Hip hop music
Hip hop music called hip-hop or rap music, is a music genre developed in the United States by inner-city African Americans in the late 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech, chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching with turntables, break dancing, graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling beats or bass lines from records, rhythmic beatboxing. While used to refer to rapping, "hip hop" more properly denotes the practice of the entire subculture; the term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when block parties became popular in New York City among African-American youth residing in the Bronx; however hip-hop music did not get recorded for the radio or television to play until 1979 due to poverty during hip-hop's birth and lack of acceptance outside ghetto neighborhoods.
At block parties DJs played percussive breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a DJ mixer to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the "break". Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and drum machines became available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as scratching and beatmatching developed along with the breaks and Jamaican toasting, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats. Rapping developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized beat. Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy, Marley Marl, Afrika Bambaataa, Kool Moe Dee, Kurtis Blow, Doug E. Fresh, Warp 9, The Fat Boys, Spoonie Gee; the Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop.
Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres. New school hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D. M. C. and LL Cool J. The Golden age hip hop period was an innovative period between the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the Juice Crew, Public Enemy, Eric B. & Rakim, Boogie Down Productions and KRS-One, EPMD, Slick Rick, Beastie Boys, Kool G Rap, Big Daddy Kane, Ultramagnetic MCs, De La Soul, A Tribe Called Quest. Gangsta rap is a subgenre of hip hop that focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth. Schoolly D, N. W. A, Ice-T, Ice Cube, the Geto Boys are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of political rap with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap.
In the West Coast hip hop style, G-funk dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as Dr. Dre and Snoop Dogg. East Coast hip hop in the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric jazz rap and alternative hip hop of the Native Tongues posse as well as the hardcore rap of artists such as Mobb Deep, Wu-Tang Clan, Onyx. East Coast hip hop had gangsta rap musicians such as Kool G Rap and the Notorious B. I. G.. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as Southern rap and Atlanta hip hop. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being neo soul and nu metal. Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999; the popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States saw the success of regional styles such as crunk, a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics.
Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to wane. During the mid-2000s, alternative hip hop secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast and Kanye West. During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as Lil Wayne, Soulja Boy, B.o. B were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as Drake, Nicki Minaj, J. Cole, Kendrick Lamar all have been popular. Trap, a subgenre of hip hop has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as Migos, Travis Scott, Kodak Black; the creation of the term hip hop is credited to Keith Cowboy, rapper with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five. However, Lovebug Starski, Keith Cowboy, DJ Hollywood used the term when the music was still known as disco rap, it is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U. S. Army, by scat singing the words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of soldiers marching.
Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into a part of his stage performance, used by other artists such as The Sugarhi
Southern Ontario is a primary region of the province of Ontario, the other primary region being Northern Ontario. It is the most densely southernmost region in Canada; the exact northern boundary of Southern Ontario is disputed. It covers between 14 and 15% of the province, depending on the inclusion of the Parry Sound and Muskoka districts which lie in the transitional area between northern and southern forest regions. With more than 12.7 million people, the region is home to one-third of Canada's population of 35.1 million. Southern Ontario differs from Northern Ontario, in that it has a much larger population density, a different climate, a different culture than its northern counterpart, it is broken into smaller subregions, including Central Ontario, Georgian Triangle, Southwestern Ontario, the Golden Horseshoe, Eastern Ontario. The core area of Southern Ontario is part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor, which extends northeast into southern Quebec; the transitional northern area of this primary region extends north to the Mattawa River and occupies part of the Grenville Geological Province of the Canadian Shield which extends northeast into southern Quebec.
Southern Ontario can be distinguished from Northern Ontario because it is far more densely populated and contains the majority of the province's cities, major roads, institutions. Northern Ontario, in contrast, contains remote wilderness. Although it has no saltwater coastline, the region has an abundance of freshwater coastlines on three Great Lakes, as well as smaller lakes such as Lake Simcoe and Lake St. Clair, it is a major vineyard producer of Canadian wines. While Southern Ontario has been a part of the province of Ontario since its establishment at Confederation in 1867 forming the colony of Upper Canada, a large portion of Northern Ontario did not become part of Ontario until 1912. Territorial Southern Ontario was explored and colonized by the French in the 17th century, who forged relations with the Wyandot Huron people, based around the Georgian Bay/Lake Simcoe area. Other Iroquoian speaking people to the south were the Petun and Neutral Nation, further northeast, Algonquins inhabited the upper Ottawa River/Madawaska Valley areas and the Mississaugas moved south from northern Lake Huron, settling lands in both the Kawartha region and just west of Toronto.
