The Serapion Brethren
The Serapion Brethren is the name of a literary and social circle, formed in Berlin in 1818 by the German romantic writer E. T. A. Hoffmann and several of his friends; the Serapion Brethren is the title of a four-volume collection of Hoffmann's novellas and fairytales that appeared in 1819, 1820, 1821. In 1814, Hoffmann returned to Berlin from Dresden and Leipzig, where he had been working as an orchestra conductor and opera director, to return to work as a Prussian civil servant. In that year, he and a group of friends formed an association for the purpose of reading from and discussing works of literature; the group first met on October 12, which happened to be the feast day of Saint Seraphin of Montegranaro. The friends therefore decided to refer to their group as an “order” and to give it the name The Seraphin Brethren. After about two years of gatherings at Hoffmann's home or the Café Manderlee on the famous boulevard Unter den Linden, the circle dissolved it is thought, because of the departure of one of its members, Adelbert von Chamisso, for a sailing trip around the world with the Russian Rurik Expedition, organized to find a Northwest Passage.
On November 13, 1818, Hoffmann's publisher gave him a sizable advance on the publication of a multivolume collection of his novellas and fairytales. To celebrate this happy event, the author invited his friends from the old Seraphin Brethren to his home on November 14 for the purpose of celebrating the advance and reviving the literary group. Another reason for celebration was the return of Chamisso from his travels. Hoffmann's wife Micha brought the calendar, the date was seen to be the feast day of Saint Serapion. Accordingly, the old order was rechristened; the Serapion Brethren included the following members: Hoffmann's lifelong friend and occasional benefactor Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel Hoffmann's colleague in the civil service and first biographer Julius Eduard Hitzig Poet Friedrich de la Motte Fouqué Novelist Adelbert von Chamisso Dramatist and merchant Karl Wilhelm Salice-Contessa Prussian military officer Friedrich von Pfuel Physician David Ferdinand Koreff Theologian Johann Georg SeegemundOthers participated from time to time in the group's meetings as guests.
In February 1818, the Berlin publisher Georg Reimer offered to publish a compilation of Hoffmann's published but scattered novellas and fairytales. Hoffmann suggested uniting the disparate works by presenting them in a fictional framework of readings and conversations among a group of friends in the manner of Ludwig Tieck’s Phantastus. For the collection, Hoffmann first suggested to Reimer the title The Seraphin Brethren. Collected Novellas and Fairytales, after the old literary group. Once the group was reconstituted, Hoffmann dropped the subtitle and called the compilation The Serapion Brethren. In eight meetings, the friends in the fictional framework narrative, Theodor, Cyprian and Sylvester, orally present a total of 28 stories and comment in some detail on their quality and on whether or not they adhere to a certain “Serapion Principle” that becomes clear to the reader as the narrative progresses. Attempts have been made in older scholarly works, to assign the names of some of the real Serapion Brethren to the fictitious ones.
Ellinger, for example, sees Ottmar, Theodor and Vinzenz, as Hitzig, Hoffmann and Koreff, respectively. In reality, of course, all the narrators are Hoffmann himself, after all, was writing fiction. Ellinger G. editor. E. T. A. Hoffmanns Werke, Vol. 5, Berlin and Leipzig, Deutsches Verlagshaus Bong & Co. 1925. Ewing, Hoffmann, Ernst Theodor Wilhelm, The Serapion Brethren, G. Bell & Sons: London, 1886-92. Feldges B. & Stadler U. editors. E. T. A. Hoffmann: Epoche-Werk-Wirkung, Munich: C. H. Beck’sche Elementarbücher, 1986. ISBN 3-406-31241-1 Kaiser G. R. editor. E. T. A. Hoffmann, Stuttgart: J. B. Metzlersche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1988. ISBN 3-476-10243-2 Kremer D. E. T. A. Hoffmann. Erzählungen und Romane, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, 1999. ISBN 3-503-04932-0 Pikulik L. Die Serapions-Brüder. In: Saße G. editor. Interpretationen. E. T. A. Hoffmann. Romane und Erzählungen, Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun. 2004. ISBN 3-15-017526-7 Segebrecht W. editor. E. T. A. Hoffmann. Die Serapions-Brüder. In: Steinecke H. & Segebrecht W. editors.
