A music sequencer is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms CV/Gate, MIDI, or Open Sound Control, audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. The advent of Musical Instrument Digital Interface and the Atari ST home computer in the 1980s gave programmers the opportunity to design software that could more record and play back sequences of notes played or programmed by a musician; this software improved on the quality of the earlier sequencers which tended to be mechanical sounding and were only able to play back notes of equal duration. Software-based sequencers allowed musicians to program performances that were more expressive and more human; these new sequencers could be used to control external synthesizers rackmounted sound modules, it was no longer necessary for each synthesizer to have its own devoted keyboard. As the technology matured, sequencers gained more features, such as the ability to record multitrack audio.
Sequencers used for audio recording are called digital audio workstations. Many modern sequencers can be used to control virtual instruments implemented as software plug-ins; this allows musicians to replace expensive and cumbersome standalone synthesizers with their software equivalents. Today the term "sequencer" is used to describe software. However, hardware sequencers still exist. Workstation keyboards have their own proprietary built-in MIDI sequencers. Drum machines and some older synthesizers have their own step sequencer built in. There are still standalone hardware MIDI sequencers, although the market demand for those has diminished due to the greater feature set of their software counterparts. Music sequencers can be categorized by handling data types, such as: MIDI data on the MIDI sequencers CV/Gate data on the analog sequencers and others Automation data for mixing-automation on the DAWs, the software effect / instrument plug-ins on the DAWs with sequencing features Audio data on the audio sequencers including DAW, loop-based music software, etc..
Alternative subsets of audio sequencers include: Also, music sequencer can be categorized by its construction and supporting modes. Realtime sequencers record the musical notes in real-time as on audio recorders, play back musical notes with designated tempo and pitch. For editing "punch in/punch out" features originated in the tape recording are provided, although it requires sufficient skills to obtain the desired result. For detailed editing another visual editing mode under graphical user interface may be more suitable. Anyway, this mode provides usability similar to audio recorders familiar to musicians, it is supported on software sequencers, DAWs, built-in hardware sequencers. Analog sequencers are implemented with analog electronics, play the musical notes designated by a series of knobs or sliders corresponding to each musical note, it is designed for live performance. And possibly, the time-interval between each musical note can be independently adjustable. Analog sequencers are used to generate the repeated minimalistic phrases which may be reminiscent of Tangerine Dream, Giorgio Moroder or trance music.
On step sequencers, musical notes are rounded into steps of equal time-intervals, users can enter each musical note without exact timing. On the bass machines: select a step note from a chromatic keypads select a step duration from a group of length-buttons, sequentially. On the several home keyboards: in addition to the realtime sequencer, a pair of step trigger button is provided. In general, step mode, along with quantized semi-realtime mode, is supported on the drum machines, bass machines and several groove machines. Software sequencer is a class of application software providing a functionality of music sequencer, provided as one feature of the DAW or the integrated music authoring environments; the features provided as sequencers vary depending on the software. The user may control the software sequencer either by using the graphical user interfaces or a specialized input devices, such as a MIDI controller; the early music sequencers were sound producing devices such as automatic musical instruments, music boxes, mechanical organs, player pianos, Orchestrions.
Player pianos, for example, had much in common with contemporary sequencers. Composers or arrangers transmitted music to piano rolls which were subsequently edited by technicians who prepared the rolls for mass duplication. Consumers were able to purchase these rolls and play them back on their own player pianos; the origin of automatic musical instruments seems remarkably old. As early as the 9th century, Persian inventors Banū Mūsā brothers invented a hydropowered organ using exchangeable cylinders with pins, an automatic flute playing machine using steam power, as described in their Book of Ingenious Devices. In the 1
Scenario is an album by jazz guitarist Al Di Meola, released in 1983. Musicians include Tony Levin and Bill Bruford. "Mata Hari" – 6.04 "African Night" – 4.51 "Island Dreamer" – 4.06 "Scenario" – 3.56 "Sequencer" – 4.06 "Cachaca" – 5.34 "Hypnotic Conviction" – 3.51 "Calliope" – 4.19 "Scoundrel" – 3.44 Al Di Meola – guitars Jan Hammer – keyboards, Fairlight CMI programming Tony Levin – stick bass Bill Bruford – Simmons electronic drums Phil Collins – drums Reviews, Scenario Sequencer music video
Lawrence Roger'Larry' Fast is a synthesizer expert and composer. He is best known for Synergy, his 1975–1987 series of synthesizer music albums, for his contributions to a number of popular music acts, including Peter Gabriel, Foreigner and Hall & Oates. Fast grew up in Livingston, New Jersey and attended Lafayette College in Pennsylvania, where he obtained a degree in History. There he took his previous training in piano and violin and melded them with computer science to become interested in synthesized music and to build his own primitive sound-making electronic devices, he was introduced to Rick Wakeman, the keyboard player from the band Yes, during a local radio interview, traveled to the UK to work with Yes on their 1974 album Tales from Topographic Oceans. It was there. Fast recorded a series of pioneering synthesizer music albums under the project name Synergy; the first album in the series, Electronic Realizations for Rock Orchestra, was released as an LP in 1975. Like the following albums, it makes use of electronic instruments synthesizers.
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, Fast released eight more Synergy LPs on Passport Records, all of which were re-released on CDs. The 1998 re-release of Semi-Conductor, a compilation album released in 1984, was a remastered version of the original, contained ten additional tracks; the eleventh album in the series, Reconstructed Artifacts, was released in 2003, contained new performances of select compositions from the previous albums, using modern digital synthesizers, as well as the new digital recording technologies. At least two tracks from the album Audion were used as the basis for music in Commodore 64 computer games: Rob Hubbard's scores for the C64 version of Zoids and Master of Magic, which were unofficial covers of songs Ancestors and Shibolet. Synergy's first album states "..and nobody played guitar." The second album, says "...and still no guitars." These are rumored to be a tongue-in-cheek response to statements that appeared on albums by the rock group Queen that they used no synthesizers, which were made to inform listeners who assumed otherwise.
Fast's third Synergy album, states "Finally, guitars...sort of," which references the use of a Russ Hamm Guitar Synthesizer played by Pete Sobel. In August 2013, one of Fast's newest tracks in several years, "Tower Indigo", was released on the Projekt Records compilation Possibilities of Circumstance; the albums by Synergy are: 1975: Electronic Realizations for Rock Orchestra No 66 Billboard 200 1976: Sequencer No 144 Billboard 200 1978: Cords No 146 Billboard 200 1979: Games 1981: Audion 1981: Computer Experiments, Volume One 1982: The Jupiter Menace 1984: Semi-Conductor 1987: Metropolitan Suite 1998: Semi-Conductor, Release 2 2003: Reconstructed Artifacts Currently Fast is developing a new Synergy album. This will be his first studio album consisting of new material in over twenty years. According to Fast's website, it will make heavy use of software synthesizers rather than the hardware equipment he had been using so far, he has amassed a lot of new thematic material and plans to rework some old, as yet unreleased pieces for the new album as well.
In addition to the Synergy albums, Fast made contributions to musical projects headed by other people: Worked sporadically with Nektar, providing much of the dominating synthesizers on their 1975 album Recycled. Known for his work with Peter Gabriel, he played synthesizer on records and on tour, rounded out the production team on Gabriel's albums from 1976 to 1986. He recorded parts for So. Contributed to the 1977 concept album Intergalactic Touring Band on Passport Records. Played the Prophet Synthesizer on Kate Bush's 1980 Album Never for Ever Produced Canadian progressive rock group FM's 1980 album City of Fear. Contributed music to the Carl Sagan 1980 television program Cosmos: A Personal Voyage. Provided additional synthesizers on Foreigner's 1981 album 4 and Foreigner's 1984 album Agent Provocateur. Played synthesizers on the 1983 Bonnie Tyler single "Total Eclipse of the Heart". Collaborated on the 1980s pop music project Iam Siam, which produced the hit "She Went Pop". Produced and performed synthesizer on Annie Haslam's 1989 release Annie Haslam.