Following the Seven Years' War, the British wrested control of Southern Ontario, greater colonization efforts were spurred on by the arrival of United Empire Loyalists brought on by the American Revolution. Southern Ontario was where a large portion of the battles took place during the War of 1812, was a major destination for escaping slaves using the underground railroad. Following the enactment of Prohibition in the United States in 1919, Southern Ontario became a hotbed of smuggling alcohol across the border. Southern Ontario is home to over 94%, or 12.1 million, of Ontario's total population of 12.9 million people, compared to 750,000 in Northern Ontario. This is due to many factors, including the more arable land in the south, its more moderate climate, well-used transportation routes, proximity to populated areas of the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, as well as a long history of early European settlers and colonialism. For thousands of years, Ontario has been home to indigenous aboriginal communities, with numerous nations with differing languages at the time of European contact.
Over 200,000 aboriginal Canadians live in Southern Ontario today. Southern Ontario was colonized by the British. After the area began to be developed for European settlement after the American Revolutionary War, other European immigrants arrived as well, with increased immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Since the late 20th century, many immigrants have come from other parts of the world; the region is one of the top destinations for immigrants worldwide the Greater Toronto Area. The area has a large manufacturing sector. Since the mid-2000s, Ontario has produced more vehicles per year than the state of Michigan. In a cross-border definition, a swath of Southern Ontario could be considered a part of the Rust Belt. Factory closings because of industry restructuring, globalization have for the past few decades taken their toll; this is most evident in the region's southern tier cities which have large automobile or associated industrial bases, such as Windsor, London, St. Thomas and St. Catharines.
Still affected by these factors but to a lesser extent is Hamilton, the centre of steel production, Sarnia, the centre of petrochemical production. The province's two largest cities and Ottawa, have moved to a service and knowledge economy, although Toronto still has a strong industrial presence spread over wide areas along its rail and highway corridors as well as a container port linking it to the St. Lawrence Seaway. Toronto, the largest city of the province, is the site of all of the major Canadian banks and its heart has the country's financial sector, including the Toronto Stock Exchange. Ottawa, the national capital, has an economy, dependent on the public sector, in addition to having a strong technology sector; some parts of Southern Ontario are heavil
Breaking called breakdancing or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the dance, breakdancing consists of four kinds of movement: toprock, power moves and freezes. Breakdancing is set to songs containing drum breaks in hip-hop, soul music and breakbeat music, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of music along certain ranges of tempo and beat patterns. Breaking was created by African American youth during early 1970s; the earliest breakdancing groups included the "Zulu Kings" and "Clark Kent". By the late seventies, the dance had begun to spread to other communities and was gaining wider popularity. A practitioner of this dance is called b-girl, or breaker. Although the term "breakdance" is used to refer to the dance in popular culture and in the mainstream entertainment industry, "b-boying" and "breaking" are the original terms and are preferred by the majority of the pioneers and most notable practitioners.
Instead of the original term b-boying, the mainstream media promoted the art-form as breakdancing, by which it came to be known. Some enthusiasts consider "breakdancing" an ignorant and derogatory term due to the media’s exploitation of the artform; the media displayed a simplified version of the dance, making it seem like the so-called "tricks" were everything trading the culture for money and promotion. The term "breakdancing" is problematic because it has become a diluted umbrella term that includes popping and electric boogaloo, which are not styles of "breakdance", but are funk styles that were developed separately from breaking in California; the dance itself is properly called "breaking" by rappers such as KRS-One, Talib Kweli, Mos Def, Darryl McDaniels of Run-D. M. C; the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", "breaker" were the original terms used to describe the dancers who performed to DJ Kool Herc's breakbeats. DJ Kool Herc is a Jamaican-American DJ, responsible for developing the foundational aspects of hip-hop music.
The obvious connection of the term "breaking" is to the word "breakbeat". DJ Kool Herc has commented that the term "breaking" was 1970s slang for "getting excited", "acting energetically" or "causing a disturbance". Most breaking pioneers and practitioners prefer the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", and/or "breaker" when referring to these dancers. For those immersed in hip-hop culture, the term "breakdancer" may be used to disparage those who learn the dance for personal gain rather than for commitment to the culture. B-boy London of the New York City Breakers and filmmaker Michael Holman refer to these dancers as "breakers". Frosty Freeze of the Rock Steady Crew says, "we were known as b-boys", hip-hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa says, "b-boys, what you call break boys... or b-girls, what you call break girls." In addition, co-founder of Rock Steady Crew Santiago "Jo Jo" Torres, Rock Steady Crew member Marc "Mr. Freeze" Lemberger, hip-hop historian Fab 5 Freddy, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Tech N9ne use the term "b-boy".
Many elements of breakdancing can be seen in other antecedent cultures prior to the 1970s. B-boy pioneers Richard "Crazy Legs" Colon and Kenneth "Ken Swift" Gabbert, both of Rock Steady Crew, cite James Brown and Kung Fu films as influences. Many of the acrobatic moves, such as the flare, show clear connections to gymnastics. In the 1877 book'Rob Roy on the Baltic' John MacGregor describes seeing near Norrköping a'...young man quite alone, practicing over and over the most inexplicable leap in the air...he swung himself up, round on his hand for a point, when his upper leg described a great circle...'. The engraving shows a young man breakdancing; the dance was called the Giesse Harad Polska or'salmon district dance'. In 1894 Thomas Edison filmed Walter Wilkins, Denny Toliver and Joe Rastus dancing and performing a "breakdown". In 1898 he filmed a young street dancer performing acrobatic headspins. However, it was not until the 1970s that b-boying developed as a defined dance style in the United States.
There is evidence of this style of dancing in Kaduna, Nigeria in 1959. Beginning with DJ Kool Herc, Bronx-based DJs would take the rhythmic breakdown sections of dance records and prolong them by looping them successively; the breakbeat provided a rhythmic base that allowed dancers to display their improvisational skills during the duration of the break. This led to the first battles—turn-based dance competitions between two individuals or dance crews judged with respect to creativity and musicality; these battles occurred in cyphers—circles of people gathered around the breakers. Though at its inception the earliest b-boys were "close to 90 percent African-American", dance crews such as "SalSoul" and "Rockwell Association" were populated entirely by Puerto Rican-Americans. A separate but related dance form which influenced breakdancing is uprock called rocking or Brooklyn rock. Uprock is an aggressive dance that involves two dancers mimicking ways of fighting each other using mimed weaponry in rhythm with the music.
Uprock as a dance style of its own never gained the same widespread popularity as breakdancing, except for some specific moves adopted by breakers who use it as a variation for their toprock. When used in a breakdancing battle, opponents respond by performing similar uprock moves creating a short uprock battle; some breakers argue that because uprock was a separate dance style it should never be mixed with breakdancing and that the uprock moves performed by breakers toda
Sampler (musical instrument)
A sampler is an electronic or digital musical instrument similar in some respects to a synthesizer, but instead of generating new sounds with voltage-controlled oscillators, it uses sound recordings of real instrument sounds, excerpts from recorded songs or other sounds. The samples are recorded by the user or by a manufacturer; these sounds are played back by means of the sampler program itself, a MIDI keyboard, sequencer or another triggering device to perform or compose music. Because these samples are stored in digital memory, the information can be accessed. A single sample may be pitch-shifted to different pitches to produce musical scales and chords. Samplers offer filters, effects units, modulation via low frequency oscillation and other synthesizer-like processes that allow the original sound to be modified in many different ways. Most samplers have Multitimbrality capabilities – they can play back different sounds simultaneously. Many are polyphonic – they are able to play more than one note at the same time.
Prior to computer memory-based samplers, musicians used tape replay keyboards, which store recordings on analog tape. When a key is pressed the tape head plays a sound; the Mellotron was the most notable model, used by a number of groups in the late 1960s and the 1970s, but such systems were expensive and heavy due to the multiple tape mechanisms involved, the range of the instrument was limited to three octaves at the most. To change sounds a new set of tapes had to be installed in the instrument; the emergence of the digital sampler made sampling far more practical. The earliest digital sampling was done on the EMS Musys system, developed by Peter Grogono, David Cockerell and Peter Zinovieff at their London Studio c. 1969. The system ran on Digital Equipment PDP-8's; these had a pair of fast D/A and A/D converters, 12,000 bytes of core memory, backed up by a hard drive of 32k and by tape storage. EMS equipment was used to control the world's first digital studio, their earliest digital sampling was done on that system during 1971-1972 for Harrison Birtwistle's "Chronometer" released in 1975.
The first commercially available sampling synthesizer was the Computer Music Melodian by Harry Mendell, while the first polyphonic digital sampling synthesizer was the Australian-produced Fairlight CMI, first available in 1979. These early sampling synthesizers used wavetable sample-based synthesis. Since the 1980s, samplers have been using pulse-code modulation for digital sampling; the first PCM digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic. The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM; the LMD-649 was used by other Japanese synthpop artists in the early 1980s, including Chiemi Manabe and Logic System. The E-mu SP-1200 percussion sampler, upon its release in August 1987, popularized the use of digital samplers within hip hop music in the late 1980s.
Akai pioneered many processing techniques, such as crossfade looping and "time stretch" to shorten or lengthen samples without affecting pitch and vice versa. The Akai MPC60, released in 1988, went on to become the most influential sampler in hip hop music. During the 1980s, hybrid synthesizers began to utilize short samples along with digital synthesis to create more realistic imitations of instruments than had been possible. Examples are the Korg M1, Roland U-110, Yamaha's SY series, the Kawai K series of instruments. Limiting factors at the time were the cost of physical memory and the limitations of external data storage devices, this approach made best use of the tiny amount of memory available to the design engineers; the 2010s-era music workstation uses sampling, whether simple playback or complex editing that matches all but the most advanced dedicated samplers, includes features such as a sequencer. Samplers, together with traditional Foley artists, are the mainstay of modern sound effects production.
Using digital techniques various effects can be pitch-shifted and otherwise altered in ways that would have required many hours when done with tape. A sampler is controlled by an attached music keyboard or other external MIDI controller or source; each note-message received by the sampler accesses a particular sample. Multiple samples are arranged across the keyboard, each assigned to a note or group of notes. Keyboard tracking allows samples to be shifted in pitch by an appropriate amount in semitones and tones; each group of notes to which a single sample has been assigned is called a "keyzone", the resultant set of zones is called a keymap. For example, in Fig 1, a keymap has been created with four different samples; each sample, if pitched, should be associated with a particular center pitch. The first sample is distributed across three different notes, G2, G#2, A2. If the note G#2 is received the sampler will play back the Violin G#2 sample at its original pitch. If the note received is G2 the sampler will shift the sample down a semitone while the note A2 will play it back a semitone tone higher.
If the next note is input the sampler will select the Violin B2 sample, playing it a semitone lower than its center pitch of B2. In gene
Budweiser is an American-style pale lager produced by Anheuser-Busch part of the transnational corporation Anheuser-Busch InBev. Introduced in 1876 by Carl Conrad & Co. of St. Louis, Missouri, it has grown to become one of the largest selling beers in the United States, is available in over 80 markets worldwide—though, due to a trademark dispute, not under the Budweiser name, it is made with up to 30 % rice in addition to barley malt. Produced in various breweries around the world, Budweiser is a filtered beer available in draft and packaged forms. Anheuser–Busch has been involved in a trademark dispute with the Budweiser Budvar Brewery of České Budějovice, Czech Republic, over the trademark rights to the name "Budweiser". Beer has been brewed in České Budějovice since it was founded by King Ottokar II of Bohemia in 1245; the name Budweiser is a derivative adjective, meaning "of Budweis". In 1876, Adolphus Busch and his friend Carl Conrad, a liquor importer, developed a "Bohemian-style" lager in the United States, inspired after a trip to the region.
In the European Union, excluding the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Sweden and Spain, the American beer is marketed as Bud, as the Budweiser trademark name is owned by the Czech beer maker, Budweiser Budvar. In 2008, Anheuser-Busch had a market share in the United States of 50.9% for all beers sold. Budweiser brands account for about half of Anheuser-Busch's sales volume, a figure, declining at 1 1⁄2–2% per year. Anheuser-Busch advertises the Budweiser brand expending $449 million in 2012 in the United States; this made it the most advertised drink brand in America, accounted for a third of the company's US marketing budget. The Budweiser from Budějovice has been called "The Beer of Kings" since the 16th century. Adolphus Busch adapted this slogan to "The King of Beers." This history notwithstanding, Anheuser Busch owns the trademark to these slogans in the United States. In the late 1980s, Bud Light ran an advertising campaign centered around a canine mascot, Spuds MacKenzie. In 2010, the Bud Light brand paid $1 billion for a six-year licensing agreement with the NFL.
Budweiser pays $20 million annually for MLB licensing rights. Budweiser has produced a number of TV advertisements, such as the Budweiser Frogs, lizards impersonating the Budweiser frogs, a campaign built around the phrase "Whassup?", a team of Clydesdale horses known as the Budweiser Clydesdales. Budweiser advertises extensively in motorsports, from Bernie Little's Miss Budweiser hydroplane boat to sponsorship of the Budweiser King Top Fuel Dragster driven by Brandon Bernstein. Anheuser-Busch has sponsored the CART championship, it is the "Official Beer of NHRA" and it was the "Official Beer of NASCAR" from 1998 to 2007. It has sponsored motorsport events such as the Daytona Speedweeks, Budweiser Shootout, Budweiser Duel, Budweiser Pole Award, Budweiser 500, Budweiser 400, Budweiser 300, Budweiser 250, Budweiser 200, Carolina Pride / Budweiser 200. However, starting in 2016, the focus of A-B's NASCAR sponsorship became its Busch brand. Budweiser has been sponsor of NASCAR teams such as Junior Johnson, Hendrick Motorsports, DEI, Stewart-Haas Racing.
Sponsored drivers include Dale Earnhardt, Jr. Kasey Kahne, Kevin Harvick. In IndyCar, Budweiser sponsored Mario Andretti, Bobby Rahal, Scott Pruett, Roberto Guerrero, Scott Goodyear, Paul Tracy, Christian Fittipaldi, Richie Hearn. Between 2003 and 2006, Budweiser was a sponsor of the BMW Williams Formula One team. Anheuser-Busch has placed Budweiser as an official partner and sponsor of Major League Soccer and Los Angeles Galaxy and was the headline sponsor of the British Basketball League in the 1990s. Anheuser-Busch has placed Budweiser as an official sponsor of the Premier League and the presenting sponsor of the FA Cup. In the early 20th century, the company commissioned a play-on-words song called "Under the Anheuser Bush,", recorded by several early phonograph companies. In 2009, Anheuser-Busch partnered with popular Chinese video-sharing site, Tudou.com for a user-generated online video contest. The contest encourages users to suggest ideas that include ants for a Bud TV spot set to run in February 2010 during the Chinese New Year.
In 2010, Budweiser produced an online reality TV series, called Bud House, centered around the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa, following the lives of 32 international football fans living together in a house in South Africa. On November 5, 2012, Anheuser-Busch asked Paramount Pictures to obscure or remove the Budweiser logo from the film Flight, directed by Robert Zemeckis and starring Denzel Washington. In an advertisement titled "Brewed the Hard Way" that aired during Super Bowl XLIX, Budweiser touted itself as "Proudly A Macro Beer", distinguishing it from smaller production craft beers. In 2016, Beer Park by Budweiser opened on the Las Vegas Strip. Over the years, Budweiser has been distributed in many containers; until the early 1950s Budweiser was distributed in three packages: kegs, 12 U. S. fl oz bottles and 1 US quart bottles. Cans were first introduced in 1936. In 1955 August Busch Jr. made a strategic move to expand Budweiser's national brand and distributor presence. Along with this expansion came advances in bottling automation, new bottling materials and more efficient distribution methods.
These advances brought to market many new containers and package designs. As of 2011 Budweiser is distributed in four large container volumes: half-barrel kegs, quarter-barr
Hip hop production
Hip hop production is the creation of hip hop music in a recording studio. While the term encompasses all aspects of hip hop music creation, including recording the rapping of an MC, a turntablist or DJ providing a beat, playing samples and "scratching" using record players and the creation of a rhythmic backing track, using a drum machine or sequencer, it is most used to refer to recording the instrumental, non-lyrical and non-vocal aspects of hip hop. Hip Hop Producers credited as the record producer and songwriter, are composers of a musical composition and creative directors involved in guiding and supervision of recording sessions; this can range from a single song to a full-length album or EP. A hip hop instrumental is colloquially referred to as a beat or musical composition and its composer is referred to as a programmer, songwriter or beat maker. In the studio, a hip hop producer functions as a traditional record producer, being the person, responsible for the final sound of a recording, for guiding the artists and performers and giving advice to the audio engineer on the selection of microphones and effects processors and on how to mix the levels of the vocals and instrumentals.
Since Hip hop producers co-write the original music such as the beat, they are known as Record Producer / Songwriters, that's wearing two hats. They receive production and songwriting credits for both acting roles esp Pharrell Williams, J. R. Rotem, Tricky Stewart, Teddy Riley, Bryan-Michael Cox, Rodney Jerkins, Dr. Dre, Scott Storch, Timbaland etc. Modern producers use producer tags known as audio tags, musical tags or tags, they function as a watermark for beatmakers to make sure that they are given credit. These can range from producers reciting the producer's name or stage name to a phrase unique to them. An example of the former is when Drake starts his song "In My Feelings" with the lyric "Trap, TrapMoneyBenny", shouting out one of the song's co-producers. An example of the latter is Metro Boomin's " Metro Boomin want some more, nigga!" which comes from a sample of Young Thug on his track "Some More" in which he shouts out Boomin, who co-produced the song along with Sonny Digital and TM88.
Producers and beatmakers times utilize a number of tags in order to personalize the track. A prime example is producer CAB's variation between "CAB you're crazy for this", "CAB!", "Yo, it's Charlot". These originate from hip-hop record producers shouting their name over a track before it started, vocal processing became involved, resulting in tags that sound like part of the song, in artists shouting the producer's name rather than producers doing so themselves; the Roland TR-808 drum machine was introduced in 1980, consisted on an analog machine with step programming method. The 808 was used by Afrika Bambaataa, who released "Planet Rock" in 1982, in addition to the electro hip hip groundbreaking classic "Nunk" by Warp 9, produced by Lotti Golden and Richard Scher, giving rise to the fledgling Electro genre. An notable artist is the genre's own pioneer Juan Atkins who released what is accepted as the first American techno record, "Clear" in 1984; these early electro records laid down the foundations that Detroit techno artists such as Derrick May built upon.
In 1983, Run-DMC recorded "It's Like That" and "Sucker MC's," two songs which relied on synthetic sounds, in this case via an Oberheim DMX drum machine, ignoring samples entirely. This approach was much like early songs by the Furious Five. Kurtis Blow was the first hip hop artist to use a digital sampler, when he used the Fairlight CMI for their 1984 album "Ego Trip", specially on the track "AJ Scratch"; the E-mu SP-12 came out in 1985. The E-mu SP-1200 promptly followed with an expanded recording time of 10 seconds, divided on 4 banks. One of the earliest songs to contain a drum loop or break was "Rhymin and Stealin" by the Beastie Boys, produced by Rick Rubin. Marley Marl popularized a style of restructuring drum loops by sampling individual drums, in the mid 1980s, a technique, popularized by the MC Shan's 1986 single "The Bridge" which used chops of "Impeach the President" on two Korg Delay/sampling triggered by a Roland TR-808; the Akai MPC60 came out in 1988. The Beastie Boys released Paul's Boutique in 1989, an entire album created from an eclectic mix of samples, produced by the Dust Brothers using an Emax sampler.
De La Soul released 3 Feet High and Rising that year. Public Enemy's Bomb Squad revolutionized the sound of hip-hop with dense production styles, combining tens of samples per song combining percussion breaks with a drum machine, their beats were much more structured than repetitive beats. The MPC3000 was released in 1994, the AKAI MPC2000 in 1997, followed by the MPC2000XL in 1999 and the MPC2500 in 2006; these machines combined a sampling drum machine with an onboard MIDI sequencer and became the centerpiece of many hip hop producers' studios. The Wu Tang Clan's producer RZA is credited for getting hip hop attention away from Dr. Dre's more polished sound in 1993. RZA's more gritty sound with low rumbling bass, sharp snare drum sounds and unique sampling style based on Ensoniq sampler. With the 1994 release of The Notorious B. I. G.'s Ready to Die, Sean Combs and his assistant producers ushered in a new style where entire sections of records were sampled, instead of short snippets. Records like "Warning", "One More Chance" epitomized this aesthetic.
In the e
Dalibor Andonov, known professionally as Gru, is a Serbian rapper, musician and DJ. His song Biću tu from the 1996 album Gru 2, gained him popularity in Eastern Europe, as well as the 2010 release I dalje me žele alongside Serbian rapper Ajs Nigrutin, his album Gru 2 is the most commercially successful album in Serbia, selling four million copies, reaching certified gold status in Serbia. Other than his immense popularity in the Balkans, he is well-known in other countries of Eastern and Northern Europe, he has been dubbed The Serbian Rap Machine. A Dimitrovgrad native, Andonov started his career in Belgrade, with his earliest demos in 1994, but rose to prominence with his music work in early 1996. Marking the first wave of Serbian hip hop with his debut album Da li imaš pravo?, Andonov produced five albums as a solo artist, out of which four reached gold and platinum status in Serbia. The albums included critically and commercially acclaimed songs that topped the Balkan charts, including Srce, Biću tu, Kad se popnem na binu, Kiša, Da li imaš pravo?, winning him three Serbian Oscars of Popularity, an Indexi Award and a World Music Award.
The songs were noted as traditional hip-hop compositions with elements of soul. Since Beograd in 2003, Andonov has been producing singles, his more recent work incorporates radio friendly melodies, which embark commercial success, including I dalje me žele, Plan B, Kilo koke and Biću tu, winning an Index Award, an Oscar of Popularity and an MTV Platinum Award. Andonov had done work for television and movies, either producing music, voicing characters for Serbian dubs or presenting himself in various reality shows or movies, he performed in Operacija trijumf, was a contestant in the Serbian Big Brother, Veliki brat and produced instrumentals for the Serbian Your Face Sounds Familiar, Tvoje lice zvuči poznato. Andonov made his film debut in 1997 as Vanja in Land of Truth, Love & Freedom, but had composed for the movies, including Undisputed II: Last Man Standing and Dorćol-Manhattan. Dalibor Andonov was born in Dimitrovgrad to middle-class Serbian parents. At the time of his birth, his family moved from the Vlasotince district to Dimitrovgrad.
He is of Bosnian, Montenegrin] and Bulgarian descent, his last name is of Macedonian-Bulgarian origin. He attended primary school in Dimitrovgrad, due to the dominant Bulgarian diaspora in the town, he learned to speak Bulgarian, other than his native Serbian, his family relocated to Pančevo. During his education, he avidly played basketball. Though he did not show any academic success, he showed passion for music, citing N. W. A. Earth, Wind & Fire, Marvin Gaye, Tupac Shakur, Michael Jackson as his favourite artists growing up. In 1988, his cousin from Sweden gave him a Straight Outta Compton album by N. W. A. which he cites as his most important possession from his earlier years. After high school, he never finished due to his love for music. After, he had moved to Belgrade, where he began to produce music and MC. Soon he became skilled beginning to MC in the early nineties, his DJ-ing style resembled the one of Nigerian-Swedish recording artist Dr. Alban, which he idolised at the time. Andonov had choose the stage name Gru, from the music term which senses propulsive rhythmic feel or dynamics, groove.
Andonov began his career in 1990 as a founding member in the Yugoslav recording act Project 6, which disbanded in 1993. His first demo recording as a vocal soloist was produced in 1994, although his first public releases date back to 1995, with the album Da li imaš pravo? which marked the beginning of the first wave of Serbian hip hop. His debut album was recorded at Studio Jugodisk and Studio Avalon from 24 October until 10 December 1994, although it was released a year after. In the first recording he collaborated with Enco, featured only in that recording, more in the sequence Život je lep. Andonov published the album Gru 2 in October 1996, it gained him notoriety in the Balkan countries, becoming the most commercially successful album in Serbia to date, selling 4 million copies, which holds the record as the best-selling album in Balkan history; the songs in the album included emotional ballads and gangster anthems. Gru 2 contains the most songs done as alliances with other Serbian musicians of all his albums.
These include Leto, with Leontina Vukomanović and U-Stuff, Srce with Leontina Vukomanović and Nenad Jovanović, Dosta mi je svega/Poludecu with Srđan Babović and Dejan Ivanković, Čovek je čoveku vuk with CYA and ILaLa, Petak with Bojan Todorov and Coca, Biću tu with Niggor of the Monteniggers. All songs featured lyrics and music arranged by Andonov, with guitar playing done by Voja Aralica, co-writing done by Dejan Ivanković Betoven, a guest vocalist on Dosta mi je svega/Poludecu; the album was produced on behalf of the label Komuna. Gru 2 was recorded at Studio Puž; the track Biću tu from the album, became his signature song, became an evergreen Serbian rap song, incorporating elements of soul and funk, into hip-hop and rap. A song hinted by prostitution, Biću tu was accompanied by a music video, controversial due to provocative content; the song was credited by Dragan Brajović Braja to have found the balance between commercialisation and underground. The Gru 2 album earned him two Serbian Oscars of Popularity, one for the album itself, one for the single