E. T. A. Hoffmann. Sämtliche Werke in sechs Bänden, Vol. 4, Berlin: Deutscher Klassiker Verlag, 2001. ISBN 3-618-60880-2 Steinecke H. E. T. A. Hoffmann, Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam jun. 1997. ISBN 3-15-017605-0
We is a dystopian novel by Russian writer Yevgeny Zamyatin, completed in 1921. The novel was first published in 1924 by E. P. Dutton in New York in an English translation by Gregory Zilboorg; the novel describes a world of conformity within a united totalitarian state. We is set in the future. D-503, a spacecraft engineer, lives in the One State, an urban nation constructed entirely of glass, which assists mass surveillance; the structure of the state is Panopticon-like, life is scientifically managed F. W. Taylor-style. People are uniformed. There is no way of referring to people except by their given numbers; the society is run by logic or reason as the primary justification for the laws or the construct of the society. The individual's behaviour is based on logic by way of formulas and equations outlined by the One State. One thousand years after the One State's conquest of the entire world, the spaceship Integral is being built in order to invade and conquer extraterrestrial planets. Meanwhile, the project's chief engineer, D-503, begins a journal that he intends to be carried upon the completed spaceship.
Like all other citizens of One State, D-503 lives in a glass apartment building and is watched by the secret police, or Bureau of Guardians. D-503's lover, O-90, has been assigned by One State to visit him on certain nights, she is considered too short to bear children and is grieved by her state in life. O-90's other lover and D-503's best friend is R-13, a State poet who reads his verse at public executions. While on an assigned walk with O-90, D-503 meets a woman named I-330. I-330 smokes cigarettes, drinks alcohol, shamelessly flirts with D-503 instead of applying for an impersonal sex visit. Both repelled and fascinated, D-503 struggles to overcome his attraction to I-330. I-330 invites him to visit the Ancient House, notable for being the only opaque building in One State, except for windows. Objects of aesthetic and historical importance dug up from around the city. There, I-330 offers him the services of a corrupt doctor to explain his absence from work. Leaving in horror, D-503 finds that he can not.
He begins to have dreams, which disturbs him, as dreams are thought to be a symptom of mental illness. I-330 reveals to D-503 that she is involved with the Mephi, an organization plotting to bring down the One State, she takes him through secret tunnels inside the Ancient House to the world outside the Green Wall, which surrounds the city-state. There, D-503 meets the inhabitants of the outside world: humans whose bodies are covered with animal fur; the aims of the Mephi are to destroy the Green Wall and reunite the citizens of One State with the outside world. Despite the recent rift between them, O-90 pleads with D-503 to impregnate her illegally. After O-90 insists that she will obey the law by turning over their child to be raised by the One State, D-503 obliges. However, as her pregnancy progresses, O-90 realizes that she cannot bear to be parted from her baby under any circumstances. At D-503's request, I-330 arranges for O-90 to be smuggled outside the Green Wall. In his last journal entry, D-503 indifferently relates that he has been forcibly tied to a table and subjected to the "Great Operation", mandated for all citizens of One State in order to prevent possible riots.
This operation removes the imagination and emotions by targeting parts of the brain with X-rays. After this operation, D-503 willingly informed the Benefactor about the inner workings of the Mephi. However, D-503 expresses surprise that torture could not induce I-330 to denounce her comrades. Despite her refusal, I-330 and those arrested with her have been sentenced to death, "under the Benefactor's Machine". Meanwhile, the Mephi uprising gathers strength. Although D-503 expresses hope that the Benefactor shall restore "reason", the novel ends with One State's survival in doubt. I-330's mantra is; the dystopian society depicted in We is presided over by the Benefactor and is surrounded by a giant Green Wall to separate the citizens from primitive untamed nature. All citizens are known as "numbers"; every hour in one's life is directed by "The Table". The action of We is set at some time after the Two Hundred Years' War, which has wiped out all but "0.2 of the earth's population". The war was over a rare substance only mentioned in the book through a biblical metaphor.