Along with David Bryan composed and performed the score music to the 1992 film Netherworld. Helped create the music for a new Walt Disney theme park. Toured and recorded with bassist Tony Levin as part of Levin's Waters of Eden band. Toured with the Tony Levin Band in 2006. Fast has done some work with designing listening devices for the hearing disabled. Fast owns several patents for audio distribution using infrared optical technologies. Fast is part of a government group aiming to protect some of New Jersey's historic assets against developers. Larry Fast's official homepage, containing his discography. Synergy at AllMusic Larry Fast discography at Discogs Larry Fast biography on artistdirect.com 2009 Interview with Larry Fast on Planet Origo 2004 Interview with Larry Fast on innerviews 1997 Larry Fast interview at electronicmusic.com Larry Fast Interview - NAMM Oral History Library Interview by Wayne Gerard Trotman, Red Moon Chronicle, September 2011
Sequencer (Covenant album)
Sequencer, released in May 1996, is the second full-length album by the Swedish musical group Covenant. In March 1997, a second edition by the name Sequencer: Beta was released, containing an additional track. In the USA, the album was released in 1997 on the 21st Circuitry label, again in July 1999 on Metropolis Records; these releases both combine the original Sequencer album, with the Stalker CD single, separated by an extra half-minute of silence after "Flux". The first pressing on the Off Beat label had a mastering error in "Tabula Rasa". 250 discs were pressed before they stopped the production, only 100 reached the record stores. They are now rare collectors' items and can be identified by the orange cover art, the label Off Beat, a loud crack in the song "Tabula Rasa"
Protein sequencing is the practical process of determining the amino acid sequence of all or part of a protein or peptide. This may serve to characterize its post-translational modifications. Partial sequencing of a protein provides sufficient information to identify it with reference to databases of protein sequences derived from the conceptual translation of genes; the two major direct methods of protein sequencing are mass spectrometry and Edman degradation using a protein sequenator. Mass spectrometry methods are now the most used for protein sequencing and identification but Edman degradation remains a valuable tool for characterizing a protein's N-terminus, it is desirable to know the unordered amino acid composition of a protein prior to attempting to find the ordered sequence, as this knowledge can be used to facilitate the discovery of errors in the sequencing process or to distinguish between ambiguous results. Knowledge of the frequency of certain amino acids may be used to choose which protease to use for digestion of the protein.
The misincorporation of low levels of non-standard amino acids into proteins may be determined. A generalized method referred to as amino acid analysis for determining amino acid frequency is as follows: Hydrolyse a known quantity of protein into its constituent amino acids. Separate and quantify the amino acids in some way. Hydrolysis is done by heating a sample of the protein in 6 M hydrochloric acid to 100–110 °C for 24 hours or longer. Proteins with many bulky hydrophobic groups may require longer heating periods. However, these conditions are so vigorous. To circumvent this problem, Biochemistry Online suggests heating separate samples for different times, analysing each resulting solution, extrapolating back to zero hydrolysis time. Rastall suggests a variety of reagents to prevent or reduce degradation, such as thiol reagents or phenol to protect tryptophan and tyrosine from attack by chlorine, pre-oxidising cysteine, he suggests measuring the quantity of ammonia evolved to determine the extent of amide hydrolysis.
The amino acids can be separated by ion-exchange chromatography derivatized to facilitate their detection. More the amino acids are derivatized resolved by reversed phase HPLC. An example of the ion-exchange chromatography is given by the NTRC using sulfonated polystyrene as a matrix, adding the amino acids in acid solution and passing a buffer of increasing pH through the column. Amino acids are eluted. Once the amino acids have been separated, their respective quantities are determined by adding a reagent that will form a coloured derivative. If the amounts of amino acids are in excess of 10 nmol, ninhydrin can be used for this; the concentration of amino acid is proportional to the absorbance of the resulting solution. With small quantities, down to 10 pmol, fluorescent derivatives can be formed using reagents such as ortho-phthaldehyde or fluorescamine. Pre-column derivatization may use the Edman reagent to produce a derivative, detected by UV light. Greater sensitivity is achieved using a reagent.
The derivatized amino acids are subjected to reversed phase chromatography using a C8 or C18 silica column and an optimised elution gradient. The eluting amino acids are detected using a UV or fluorescence detector and the peak areas compared with those for derivatised standards in order to quantify each amino acid in the sample. Determining which amino acid forms the N-terminus of a peptide chain is useful for two reasons: to aid the ordering of individual peptide fragments' sequences into a whole chain, because the first round of Edman degradation is contaminated by impurities and therefore does not give an accurate determination of the N-terminal amino acid. A generalised method for N-terminal amino acid analysis follows: React the peptide with a reagent that will selectively label the terminal amino acid. Hydrolyse the protein. Determine the amino acid by chromatography and comparison with standards. There are many different reagents, they all react with amine groups and will therefore bind to amine groups in the side chains of amino acids such as lysine - for this reason it is necessary to be careful in interpreting chromatograms to ensure that the right spot is chosen.
