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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sequential access

Sequential access is a term describing a group of elements being accessed in a predetermined, ordered sequence. It is the opposite of random access, the ability to access an arbitrary element of a sequence as and efficiently as any other at any time. Sequential access is sometimes the only way of accessing the data, for example, it may be the access method of choice, for example if all, wanted is to process a sequence of data elements in order. There is no consistent definition in computer science of sequential sequentiality. In fact, different sequentiality definitions can lead to different sequentiality quantification results. In spatial dimension, request size, strided distance, backward accesses, re-accesses can affect sequentiality. For temporal sequentiality, characteristics such as multi-stream and inter-arrival time threshold has impact on the definition of sequentiality. In data structures, a data structure is said to have sequential access if one can only visit the values it contains in one particular order.

The canonical example is the linked list. Indexing into a list that has sequential access requires O time; as a result, many algorithms such as quicksort and binary search degenerate into bad algorithms that are less efficient than their naive alternatives. On the other hand, some algorithms those that do not have index, require only sequential access, such as mergesort, face no penalty. Direct access storage device Queued sequential access method

Continentalism

Continentalism refers to the agreements or policies that favor the regionalization and/or cooperation between nations within a continent. The term is used more in the European and North American contexts, but the concept has been applied to other continents including Africa and South America. In North American history, continentalism became linked to manifest destiny and involved merging continental expansion with international growth under the policy making of William Seward; the United States of America saw itself as a blossoming continental nation-state. Accordingly, the first governing body for the North American colonists was called the Continental Congress, which sought to receive delegates from across the British colonized areas of the continent, including the future Canadian provinces of Quebec and Nova Scotia. Continentalism in the United States was developed through the expeditions and experiences of frontier expansion on the American frontier. In the nineteenth century, the ideology of continentalism became internationalised by the growing concept of Manifest destiny, to create a belief amongst state and commercial leaders that the United States would help spread Western civilisation from Europe to the rest of the world.

Between 1840-1898, American continentalism began to involve ideas on overseas expansion, which would go on to influence the imperialistic foreign policies of Roosevelt and McKinley. Early United States continentalism involved the gradual absorption of North American territory into the U. S. nation state. There were various struggles of independence and expansionism in the United States between 1776-1865, including American settlers battling indigenous natives and efforts to buy territory from European superpowers such as in the Louisiana purchase. American continentalism became an issue with global implications from the mid-nineteenth century as the United States grew as an economic and political power. Continental disputes with Canada were based on America vying for greater global economic power to challenge the British dominated marketplace, as they sought to retain commercial control of Canadian natural resources and agriculture. One benefit of the 1867 Alaska Purchase noted by Secretary of State William H. Seward was that it would make trade with the East easier, as he viewed that making America politically central would allow them to intercept European and Eastern trade effectively.

This idea of using the geographic advantages of the North American continent to intercept trade was mimicked by non-state actors, such as Perry Collins in 1865 who attempted to create a telegraph line stretching from British Columbia to Alaska and Siberia. Continentalism was replaced by a more colonialist approach to American foreign policy in the 1901 Insular Cases; the Supreme court rulings decreed that citizens from the newly acquired territory of the Spanish–American War did not have the constitution applied to them, however they were controlled by the U. S. judiciary. Within the United States, this lead to a growth in Nationalism due to the ideological separation between the nation and new territory it was colonising. Most of the inhabitants of the United States, if not all, call themselves "Americans" as a demonym, say America to refer to the country instead of the continents of North and South America. For a more extensive discussion over this polemical case, read the main article: Use of the word American.

In Canadian political history, continentalism has referred to policies that emphasize Canadian trade and economic ties within the North American continent the United States, over those with the United Kingdom and the British Empire. In the 19th century, continentalism was one of the three main theories of Canadian nationality, the others being pro-British Imperialism, Canadian independence; the most extreme form of continentalism is annexationism, which advocates all or part of Canada joining the United States. Opponents of continentalism argue that stronger ties with the United States could lead to annexation, that this is to be feared. Continentalists themselves may or may not be in favour of continuing to deepen ties with the United States beyond the economic and into areas like a customs union, common currency or political union; the traditional proponent of continentalism was the Liberal Party of Canada, farmers and resource industries that advocated reciprocity with the United States.

The 1911 federal election was fought over the issue of a reciprocity agreement that the Liberal government of Wilfrid Laurier had negotiated with the United States, with the Conservatives of Robert Borden opposing reciprocity. The Conservatives cancelled the agreement. However, the Progressive Conservative Party took on many continentalist policies beginning during the Brian Mulroney government in the 1980s, which promoted and signed the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement and the North American Free Trade Agreement; these policies were maintained by the Conservative governments that followed. Continentalism today is seen in both positive terms. Canadian economic nationalists oppose continentalism. Opposing this, many pro-market libertarians and neo-conservatives tend to favour it, on the grounds that it opens up commercial and economic opportunities, allowing free trade between nations; as this process is taking place in parallel with and as part of a broader economic globalization, the increasing trade between Canada and the United States is not seen as a threat to Canadian sovereignty.