The war only ended after the use of weapons of mass destruction, so that the One State is surrounded with a post-apocalyptic landscape. Many of the names and numbers in We are allusions to personal experiences of Zamyatin or to culture and literature. For example, "Auditorium 112" refers to cell number 112, where Zamyatin was twice imprisoned, the name of S-4711 is a reference to the Eau de Cologne number 4711. Zamyatin, who worked as a naval architect, refers to the specifications of the icebreaker St. Alexander Nevsky; the numbers of the chief characters in WE are taken directly from the specifications of Zamyatin's favourite icebreaker, the Saint Alexander Nevsky, yard no. A/W 905, round tonnage 3300, where O–90 and I-330 appropriately divide the hapless D-503 Yu-10 could de
Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin, sometimes anglicized as Eugene Zamyatin, was a Russian author of science fiction and political satire. He is most famous for a story set in a dystopian future police state. Despite having been a prominent Old Bolshevik, Zamyatin was disturbed by the policies pursued by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union following the October Revolution. In 1921, We became the first work banned by the Soviet censorship board. Zamyatin arranged for We to be smuggled to the West for publication; the subsequent outrage this sparked within the Party and the Union of Soviet Writers led directly to Zamyatin's successful request for exile from his homeland. Due to his use of literature to criticize Soviet society, Zamyatin has been referred to as one of the first Soviet dissidents. Zamyatin was born in Tambov Governorate, 300 km south of Moscow, his father was a Russian Orthodox priest and schoolmaster, his mother a musician. In a 1922 essay, Zamyatin recalled, "You will see a lonely child, without companions of his own age, on his stomach, over a book, or under the piano, on which his mother is playing Chopin."He may have had synesthesia since he gave letters and sounds qualities.
For instance, he saw the letter Л as having pale and light blue qualities. He studied naval engineering in Saint Petersburg from 1902 until 1908, during which time he joined the Bolsheviks, he was sent into internal exile in Siberia. However, he escaped and returned to Saint Petersburg where he lived illegally before moving to the Grand Duchy of Finland in 1906 to finish his studies. After returning to Russia, he began to write fiction as a hobby, he was arrested and exiled a second time in 1911, but amnestied in 1913. His Uyezdnoye in 1913, which satirized life in a small Russian town, brought him a degree of fame; the next year he was tried for maligning the Imperial Russian Military in his story Na Kulichkakh. He continued to contribute articles to various Marxist newspapers. After graduating as an engineer for the Imperial Russian Navy, Zamyatin worked professionally at home and abroad. In 1916 he was sent to the United Kingdom to supervise the construction of icebreakers at the shipyards in Walker and Wallsend while living in Newcastle upon Tyne.
Zamyatin recalled, "In England, I built ships, looked at ruined castles, listened to the thud of bombs dropped by German zeppelins, wrote The Islanders. I regret that I did not see the February Revolution, know only the October Revolution; this is the same as never having been in love and waking up one morning married for ten years or so.."Zamyatin's The Islanders, satirizing English life, the themed A Fisher of Men, were both published after his return to Russia in late 1917. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 he edited several journals, lectured on writing, edited Russian translations of works by Jack London, O. Henry, H. G. Wells, others. Zamyatin supported the October Revolution, but opposed the increasing use of censorship which followed, his works became satirical and critical toward the CPSU. Although he supported them before they came to power he came to disagree more and more with their policies those regarding censorship of the arts. In his 1921 essay "I Am Afraid," Zamyatin wrote: "True literature can exist only when it is created, not by diligent and reliable officials, but by madmen, heretics, dreamers and skeptics."
This attitude made his position difficult as the 1920s wore on. In 1923, Zamyatin arranged for the manuscript of his novel We to be smuggled to E. P. Dutton and Company in New York City. After being translated into English by Gregory Zilboorg, the novel was published in 1924. In 1927, Zamyatin went much further, he smuggled the original Russian text to Marc Lvovich Slonim editor of a Russian émigré journal and publishing house based in Prague. To the fury of the State, copies of the Slonim edition began being smuggled back to the USSR and secretly passed from hand to hand. Zamyatin's dealing with Western publishers triggered a mass offensive by the Soviet State against him; as a result, he was blacklisted from publishing anything in his homeland. We has been discussed as a political satire aimed at the police state of the Soviet Union. There are many other dimensions, however, it may variously be examined as a polemic against the optimistic scientific socialism of H. G. Wells, whose works Zamyatin had published, with the heroic verses of the Proletarian Poets, as an example of Expressionist theory, as an illustration of the archetype theories of Carl Jung as applied to literature.
George Orwell believed that Aldous Huxley's Brave New World must be derived from We. However, in a 1962 letter to Christopher Collins, Huxley says that he wrote Brave New World as a reaction to H. G. Wells' utopias. Kurt Vonnegut said that in writing Player Piano he "cheerfully ripped off the plot of Brave New World, whose plot had been cheerfully ripped off from Yevgeny Zamyatin's We." In 1994, We received a Prometheus Award in the Libertarian Futurist Society's "Hall of Fame" category. In addition to We, Zamyatin wrote a number of short stories, in fairy tale form, that constituted satirical criticism of Communist ideology. In one story, the mayor of a ci
Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic known as the Russian Soviet Republic and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, as well as being unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia, or Russia, was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, afterwards the largest, most populous and most economically developed of the 15 Soviet socialist republics of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1990 a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991, during the last two years of the existence of the USSR. The Russian Republic comprised sixteen smaller constituent units of autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais and forty oblasts. Russians formed the largest ethnic group; the capital of the Russian SFSR was Moscow and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The economy of Russia became industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR.
By 1961, it was the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region and Siberia, trailing in production to only the United States and Saudi Arabia. In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care. After 1985, the "perestroika" restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s under General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives; the Russian Soviet Republic was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922, the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR setting up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated that "Union Republic is a sovereign state that has united in the Union" and "each Union Republic shall retain the right to secede from the USSR". On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers, established citizenship of Russia and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin, supported by the Democratic Russia pro-reform movement, was elected the first and only President of the RSFSR, a post that would become the presidency of the Russian Federation; the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt with the temporary brief internment of President Mikhail Gorbachev destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, the heads of Russia and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords; the agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its original founding states and established the Commonwealth of Independent States as a loose confederation.
On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet. On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Gorbachev as President of the Soviet Union, the Russian SFSR was renamed the Russian Federation, with President Yeltsin re-establishing the sovereign and independent state. With the lowering at 12 midnight of the red flag with hammer and sickle design of the now former USSR from the towers of the Kremlin in Moscow on 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of the Republics, which by that time was the only functioning chamber of the parliamentary Supreme Soviet. After dissolution of the USSR, Russia declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council, but excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR; the 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian Constitution, coming into effect on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it with a semi-presidential system.
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Bolshevik communists established the Soviet state on 7 November 1917 after the interim Russian Provisional Government, most led by opposing democratic socialist Alexander Kerensky, which governed the new Russian Republic after the overthrow of the Russian Empire government of the Romanov imperial dynasty of Czar Nicholas II the previous March, was now itself overthrown during the following October Revolution, the second of t
Lev Natanovich Lunts was a Russian playwright and critic. He was a founding member of the Serapion Brothers, a group of young writers who emerged from the literary studio at the House of Arts in Petrograd. Active in the years 1919-1924, he completed five plays, two screenplays for the silent film, eight articles on the theater, one novella, a dozen stories and a dozen essays, in addition to learning languages, completing his undergraduate courses and participating in the lively activities of the Serapions; the harsh conditions of the time and his hectic literary activity exhausted him and ruined his health, he sought medical care abroad in June 1923. After several months in a sanatorium in southern Germany, he died of heart failure and a brain embolism in the city hospital of Hamburg, a week after his twenty-third birthday. After his death, his works were censored in Russia for the full extent of the Soviet period, but he was remembered for his daring defense of creative freedom against Bolshevik Party demands for political commitment.
In 2003 and 2007, well after the collapse of the Soviet Union, his complete works were published in Russia. A three-volume edition of his collected works appeared in English translation in 2014-2016. Lunts was born in Saint Petersburg, the capital of the Russian Empire, into a middle-class Jewish family on May 2, 1901, his father, Natan Yakovlevich, an emigrant from Lithuania, was a pharmacist and seller of scientific instruments. His mother, Anna Efimovna, was an accomplished pianist; as a child, Lev was delicate but lively. At a early age he began to write humorous stories for the amusement of friends and family. Orlando Furioso by Ludovico Ariosto he considered a great discovery of his youth, he took his school work seriously, in the summer of 1918 graduated from the Petrograd First Gimnaziya with a gold medal. In September of the year he enrolled in the Philological Faculty of Petrograd University. Here he studied Italian, German, French and the histories and literatures of these languages, his term papers were so outstanding that he was considered "a future light of science," as Kornei Chukovsky recalled in his memoirs.
Completing his courses in the spring of 1922, Lunts was retained for graduate school and began reading the novels of Balzac. His worsening health at the end of that year, compelled him to seek care in Germany, to which his parents had emigrated early in 1921. With a commission from the university to study Italian and Spanish in Europe, recommendations from influential writers, he was permitted to leave Russia, took a steamship to Hamburg on June 1, 1923. Lunts was an experimental writer, his theatrical compositions present his most impressive body of work. He wrote five plays, two screenplays, a half-dozen articles on the theater and a couple of play reviews; as a fervent Westernizer among the Serapion Brothers, Lunts advocated that they learn from the adventure literature of Robert Louis Stevenson and Alexandre Dumas père, by way of example wrote two romantic plays filled with intrigue and action. Outside the Law, set in an abstract, conventional Spain, presents a Robin Hood bandit, declared by the authorities to be outside the law.
He wittily turns this declaration into a formula for freedom, unpredictable action and revolution with himself as the leader of the masses. The hero of Bertrand de Born is a historical figure of the 12th century, a seditious troubadour at the court of King Henry II in Argentan, France. Lunts appended an afterword to the play presenting his credo of a new romantic tragedy for revolutionary times; the Apes Are Coming!, written under the influence of radical directors like Vsevolod Meyerhold and Sergei Radlov, is a wild burlesque of the Bolshevik revolution with a tumultuous conclusion that tears down the set. The last play, The City of Truth, is a parable of the revolution in which homesick soldiers stumble into a calm and reasonable utopia, get bored with the peace, his first play, The Son of the Sheik, of which only fragments survive, concerns an ageing sheik who fears for the survival of his newborn son and heir. He therefore decides to keep him away from all women, including his mother, to prevent him from learning of the existence of a second sex.
This situation provides the setup for a series of theatrical pieces, which are treated in a stylized and humorous fashion. The manuscript states. All four of the complete plays, despite their heterogeneity, explore the conflict between the individual's rage for freedom and society's need for order. Read separately, they evoke the excitement of the avant-garde theater in early post-revolutionary Russia, but taken together develop a philosophical theme to a surprising depth for a writer so young, their theme of anarchic freedom vs. imposed social control carries over into Lunts's spectacular screenplay, Vostanie veshchei, a silent-film scenario discovered forty years after his death. Its basic idea is a revolt of inanimate objects to establish law and order over lawless and inconsistent mankind. Written in less than three weeks during the summer of 1923, while Lunts was gravely ill, it depicts a whole city of things moving by themselves and attacking people, both on the street and in their
E. T. A. Hoffmann
Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann was a German Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, music critic and artist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbach's famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann, in which Hoffmann appears as the hero, he is the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two other stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumann's Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmann's character Johannes Kreisler. Hoffmann's stories influenced 19th-century literature, he is one of the major authors of the Romantic movement. Hoffmann's ancestors, both maternal and paternal, were jurists, his father, Christoph Ludwig Hoffmann, was a barrister in Königsberg, Prussia, as well as a poet and amateur musician who played the viola da gamba. In 1767 he married Lovisa Albertina Doerffer. Ernst Theodor Wilhelm, born on 24 January 1776, was the youngest of three children, of whom the second died in infancy.