Two of the more common reagents are Sanger's dansyl derivatives such as dansyl chloride. Phenylisothiocyanate, the reagent for the Edman degradation, can be used; the same questions apply here as in the determination of amino acid composition, with the exception that no stain is needed, as the reagents produce coloured derivatives and only qualitative analysis is required. So the amino acid does not have to be eluted from the chromatography column, just compared with a standard. Another consideration to take into account is that, since any amine groups will have reacted with the labelling reagent, ion exchange chromatography cannot be used, thin layer chromatography or high-pressure liquid chromatography should be used instead; the number of methods available for C-terminal amino acid analysis is much smaller than the number of available methods of N-terminal analysis. The most common method is to add carboxypeptidases to a solution of the protein, take samples at regular intervals, determine the terminal amino acid by analysing a plot of amino acid concentrations again
A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G, C, A and T; this is reported as a text string, called a read. Some DNA sequencers can be considered optical instruments as they analyze light signals originating from fluorochromes attached to nucleotides; the first automated DNA sequencer, invented by Lloyd M. Smith, was introduced by Applied Biosystems in 1987, it used the Sanger sequencing method, a technology which formed the basis of the “first generation” of DNA sequencers and enabled the completion of the human genome project in 2001. This first generation of DNA sequencers are automated electrophoresis systems that detect the migration of labelled DNA fragments. Therefore, these sequencers can be used in the genotyping of genetic markers where only the length of a DNA fragment needs to be determined; the Human Genome Project catalysed the development of cheaper, high throughput and more accurate platforms known as Next Generation Sequencers to sequence the human genome.
These include the SOLiD and Illumina DNA sequencing platforms. Next generation sequencing machines have increased the rate of DNA sequence compared with previous Sanger methods. DNA samples can be prepared automatically in as little as 90 mins, while a human genome can be sequenced at 15 times coverage in a matter of days. More recent, third-generation DNA sequencers such as SMRT and Oxford Nanopore measure the addition of nucleotides to a single DNA molecule in real time; because of limitations in DNA sequencer technology these reads are short compared to the length of a genome therefore the reads must be assembled into longer contigs. The data may contain errors, caused by limitations in the DNA sequencing technique or by errors during PCR amplification. DNA sequencer manufacturers use a number of different methods to detect; the specific protocols applied in different sequencing platforms have an impact in the final data, generated. Therefore, comparing data quality and cost across different technologies can be a daunting task.
Each manufacturer provides their own ways to inform sequencing scores. However and scores between different platforms cannot always be compared directly. Since these systems rely on different DNA sequencing approaches, choosing the best DNA sequencer and method will depend on the experiment objectives and available budget; the first DNA sequencing methods were developed by Sanger. Gilbert introduced a sequencing method based on chemical modification of DNA followed by cleavage at specific bases whereas Sanger’s technique is based on dideoxynucleotide chain termination; the Sanger method became popular due to low radioactivity. The first automated DNA sequencer was the AB370A, introduced in 1986 by Applied Biosystems; the AB370A was able to sequence 96 samples 500 kilobases per day, reaching read lengths up to 600 bases. This was the beginning of the “first generation” of DNA sequencers, which implemented Sanger sequencing, fluorescent dideoxy nucleotides and polyacrylamide gel sandwiched between glass plates - slab gels.
The next major advance was the release in 1995 of the AB310 which utilized a linear polymer in a capillary in place of the slab gel for DNA strand separation by electrophoresis. These techniques formed the base for the completion of the human genome project in 2001; the human genome project catalysed the development of cheaper, high throughput and more accurate platforms known as Next Generation Sequencers. In 2005, 454 Life Sciences released the 454 sequencer, followed by Solexa Genome Analyzer and SOLiD by Agencourt in 2006. Applied Biosystems acquired Agencourt in 2006, in 2007, Roche bought 454 Life Sciences, while Illumina purchased Solexa. Ion Torrent was acquired by Life Technologies; these are still the most common NGS systems due to their competitive cost and performance. More a third generation of DNA sequencers was introduced; the sequencing methods applied by these sequencers do not require DNA amplification, which speeds up the sample preparation before sequencing and reduces errors.
In addition, sequencing data is collected from the reactions caused by the addition of nucleotides in the complementary strand in real time. Two companies introduced different approaches in their third-generation sequencers. Pacific Biosciences sequencers utilize a method called Single-molecule real-time, where sequencing data is produced by light emitted when a nucleotide is added to the complementary strand by enzymes containing fluorescent dyes. Oxford Nanopore Technologies is another company developing third-generation sequencers using electronic systems based on nanopore sensing technologies. DNA sequencers have been developed and sold by the following companies, among others; the 454 DNA sequencer was the first next-generation sequencer to become commercially successful. It was developed by 454 Life Sciences and purchased by Roche in 2007. 454 utilizes the detection of pyrophosphate released by the DNA polymerase reaction when adding a nucleotide to the template strain. Roche manufactures two systems based on their pyrosequencing technology: the GS FLX+ and the GS Junior System.
The GS FLX+ System promises read lengths of 1000 base pairs while the GS Junior System promises 400 base pair reads. A predecessor to GS FLX+, the 454 GS FLX Titanium system