Continentalism in Africa referred to as Pan-Africanism, is a sociopolitical world view and movement that seeks to unify native Africans and members of the African diaspora into a "global

Duke William (ship)

Duke William was a ship which served as a troop transport at the Siege of Louisbourg and as a deportation ship in the Île Saint-Jean Campaign of the Expulsion of the Acadians during the Seven Years' War. While Duke William was transporting Acadians from Île Saint-Jean to France, the ship sank in the North Atlantic on December 13, 1758, with the loss of over 360 lives; the sinking was one of the greatest marine disasters in Canadian history. Captain William Nichols of Norfolk, was the commander and co-owner of Duke William when it sank. Nichols survived the sinking and received international attention when his journal recounting the tragic incident was published in popular print throughout the 19th century in England and America. Several years after the sinking of Duke William, Nichols received international attention when he was taken captive by American patriots during the American Revolution. Noel Doiron was one of over three hundred people aboard Duke William who were deported from Île Saint-Jean.

William Nichols described Noel as the "head prisoner" and the "father of the whole Island", a reference to Noel's place of prominence among the Acadian residents of Île Saint-Jean. For his "noble resignation" and self-sacrifice aboard Duke William, Noel was celebrated in popular print throughout the nineteenth century in England and America. Noel Doiron is the namesake of the village of Noel in Hants County, Nova Scotia. Jacques Girrard was a priest who sailed on the fatal voyage. Girrard had been the parish priest for other Acadians who lived on Île Saint-Jean, he was one of the few. Louisbourg fell to the British on July 26, 1758 and within two weeks a deportation order was issued for the Acadians of Île Saint-Jean; the English authorities had given up on their earlier attempts to assimilate the Acadians into the thirteen colonies and now wanted them returned directly to France. On October 20, 1758, Duke William left Île Saint-Jean for France with over 360 Acadians on board; the ship sailed in a convoy with nine other vessels, two of which were Ruby.

The ship sailed through the Canso Strait and moored off Canso, Nova Scotia, for a month because of foul weather. During the time in Canso, the Acadians helped. On November 25, Duke William sailed out of the bay of Canso. On the third day at sea there was a storm and Duke William became separated from the other two ships. Ruby ran aground in a storm on Pico Island in the Azores, which caused the death of 213 of the Acadians on board. Two weeks after the ships were separated, late in the day on December 10, Duke William re-encountered Violet. Violet was sinking. In the morning on December 11, after a brief squall, Violet sank with all the Acadians on board; the Acadians and crew on Duke William tried for three days to pump the water from her. Captain Nichols recorded: "We continued in this dismal situation three days. Captain Nichols reports that he gave up and announced to the Acadians and crew: "I told them we must be content with our fate. On the morning of December 13, two English vessels were within sight of Duke William.

Captain Nichols records: "I acquainted the priest and the old gentleman with the good news. The old man took me in his aged arms, cried for joy." The ships did not stop. During the possible rescue, Duke William got separated from the long boat and the cutter; as the long boat and cutter returned, a Danish ship appeared in the distance. Again those aboard thought they were saved, but the Danish ship, like those before, sailed away from them. Ship's boats in the 18th century were designed for work. Intended to load cargo and supplies as well as shuttle people ashore, the three small boats aboard Duke William could hold only a handful of those aboard. Captain Nichols recorded Noel Doiron's decision: About half an hour after, the old gentleman came to me, crying, they were well convinced, by all our behaviour, that we had done everything in our power for their preservation, but that God Almighty had ordained them to be drowned, they hoped that we should be able to get safe ashore. I must acknowledge that such gratitude, for having done only our duty, in endeavouring to save their lives as well as our own, astonished me.

I replied that there were no hopes of life, and, as we had all embarked in the same unhappy voyage, we would all take the same chance. I thought, he said. The two boats on board were lowered into the English channel carrying only the Captain, his crew, the parish priest Girrard. Upon lowering the life boats, Noel Doiron reprimanded a fellow Acadian Jean-Pierre LeBlanc for trying to board a lifeboat while abandoning his wife and children. As

United Nations Security Council Resolution 911

United Nations Security Council resolution 911, adopted unanimously on 21 April 1994, after reaffirming resolutions 813, 856 and 866, the Council welcomed progress made towards establishing the Liberian National Transitional Government but was concerned about subsequent delays in implementing the Cotonou Peace Agreement, extended the mandate of the United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia until 22 October 1994. Concern was expressed over renewed fighting the parties in Liberia and its negative impact on the disarmament process and humanitarian relief efforts; the role of the Economic Community of West African States in the peace process was commended and for the Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group to assist in the implementation of the peace process. The close co-operation between UNOMIL and ECOMOG was commended and this was extended to African states that had contributed to ECOMOG, it was noted that the amended timetable for the peace process called for elections to be held on 7 September 1994.