When his parents separated in 1778, the father went to Insterburg with his elder son, Johann Ludwig Hoffmann, while Ernst's mother stayed in Königsberg with her relatives: two aunts, Johanna Sophie Doerffer and Charlotte Wilhelmine Doerffer and their brother, Otto Wilhelm Doerffer, who were all unmarried. This trio raised the youngster; the household, dominated by the uncle, was uncongenial. Hoffmann was to regret his estrangement from his father, he remembered his aunts with great affection the younger, whom he nicknamed Tante Füßchen. Although she died when he was only three years old, he treasured her memory and embroidered stories about her to such an extent that biographers sometimes assumed her to be imaginary, until proof of her existence was found after World War II. Between 1781 and 1792 he attended the Lutheran school or Burgschule, where he made good progress in classics, he was taught drawing by one Saemann, counterpoint by a Polish organist named Podbileski, to be the prototype of Abraham Liscot in Kater Murr.
Ernst showed great talent for piano-playing, busied himself with writing and drawing. The provincial setting was not, conducive to technical progress, despite his many-sided talents he remained rather ignorant of both classical forms and of the new artistic ideas that were developing in Germany, he had, read Schiller, Swift, Sterne and Jean Paul, wrote part of a novel titled Der Geheimnisvolle. Around 1787 he became friends with Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Younger, the son of a pastor, nephew of Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder, the well-known writer friend of Immanuel Kant. During 1792, both attended some of Kant's lectures at the University of Königsberg, their friendship, although tested by an increasing social difference, was to be lifelong. In 1794, Hoffmann became enamored of a married woman to whom he had given music lessons, she was ten years older, gave birth to her sixth child in 1795. In February 1796, her family protested against his attentions and, with his hesitant consent, asked another of his uncles to arrange employment for him in Glogau, Prussian Silesia.
From 1796 Hoffmann obtained employment as a clerk for his uncle, Johann Ludwig Doerffer, who lived in Glogau with his daughter Minna. After passing further examinations he visited Dresden, where he was amazed by the paintings in the gallery those of Correggio and Raphael. During the summer of 1798, his uncle was promoted to a court in Berlin, the three of them moved there in August—Hoffmann's first residence in a large city, it was there that Hoffmann first attempted to promote himself as a composer, writing an operetta called Die Maske and sending a copy to Queen Luise of Prussia. The official reply advised to him to write to the director of the Royal Theatre, a man named Iffland. By the time the latter responded, Hoffmann had passed his third round of examinations and had left for Posen in South Prussia in the company of his old friend Hippel, with a brief stop in Dresden to show him the gallery. From June 1800 to 1803 he worked in Prussian provinces in the area of Greater Masovia; this was the first time he had lived without supervision by members of his family, he started to become "what school principals, parsons and aunts call dissolute."His first job, at Posen, was endangered after Carnival on Shrove Tuesday 1802, when caricatures of military officers were distributed at a ball.
It was deduced who had drawn them, complaints were made to authorities in Berlin, who were reluctant to punish the promising young official. The problem was solved by "promoting" Hoffmann to Płock in New East Prussia, the former capital of Poland, where administrative offices were relocated from Thorn, he visited the place to arrange lodging, before returning to Posen where he married "Mischa". They moved to Płock in August 1802. Hoffmann despaired because of his exile, drew caricatures of himself drowning in mud alongside ragged villagers, he did make use, however, of his isolation, by composing. He started a diary on 1 October 1803. An essay on the theatre was published in Kotzebue's periodical, Die Freimüthige, he entered a competition in the same magaz
Leon Trotsky was a Russian revolutionary, Marxist theorist, Soviet politician whose particular strain of Marxist thought is known as Trotskyism. Supporting the Menshevik-Internationalists faction within the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, he joined the Bolsheviks just before the 1917 October Revolution becoming a leader within the Communist Party, he would go on to become one of the seven members of the first Politburo, founded in 1917 to manage the Bolshevik Revolution. During the early days of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and the Soviet Union, he served first as People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and as the founder and commander of the Red Army, with the title of People's Commissar of Military and Naval Affairs, he became a major figure in the Bolshevik victory in the Russian Civil War. After leading a failed struggle of the Left Opposition against the policies and rise of Joseph Stalin in the 1920s and against the increasing role of bureaucracy in the Soviet Union, Trotsky was removed as Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, removed from the Politburo, removed from the Central Committee, expelled from the Communist Party, exiled to Alma–Ata, exiled from the Soviet Union.
As the head of the Fourth International, Trotsky continued to oppose the Stalinist bureaucracy in the Soviet Union while in exile. Trotsky was assassinated in Mexico City by a Spanish-born NKVD agent. On 20 August 1940, Mercader attacked Trotsky with an ice axe and Trotsky died the next day in a hospital. Mercader acted upon instruction from Stalin and was nearly beaten to death by Trotsky's bodyguards, spent the next 20 years in a Mexican prison for the murder. Stalin presented Mercader with an Order of Lenin in absentia. Trotsky's ideas formed the basis of Trotskyism, a major school of Marxist thought that opposes the theories of Stalinism, he was written out of the history books under Stalin, was one of the few Soviet political figures, not rehabilitated by the government under Nikita Khrushchev in the 1950s. Leon Trotsky was born Lev Davidovich Bronstein on 7 November 1879, the fifth child of a Ukrainian-Jewish family of wealthy farmers in Yanovka or Yanivka, in the Kherson governorate of the Russian Empire, a small village 24 kilometres from the nearest post office.
His parents were his wife Anna Lvovna. Trotsky's father was born in Poltava, moved to Bereslavka, as it had a large Jewish community; the language spoken at home was a mixture of Ukrainian. Trotsky's younger sister, who grew up to be a Bolshevik and a Soviet politician, married the prominent Bolshevik Lev Kamenev; some authors, notably Robert Service, have claimed that Trotsky's childhood first name was the Yiddish Leiba. The American Trotskyist David North said that this was an assumption based on Trotsky's Jewish birth, contrary to Service's claims, there is no documentary evidence to support his using a Yiddish name, when that language was not spoken by his family. Both North and Walter Laqueur in their books say that Trotsky's childhood name was Lyova, a standard Russian diminutive of the name Lev. North has compared the speculation on Trotsky's given name to the undue emphasis given to his having a Jewish surname; when Trotsky was eight, his father sent him to Odessa to be educated. He was enrolled in a German-language school, which became Russified during his years in Odessa as a result of the Imperial government's policy of Russification.
As Isaac Deutscher notes in his biography of Trotsky, Odessa was a bustling cosmopolitan port city unlike the typical Russian city of the time. This environment contributed to the development of the young man's international outlook. Although Trotsky spoke French and German to a good standard, he said in his autobiography My Life that he was never fluent in any language but Russian and Ukrainian. Raymond Molinier wrote. Trotsky became involved in revolutionary activities in 1896 after moving to the harbor town of Nikolayev on the Ukrainian coast of the Black Sea. At first a narodnik, he opposed Marxism but was won over to Marxism that year by his future first wife, Aleksandra Sokolovskaya. Instead of pursuing a mathematics degree, Trotsky helped organize the South Russian Workers' Union in Nikolayev in early 1897. Using the name'Lvov,' he wrote and printed leaflets and proclamations, distributed revolutionary pamphlets, popularized socialist ideas among industrial workers and revolutionary students.
In January 1898, more than 200 members of the union, including Trotsky, were arrested. He was held for the next two years in prison awaiting trial, first in Nikolayev Kherson Odessa, in Moscow. In the Moscow prison he came into contact with other revolutionaries and heard about Lenin and read Lenin's book, The Development of Capitalism in Russia. Two months into his imprisonment, on 1–3 March 1898, the first Congress of the newly formed Russian Social Democratic Labor Party was held. From on Trotsky identified as a member of the party. While in the prison in Moscow, in the summer of 1899, Trotsky married Aleksandra Sokolovskaya, a fellow Marxist; the wedding ceremony was performed by a Jewish chaplain. In 1900, he was sentenced to four years in exile in Siberia; because of their marriage and his wife were allowed to be exiled to the same location