In music, fingering, or on stringed instruments stopping, is the choice of which fingers and hand positions to use when playing certain musical instruments. Fingering typically changes throughout a piece, the challenge of choosing good fingering for a piece is to make the hand movements as comfortable as possible without changing hand position too often, a substitute fingering is an alternative to the indicated fingering, not to be confused with finger substitution. Depending on the instrument, not all the fingers may be used, for example, saxophonists do not use the right thumb and string instruments only use the fingers. Fingering applies to the rotary and piston valves employed on many brass instruments, the trombone, a fully chromatic brass instrument without valves, employs equivalent numbered notation for slide positions rather than fingering. On keyboard instruments all digits are used and the thumb is considered to be a finger, so there are numbers from 1 to five. The numbers are related to the fingers themselves, not to the position on the keyboard.
There are only few publications about piano fingering and it is mentioned by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in his book Versuch über die wahre Art, das Clavier zu spielen where he dedicated several paragraphs to this topic. The British pianist Tobias Matthay wrote a small book Principles of Fingering, in 1971 Julien Musafia published his book The Art of Fingering in Piano Playing. The book includes musical examples mostly from the Beethovens Violin and Piano Sonatas, in 2012 Rami Bar-Niv published his book The Art of Piano Fingering -- Traditional and Innovative. The book teaches the craft of piano fingering using music examples and diagrams, and injury-free techniques. On string instruments fingers are numbered from 1 to 4, beginning with the finger, the thumb not being counted because it does not normally play on a string. In those cases on string instruments where the thumb is used, guitar music indicates thumb, occasionally used to finger bass notes on the low E string, with a T. Position may be indicated through ordinal numbers or Roman numerals, a string may be indicated through Roman numerals, often I-IV, or by its open-string note.
A change in positions is referred to as a shift, guitar music indicates position with Roman numerals and string designations with circled numbers. The classical guitar has a notation system for the plucking hand, known as pima, abbreviations of Spanish. It is usually notated in scores where a passage is particularly difficult. Otherwise, plucking-hand fingering is generally left to the discretion of the guitarist, several alternate fingerings may exist for any given pitch. Simple flutes as well as bagpipe chanters have open holes which are closed by the pads of the players fingertips, some such instruments use simple keywork to extend the players reach for one or two notes
In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout most or all of a piece. Burden refers to a part of a song that is repeated at the end of each stanza, the term comes from the French bourdon, a staff, or a pipe made in the form of a staff. The drone does not take its name from the bee and it is a far older word, sharing an Indo-European root with the Sanskrit dhran, the Greek thren-os, and the English thrum and dream. Of all harmonic devices, it is not only the simplest, a drone effect can be achieved through a sustained sound or through repetition of a note. It most often establishes a tonality upon which the rest of the piece is built, a drone can be instrumental, vocal or both. Drone can be placed in different ranges of the texture, in the lowest part, in the highest part. The drone is most often placed upon the tonic or dominant, a drone on the same pitch as a melodic note tends to both hide that note and to bring attention to it by increasing its importance. A drone differs from a pedal tone or point in degree or quality. A pedal point may be a form of tone and thus required to resolve unlike a drone, or a pedal point may simply be considered a shorter drone.
The systematic use of drones originated in instrumental music of ancient Southwest Asia, and spread north and west to Europe, east to India and it is a key component of much Australian aboriginal music through the didgeridoo. It is used in Indian music and is played with the tanpura and other Indian drone instruments like the ottu, the ektar, the dotara, the surpeti, the surmandal and the shank. Most of the types of bagpipes that exist worldwide have up to three drones, making one of the first instruments that comes to mind when speaking of drone music. In America, most forms of the African-influenced banjo contain a drone string, since the 1960s, the drone has become a prominent feature in drone music and other forms of avant-garde music. In vocal music drone is particularly widespread in traditional cultures, particularly in Europe. Drones are not uncommon in primitive music, but neither are they characteristic of it and it is present in some isolated regions of Asia. Drone is the term for the part of a musical instrument intended to produce the drone effects sustained pitch, different melodic Indian instruments contain a drone.
For example, the sitar features three or four resonating drone strings, and Indian notes are practiced to a drone, bagpipes feature a number of drone pipes, giving the instruments their characteristic sounds. A hurdy-gurdy has one or more drone strings, the bass strings of the Slovenian drone zither freely resonate as a drone
String instruments, stringed instruments, or chordophones are musical instruments that produce sound from vibrating strings when the performer plays or sounds the strings in some manner. Musicians play some string instruments by plucking the strings with their fingers or a plectrum—and others by hitting the strings with a wooden hammer or by rubbing the strings with a bow. In some keyboard instruments, such as the harpsichord or piano, with bowed instruments, the player rubs the strings with a horsehair bow, causing them to vibrate. With a hurdy-gurdy, the musician operates a wheel that rubs the strings. Bowed instruments include the string instruments of the Classical music orchestra. All of the string instruments can be plucked with the fingers. Some types of string instrument are mainly plucked, such as the harp, in the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, string instruments are called chordophones. Other examples include the sitar, banjo, ukulele, in most string instruments, the vibrations are transmitted to the body of the instrument, which often incorporates some sort of hollow or enclosed area.
The body of the instrument vibrates, along with the air inside it, the vibration of the body of the instrument and the enclosed hollow or chamber make the vibration of the string more audible to the performer and audience. The body of most string instruments is hollow, however—such as electric guitar and other instruments that rely on electronic amplification—may have a solid wood body. Archaeological digs have identified some of the earliest stringed instruments in Ancient Mesopotamian sites, like the lyres of Ur, the development of lyre instruments required the technology to create a tuning mechanism to tighten and loosen the string tension. During the medieval era, instrument development varied from country to country, Middle Eastern rebecs represented breakthroughs in terms of shape and strings, with a half a pear shape using three strings. Early versions of the violin and fiddle, by comparison, emerged in Europe through instruments such as the gittern, a four stringed precursor to the guitar and these instruments typically used catgut and other materials, including silk, for their strings.
String instrument design refined during the Renaissance and into the Baroque period of musical history and guitars became more consistent in design, and were roughly similar to what we use in the 2000s. At the same time, the 19th century guitar became more associated with six string models. In big bands of the 1920s, the guitar played backing chords. The development of guitar amplifiers, which contained a power amplifier, the development of the electric guitar provided guitarists with an instrument that was built to connect to guitar amplifiers. Electric guitars have magnetic pickups, volume control knobs and an output jack, in the 1960s, more powerful guitar amplifiers were developed, called stacks
In music, serialism is a method or technique of composition that uses a series of values to manipulate different musical elements. Serialism began primarily with Arnold Schoenbergs twelve-tone technique, though some of his contemporaries were working to establish serialism as a form of post-tonal thinking. The idea of serialism is applied in ways in the visual arts and architecture. Integral serialism or total serialism is the use of series for such as duration, dynamics. Other terms, used especially in Europe to distinguish post–World War II serial music from music and its American extensions, are general serialism. Serialism is a method, highly specialized technique, or way of composition and it may be considered, a philosophy of life, a way of relating the human mind to the world and creating a completeness when dealing with a subject. However, serialism is not by itself a system of composition, neither is pitch serialism necessarily incompatible with tonality, though it is most often used as a means of composing atonal music.
It is sometimes used specifically to apply only to music where at least one element other than pitch is subjected to being treated as a row or series. In such usages post-Webernian serialism will be used to denote works that extend serial techniques to other elements of music, other terms used to make the distinction are twelve-note serialism for the former, and integral serialism for the latter. A row may be assembled pre-compositionally, or it may be derived from a spontaneously invented thematic or motivic idea, the structure of the row, does not in itself define the structure of a composition, which requires development of a comprehensive strategy. The basic set may have restrictions, such as the requirement that it use each interval only once. The series is not an order of succession, but indeed a hierarchy—which may be independent of order of succession. Stockhausen, for example, in early serial compositions such as Kreuzspiel and Formel and this provides an exemplary demonstration of that logical principle of seriality, every situation must occur once and only once.
Prohibited intervals, like the octave, and prohibited successional relations, such as premature note repetitions, frequently occur, the number twelve no longer plays any governing, defining rôle, the pitch constellations no longer hold to the limitation determined by their formation. The dodecaphonic series loses its significance as a model of shape is played out. And the chromatic total remains active only, and provisionally, as a general reference, in the 1960s Pousseur took this a step further, applying a consistent set of predefined transformations to pre-existent music. In his opera Votre Faust Pousseur used a number of different quotations, themselves arranged into a scale for serial treatment, so as to bring coherence. He extended this serial polyphony of styles in a series of works in the late 1960s, as well as in portions of Licht
Tonguing is a technique used with wind instruments to enunciate different notes using the tongue on the reed or woodwind mouthpiece or brass mouthpiece. A silent tee is made when the tongue strikes the reed or roof of the mouth causing a breach in the air flow through the instrument. If a more soft tone is desired, the syllable da is preferred, the technique works for whistling. Tonguing does not apply to non wind instruments, but articulation does apply to all instruments, an alteration called double-tonguing or double-articulation is used when the music being performed has many rapid notes in succession too fast for regular articulation. In this case, the tongue makes a silent tee-kee, double-articulation allows the tongue to stop the airflow twice as fast when mastered. If the music specifies a pizzicato sequence, the musician might perform this as a sequence of the articulated note, thus. When beginning with da, the syllable is ga. Double tonguing is easiest on brass instruments, and it is difficult for some woodwind instruments, primarily the clarinet.
There is triple-tonguing, used in passages of triplets, tee-tee-kee-tee-tee-kee, cross-beat tonguing, used for dotted rhythms, tu-ru, with ru falling on the longer note on the beat. Another method was made by Earl D. Irons, this method was a tee-kee-tee kee-tee-kee and this triple tonguing method is most likely the fastest if done correctly. The reason for this is that the tee and kee never repeat itself, Irons is the author of 27 Groups Of Exercises, a book full of lip-slurs, double tonguing, and triple tonguing. Such as, - tu-ru There are different ways of tonguing for the flute, some flutists tongue between the teeth, others do it between the lips as if spitting, others do it behind the teeth in the roof of the mouth as with trill consonants. With this roof articulation the flutist thinks of the words dah-dah, tonguing is indicated in the score by the use of accent marks. The absence of slurs is usually understood to imply that each note should be tongued separately. When a group of notes is slurred together, the player is expected to tongue the first note of the group and not tongue any of the other notes, trombone players must lightly tongue many slurs by tonguing da, the result would be a glissando.
The bagpipes require finger articulations, since direct tonguing is impossible
A multiphonic is an extended technique on a monophonic musical instrument in which several notes are produced at once. This includes wind and brass instruments, as well as the human voice, multiphonic-like sounds on string instruments, both bowed and hammered, have been called multiphonics, for lack of better terminology and scarcity of research. Commonly, no more than four notes will be produced at once, there have been numerous fingering guides published for the woodwind player to achieve harmonics. Multiphonics on reed instruments can be produced in the manners described below for brass instruments and it is said to be impossible to recreate exactly the conditions between one player and the next, due to minute differences in instruments, reeds and other things. A multiphonic fingering that works for one player may not work for that player on a different instrument, or a different player on the same instrument. This often results from different construction of two instruments from different makers.
In brass instruments, the most common method of producing multiphonics is by playing the instrument. This technique is called horn chords. The tone sung doesnt necessarily have to be in the played tones harmonic series, the tone quality of brass multiphonics is influenced strongly by the voice of the player. Another method is referred to as lip multiphonics, in which a brass player alters the airflow to blow between partials, in the series of the slide position/valve. The outcome is just as stable as any multiphonic and perfectly structured, when the frequencies add together or subtract from each other, the fundamental is recreated. For example, A440 and A220 and this would combine to make 660, creating a new fundamental of the second lowest B of the piano. A third method, known as split tones or double buzz, the most common result is a perfect interval, but the range of intervals produced can vary broadly. String instruments can produce multiphonic tones when strings are bowed or hammered between the harmonic nodes and this works best on larger instruments like double bass and cello.
Other multiphonic extended techniques used are prepared piano, prepared guitar, the technique of producing multiphonics with the voice is called Overtone singing. There is another technique done in whistling, where the whistler hums in their throat while whistling with the front parts of their mouth, normally, we perceive only the fundamental pitch as being played. By controlling the air flow through the instrument and the shape of the column, Multiphonics may be notated in score in a variety of ways. When exact pitches are specified, one method of notation is simply to indicate a chord, approximate pitches may be specified by wavy lines or in cluster notation to designate acceptable ranges of sound
Nones is a composition by Luciano Berio scored for orchestra. The purely instrumental piece is predominantly punctual in texture and formally consists of an arch created by theme. The tone row used was nontraditional in construction in several respects including number of pitches, a note in Berios sketches confirms that he consciously derived it from the trichordal cell of Weberns Concerto, op. Its combination of major and minor thirds is prevalent in Stravinsky, Berios row is symmetrical around the central A♭, and each trichordal segment of the hexachords flanking that central note contains both the minor and major third. The row in fact four of the six possible permutations of this core trichord. Two Interviews with Rossana Dalmonte and Bálint András Varga, translated by David Osmond-Smith, nuova Rivista Musicale Italiana 12, no. A Study of Some Performance Problems in Contemporary Music, An Oboists View of Berio and Stockhausen
Oboes /ˈoʊboʊ/ OH-boh are a family of double reed woodwind musical instruments. The most common oboe plays in the treble or soprano range, oboes are usually made of wood, but there are oboes made of synthetic materials. A soprano oboe measures roughly 65 cm long, with keys, a conical bore. Sound is produced by blowing into the reed and vibrating a column of air, the distinctive oboe tone is versatile, and has been described as bright. When the term oboe is used alone, it is taken to mean the standard treble instrument rather than other instruments of the family. In English, prior to 1770, the instrument was called a hautbois, hoboy. The spelling of oboe was adopted into English c.1770 from the Italian oboè, a musician who plays the oboe is called an oboist or simply an oboe player. In comparison to other woodwind instruments, the treble oboe is sometimes referred to as having a clear. The Sprightly Companion, a book published by Henry Playford in 1695, describes the oboe as Majestical and Stately.
Humorously, the sound of the oboe is described in the play Angels in America as like that of a if the duck were a songbird. The rich timbre of the oboe is derived from its conical bore, as a result, oboes are readily audible over other instruments in large ensembles. The highest note of the oboe is a lower than the nominally highest note of the B♭ clarinet. Since the clarinet has a range of notes, the lowest note of the B♭ clarinet is significantly deeper than the lowest note of the oboe. Music for the oboe is written in concert pitch. Orchestras normally tune to a concert A played by the oboe, according to the League of American Orchestras, this is done because the pitch of the oboe is secure and its penetrating sound makes it ideal for tuning purposes. The pitch of the oboe is affected by the way in which the reed is made. The reed has a significant effect on the sound of the instrument, Variations in cane and other construction materials, the age of the reed, and differences in scrape and length all affect the pitch of the instrument.
German and French reeds, for instance, differ in many ways, weather conditions such as temperature and humidity affect the pitch
A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, the divergent infinite series. Every term of the series after the first is the mean of the neighboring terms. The phrase harmonic mean likewise derives from music, the term is employed in various disciplines, including music, acoustics, electronic power transmission, radio technology, and other fields. It is typically applied to repeating signals, such as sinusoidal waves, a harmonic of such a wave is a wave with a frequency that is a positive integer multiple of the frequency of the original wave, known as the fundamental frequency. The original wave is called the 1st harmonic, the following harmonics are known as higher harmonics. As all harmonics are periodic at the frequency, the sum of harmonics is periodic at that frequency. On strings, harmonics that are bowed have a glassy, pure tone, harmonics may be called overtones, partials or upper partials. In some music contexts, the harmonic and partial are used fairly interchangeably. Most acoustic instruments emit complex tones containing many individual partials, rather, a musical note is perceived as one sound, the quality or timbre of that sound being a result of the relative strengths of the individual partials.
Oscillators that produce harmonic partials behave somewhat like one-dimensional resonators, and are long and thin. Wind instruments whose air column is open at one end, such as trumpets and clarinets. However they only produce partials matching the odd harmonics, at least in theory, the reality of acoustic instruments is such that none of them behaves as perfectly as the somewhat simplified theoretical models would predict. Partials whose frequencies are not integer multiples of the fundamental are referred to as inharmonic partials, antique singing bowls are known for producing multiple harmonic partials or multiphonics. An overtone is any partial higher than the lowest partial in a compound tone, the relative strengths and frequency relationships of the component partials determine the timbre of an instrument. This chart demonstrates how the three types of names are counted, In many musical instruments, it is possible to play the upper harmonics without the note being present. In a simple case this has the effect of making the note go up in pitch by an octave, in some cases it changes the timbre of the note.
This is part of the method of obtaining higher notes in wind instruments. The extended technique of playing multiphonics produces harmonics, on string instruments it is possible to produce very pure sounding notes, called harmonics or flageolets by string players, which have an eerie quality, as well as being high in pitch
The clarinet is a musical-instrument family belonging to the group known as the woodwind instruments. It has a mouthpiece, a straight cylindrical tube with an almost cylindrical bore. A person who plays a clarinet is called a clarinetist, the word clarinet may have entered the English language via the French clarinette, or from Provençal clarin, oboe. It would seem however that its roots are to be found amongst some of the various names for trumpets used around the renaissance. Clarion and the Italian clarino are all derived from the medieval term claro which referred to a form of trumpet. This is probably the origin of the Italian clarinetto, itself a diminutive of clarino, according to Johann Gottfried Walther, writing in 1732, the reason for the name is that it sounded from far off not unlike a trumpet. The English form clarinet is found as early as 1733, while the similarity in sound between the earliest clarinets and the trumpet may hold a clue to its name, other factors may have been involved.
The trumpet parts that required this speciality were known by the term clarino, Johann Christoph Denner is generally believed to have invented the clarinet in Germany around the year 1700 by adding a register key to the earlier chalumeau. Over time, additional keywork and airtight pads were added to improve the tone and these days the most popular clarinet is the B♭ clarinet. However, the clarinet in A, just a lower, is commonly used in orchestral music. Since the middle of the 19th century the clarinet has become an essential addition to the orchestra. The clarinet family ranges from the BBB♭ octo-contrabass to the A♭ piccolo clarinet, the clarinet has proved to be an exceptionally flexible instrument, equally at home in the classical repertoire as in concert bands, military bands, marching bands and jazz. The cylindrical bore is primarily responsible for the clarinets distinctive timbre, the tone quality can vary greatly with the musician, the music, the instrument, the mouthpiece, and the reed.
The most prominent were the German/Viennese traditions and the French school, the latter was centered on the clarinetists of the Conservatoire de Paris. The proliferation of recorded music has made examples of different styles of clarinet playing available, the modern clarinetist has a diverse palette of acceptable tone qualities to choose from. The A clarinet and B♭ clarinet have nearly the same bore, orchestral players using the A and B♭ instruments in the same concert could use the same mouthpiece for both. The A and the B♭ instruments have nearly identical tonal quality, the tone of the E♭ clarinet is brighter than that of the lower clarinets and can be heard even through loud orchestral or concert band textures. The bass clarinet has a deep, mellow sound, while the alto clarinet is similar in tone to the bass