The Council extended the mandate of UNOMIL on the understanding that it will review the situation in Liberia by 18 May 1994 on whether or not the Council of State of the Liberian National Transitional Government has been installed and there had been substantive progress in the peace talks. By 30 June 1994, a review would take place concerning the operation of the transitional government, progress in disarmament and demobilisation, the preparation of the elections. All parties were called upon to cease hostilities and to work towards disarmament, the installation of the transitional government and a National Assembly so that a unified civil administration of the country can be established; the parties were urged to ensure the safety of UNOMIL personnel and contribute to the delivery of humanitarian assistance. Member States were encouraged to contribute to ECOMOG financially to facilitate the sending of reinforcements by African states. Furthermore, the assistance they provided was praised and the Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali's efforts to encourage dialogue were welcomed.

Charles Taylor First Liberian Civil War List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 901 to 1000 Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 911 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at undocs.org

Twinkle Brothers

The Twinkle Brothers are a Jamaican reggae band formed in 1962, still active in the 21st century. The Twinkle Brothers were formed in 1962 by brothers Norman and Ralston Grant from Falmouth, Jamaica; the band was expanded with the addition of Eric Barnard, Karl Hyatt, Albert Green. After winning local talent competitions, they recorded their first single, "Somebody Please Help Me," in 1966 for producer Leslie Kong; this was followed by sessions for other top Jamaican producers such as Duke Reid, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Sid Bucknor, Phil Pratt, Bunny Lee. The band worked in the late 1960s and early 1970s on the island's hotel circuit, playing a mixture of calypso, soul and soft reggae, in the early 1970s, they began producing their own recordings, their debut album, Rasta Pon Top, was released in 1975, featuring strongly-Rastafari-oriented songs such as "Give Rasta Praise" and "Beat Them Jah Jah". As well as producing Twinkle Brothers work, Norman Grant produced other artists since the mid-1970s, including several albums by E.

T. Webster. In 1977, the band were signed to Virgin Records' Frontline label, leading to the release of the Love, Praise Jah, Countrymen albums; when the band were dropped by Virgin Records in the early 1980s, Norman Grant moved to the United Kingdom, carried on as a solo artist, but still using the Twinkle Brothers name, continued with regular releases well into the 2000s on his own Twinkle label. Since the early 1990s Twinkle Brothers have been collaborating with the Polish band Trebunie-Tutki in which they fuse reggae and traditional music from the Tatra Mountains. An analysis of this collaboration can be found in the popular world music textbook, Worlds of Music and in more detail in the musical ethnography Making Music in the Polish Tatras. Rasta Pon Top Grounation Love Front Line Praise Jah Front Line Countrymen Front Line Me No You Twinkle Underground Twinkle Dub Massacre part 1 Twinkle Burden Bearer Twinkle Enter Zion Twinkle Crucial Cuts Virgin Dub Massacre Part 2 Twinkle Live From Reggae Sunsplash Twinkle Right Way Kilimanjaro Twinkle Anti-Apartheid Twinkle Dub Massacre Part 3 Twinkle Respect and Honour Twinkle Twinkle Love Songs Twinkle All The Hits From 1970-88 Twinkle New Songs For Jah Twinkle Rastafari Chant Twinkle Dub Massacre Part 4 Twinkle All Is Well Twinkle Free Africa Front Line Live In Warsaw Twinkle Unification Twinkle Wind of Change Twinkle Dub Massacre Part 5 - Lion Head Twinkle Old Cuts Don't Forget Africa Twinkle Twinkle Love Songs volume 2 Twinkle Dub With Strings Twinkle Babylon Rise Again Twinkle Higher Heights Twinkle Music Comeback Twinkle 2 Ryszard Dub Massacre Part 6 - Dub Feeding Program Twinkle Chant Down Babylon Twinkle Dub Plate Twinkle Dub Salute Part 5 Jah Shaka Final Call Twinkle Greatest Hits Kahamuk Twinkle Love Songs, Vol. 3.

Afterglow (Tina Turner song)

"Afterglow" is a song recorded by Tina Turner and produced by Terry Britten and Graham Lyle, produced by Britten. It appeared on her studio album Break Every Rule, featured Steve Winwood on keyboards; the song was the eighth and final song from the album to be released as a single, if only in the United States. It failed to crack the US Hot 100, but it reached number 5 on the US dance charts and number 20 on the Maxi Single Sales chart. A promo video for the track was filmed as part of the Break Every Rule TV special in 1986, in which it was the opening number, it shows Turner performing the song in her dressing room at the club Le Zero in Paris as she is preparing to go on stage. Album version – 4:39 7" Remix Vocal Dance Mix – 7:10 Glowing Dub – 6:14 Tina's House Mix – 6:37 Tinapella – 4:41 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics