onto Walden Ridge and down into Chattanooga. A set of railroad tracks ran along the river from this point, testament to heavy underground coal extraction in years past. For the rest of its length the Sequatchie is paralleled by State Route 28. State Route 283 runs along the base of the Walden's Ridge escarpment for several miles; the river enters Marion County. The town of Whitwell is just a few miles into Marion County. Below Whitwell at the small community of Sequatchie, the river receives the flow of the Little Sequatchie River, which descends from atop the Cumberland Plateau to the west. At Jasper, west of the river, is a railroad junction. East of town is the crossing of U. S. Highway 41 by SR 28, the bridge over the river. Shortly south of the Interstate 24 bridge is the mouth of the Sequatchie into the Guntersville Lake impoundment of the Tennessee River. List of Tennessee rivers U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Sequatchie River
Chattanooga is a city located in Hamilton County, southeastern Tennessee, along the Tennessee River bordering Georgia. With an estimated population of 179,139 in 2017, it is the fourth-largest city in Tennessee and one of the two principal cities of East Tennessee, along with Knoxville. Served by multiple railroads and Interstate highways, Chattanooga is a transit hub. Chattanooga lies 118 miles northwest of Atlanta, Georgia, 112 miles southwest of Knoxville, Tennessee, 134 miles southeast of Nashville, Tennessee, 102 miles east-northeast of Huntsville, 147 miles northeast of Birmingham, Alabama; the city, with a downtown elevation of 680 feet, lies at the transition between the ridge-and-valley portion of the Appalachian Mountains and the Cumberland Plateau. Surrounded by mountains and ridges, the official nickname for Chattanooga is "Scenic City", reinforced by the city's reputation for outdoor activities. Unofficial nicknames include "River City", "Chatt", "Nooga", "Chattown", "Gig City", referencing Chattanooga's claims that it has the fastest internet service in the Western Hemisphere.
Chattanooga is internationally known for the 1941 song "Chattanooga Choo Choo" by Glenn Miller and his orchestra. Chattanooga is home to the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga and Chattanooga State Community College; the city has its own typeface, launched in August 2012. According to the Nooga.com website, this marks the first time that an American city has its own custom-made typeface and the first time a crowd-funded custom-made typeface has been used for any municipality in the world. The first inhabitants of the Chattanooga area were Native Americans. Sites dating back to the Upper Paleolithic period show continuous human occupation through the Archaic, Mississippian/Muskogean/Yuchi, Cherokee periods; the Chickamauga Mound near the mouth of the Chickamauga Creek is the oldest remaining visible art in Chattanooga. The Citico town and mound site was the most significant Mississippian/Muscogee landmark in Chattanooga up to 1915; the first part of the name "Chattanooga" derives from the Muskogean word cvto /chắtȯ/ –'rock'.
The latter may be derived from a regional suffix - dwelling place. The earliest Cherokee occupation of the area dates from 1776, when Dragging Canoe separated himself from the main tribe to establish resistance to European settlement during the Cherokee–American wars. In 1816 John Ross, who became Principal Chief, established Ross's Landing. Located along what is now Broad Street, it became one of the centers of Cherokee Nation settlement, which extended into Georgia and Alabama. In 1838, the U. S. government forced the Cherokees, along with other Native Americans, to relocate to the area designated as Indian Territory, in what is now the state of Oklahoma. Their journey west became known as the "Trail of Tears" for their exile and fatalities along the way; the U. S. Army used Ross's Landing as the site of one of three large internment camps, or "emigration depots", where Native Americans were held before the journey on the Trail of Tears. In 1839, the community of Ross's Landing incorporated as the city of Chattanooga.
The city grew initially benefiting from a location well-suited for river commerce. With the arrival of the railroad in 1850, Chattanooga became a boom town; the city was known as the site "where cotton meets corn," referring to its location along the cultural boundary between the mountain communities of southern Appalachia and the cotton-growing states to the south. During the American Civil War, Chattanooga was a center of battle. During the Chickamauga Campaign, Union artillery bombarded Chattanooga as a diversion and occupied it on September 9, 1863. Following the Battle of Chickamauga, the defeated Union Army retreated to safety in Chattanooga. On November 23, 1863, the Battles for Chattanooga began when Union forces led by Major General Ulysses S. Grant reinforced troops at Chattanooga and advanced to Orchard Knob against Confederate troops besieging the city; the next day, the Battle of Lookout Mountain was fought. On November 25, Grant's army routed the Confederates in the Battle of Missionary Ridge.
These battles were followed the next spring by the Atlanta Campaign, beginning just over the nearby state line in Georgia and moving southeastward. After the war ended, the city became industrial and manufacturing center; the largest flood in Chattanooga's history occurred in 1867, before the Tennessee Valley Authority system was created in 1933 by Congress. The flood crested at 58 feet and inundated the city. Since the completion of the reservoir system, the highest Chattanooga flood stage has been nearly 37 feet, which occurred in 1973. Without regulation, the flood would have crested at 52.4 feet. Chattanooga was a major priority in the design of the TVA reservoir system and remains a major operating priority in the 21st century. In December 1906, Chattanooga was in the national headlines in United States v. Shipp, as the United States Supreme Court, in the only criminal trial in its history, ruled that Hamilton County Sheriff Joseph H. Shipp had violated Ed Johnson's civil rights when Shipp allowed a mob to enter the Hamilton County jail and lynch Johnson on the Walnut Street Bridge.
Chattanooga grew with the entry of the United States in the First World War in 1917, as the nearest training camp was in Fort Oglethorpe, Georgia. Effects of the Influenza of 1918 on Chattanooga included having movie theaters and pool halls closed. By the 1930s, Chattanooga was known as the "Dynamo of Dixie", inspiring the 1941 Glenn Miller big-band
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c