Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Giddings is the county seat of Lee County, United States situated on the intersection of U. S. Highways 77 and 290, 55 miles east of Austin, its population was 5,665 at the 2010 census. The city's motto is "Giddings, Texas: Experience Hometown Hospitality"; the land where the city of Giddings now stands was part of the land granted to Stephen F. Austin in 1821 for a colony in Spanish Texas, became part of the Robertson Colony; the city itself was founded in 1871 when the Texas Central Railway came to the area. It took its name from local magnate Jabez Deming Giddings, instrumental in bringing the railway to the area, he had come to the area from Pennsylvania in 1838 to claim the land bounty of his brother Giles A. Giddings, killed at the Battle of San Jacinto. Another theory is. Early settlers in the new town were pioneers from the surrounding communities, such as Old Evergreen and Shady Grove; the majority of these people were ethnic Anglo-Saxons, but a sizeable majority were Wendish families from the Serbin area.
They would establish the German-language newspaper Deutsches Volksblatt. A syndicate headed by William Marsh Rice sold property to settlers. Rice Institute in Houston had control and sold the lots. Wide streets were a distinguishing characteristic of the town; the town's first church, established in 1871, was Methodist. J. D. Giddings Masonic Lodge, chartered in Evergreen in 1865, moved to Giddings, early churches and a public school met in its building. Soon after the Civil War, freed slaves from farms and plantations settled in Giddings. Classes for more than fifty black students were held in a church in 1883, the first black public school was built in 1887. Giddings became the county seat when Lee County was established in 1874. Early businesses included the Granger store, a blacksmith shop and saloon, a millinery shop, a saddle and harness shop, an oil mill. Brick buildings came in 1875; the courthouse built in 1878 burned and was replaced in 1899. Fletcher House, built in 1879 by August W. Schubert, was sold to the Missouri Synod of the Immanuel Lutheran Church in 1894 to house Concordia Lutheran College.
By 1890 the town was part of a rich cotton-growing area with access to the San Antonio and Aransas Pass Railway, several gins, an opera house, a population estimated at 1,000. The First National Bank was still in operation more than a century later; the town was incorporated in 1913 and had a population of 2,000 by 1914. In the early 1980s the oil-laden Austin chalk that underlies the town was tapped, the area experienced an oil boom; some 300 oil-related businesses located in the town, many oil rigs were operating in outlying areas. In the late 1980s, the oil activities decreased to a standstill; the population of Giddings in 1988 was 5,178. In 1990 local businesses included a hospital, a medical clinic, a dialysis clinic, a chiropractic clinic, two nursing homes, a library, restaurants, two newspapers, a peanut mill, Invader Boat Manufacturing Company, Nutrena-Cargill Mills. There were nineteen churches in the city. Giddings is located at 30°10′59″N 96°56′5″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.2 square miles, of which 5.2 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water.
The climate in this area is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year. The Köppen Climate System describes the weather as humid subtropical, called Cfa; as of the census of 2000, there were 5,105 people, 1,639 households, 1,125 families residing in the city. The population density was 991.9 people per square mile. There were 1,852 housing units at an average density of 359.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 65.99% White, 13.26% African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.57% Asian, 16.47% from other races, 3.19% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 34.73% of the population. There were 1,639 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.8% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.3% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.39.
In the city, the population was spread out with 31.3% under the age of 18, 13.5% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 15.7% from 45 to 64, 14.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 108.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,046, the median income for a family was $37,115. Males had a median income of $27,370 versus $21,706 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,768. About 13.8% of families and 15.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.5% of those under age 18 and 12.0% of those age 65 or over. In 2014, the City of Giddings and the Giddings Economic Development purchased 170 acres of land on the east side of town with highway frontage for the development of the Giddings 290 Business Park; the GEDC broke ground on construction in the spring 2015. The GEDC expanded its office space to a new location along Hwy 290 in order to increase visibility and to provide more amenities to cli
Handbook of Texas
The Handbook of Texas is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography and historical persons published by the Texas State Historical Association. The original Handbook was the brainchild of TSHA President Walter Prescott Webb of The University of Texas history department, it was published as a two-volume set in 1952, with a supplemental volume published in 1976. In 1996, the New Handbook of Texas was published, expanding the encyclopedia to six volumes and over 23,000 articles. In 1999, the Handbook of Texas Online went live with the complete text of the print edition, all corrections incorporated into the handbook's second printing, about 400 articles not included in the print edition due to space limitations; the handbook continues to be updated online, contains over 25,000 articles. The online version includes entries on general topics, such as "Texas since World War II", biographies such as notable Texans Samuel Houston and W. D. Twichell, ranches such as the Matador, geographical entries such as "Waco, Texas".
Many Texas scholars and professors, such as Robert A. Calvert and Art Martinez de Vara, have contributed to the Handbook. Texas State Historical Association Handbook of Texas 1952 2 volume edition at HathiTrust
The dogtrot known as a breezeway house, dog-run, or possum-trot, is a style of house, common throughout the Southeastern United States during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Some theories place its origins in the southern Appalachian Mountains; some scholars believe the style developed in the post-Revolution frontiers of Kentucky and Tennessee. Others note its presence in the low country of the Carolinas from an early period; the main style point was a large breezeway through the center of the house to cool occupants in the hot southern climate. Architects continue to build dogtrot houses using modern materials, but maintaining the original design. A dogtrot house consisted of two log cabins connected by a breezeway or "dogtrot", all under a common roof. One cabin was used for cooking and dining, while the other was used as a private living space, such as a bedroom; the primary characteristics of a dogtrot house is that it is one story, has at least two rooms averaging between 18 and 20 feet wide that each flank an open-ended central hall.
Additional rooms take the form of a semidetached ell or shed flanking the hall, most at the rear. Enclosed shed rooms are sometimes found at the front, although a shed-roof front porch is the most common form; the breezeway through the center of the house is a unique feature, with rooms of the house opening into the breezeway. The breezeway provided; the combination of the breezeway and open windows in the rooms of the house created air currents which pulled cooler outside air into the living quarters efficiently in the pre-air conditioning era. Secondary characteristics of the dogtrot house includes placement of the chimneys and porches. Chimneys were always located at each gable end of the house, with each serving one of the two main rooms. If the house was 1½ or the rarer two stories, the necessary staircase was at least enclosed or boxed in; the stairway was most placed in one or both of the main rooms, although it was sometimes placed in the open hallway. Although some houses had only the open central hall and flanking rooms, most dogtrots had full-width porches to the front and/or rear.
The town of Dubach in Lincoln Parish, has several surviving dogtrot houses. In 1990, it was recognized as the "Dogtrot Capital of the World" by the state legislature; the Autrey House Museum, a dogtrot house built in 1849, is located in Dubach. The estate known as "Ranch Azalee" in south Webster Parish in north Louisiana owned by the late State Senator Harold Montgomery, was of dogtrot design, having begun around 1840 as the James Jackson Bryan House. In 1999, Ranch Azalee was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the Noel Owen Neal House was built in 1840 near Arkansas. Neal, a farmer, died in 1850, his wife Hesky maintained the farm after his death. The house was moved to Washington and has undergone restoration; the LSU Rural Life Museum in Baton Rouge, includes a restored dogtrot house built by Thomas Neal Sr. from the 1860s to the early 1870s in Rapides Parish. The home was lived in by descendants of Mr. Neal until 1976; the Barrington Living History Museum in Washington-on-the-Brazos, which demonstrates life in mid-19th century Texas, has as its centerpiece the Anson Jones home, a four-room dogtrot cabin built by Dr. Anson Jones, the last president of the Republic of Texas.
This home was moved to the site in 1936. The Log Cabin Village, a living history village owned and operated by the city of Fort Worth, includes the restored Parker Cabin, built by a relative of Cynthia Ann Parker in 1848; the Dallas Heritage Village, in Dallas hosts a dogtrot house built in the winter of 1845-1846 near what is now the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. This dogtrot was a log cabin, but was covered in clapboard; the Sterne-Hoya House was built in Nacogdoches, Texas, in 1830 by Texas Revolution leader Adolphus Sterne as a dogtrot, although the open breezeway was enclosed. The Museum of West Louisiana in Leesville includes a dogtrot house; the Old Choate House Museum in Indianola, Oklahoma is a story-and-a-half dogtrot house that once belonged to a past Choctaw Senate president. On site at the East Texas Arboretum sits the Wofford House, built in 1850 by B. W. J. Wofford; the now restored home was moved to the arboretum in 2001 from Henderson County. The Arkansas Post Museum includes the Refeld-Hinman home, a log-cabin dogtrot house built in 1877.
Around 1820, the Jacob Wolf House in Norfork, was constructed. The two-story dogtrot home of a pioneer leader is the oldest known standing structure in the state; the house was designated as a county courthouse in 1825 by the territorial legislature. Around 1855, Colonel Randolph D. Casey built the Casey House the oldest existing house in Mountain Home, Arkansas; the home is maintained by the Baxter County Historical and Genealogical Society. In Tunica, the Tunica Museum owns and operates the Tate Log House, a log-cabin dogtrot home built in 1840; this home is the oldest surviving structure in the county. The Tarkil Branch Farm's Homestead Museum, a private living-history museum in Duplin, North Carolina, includes a dogtrot house built in the 1830s; the John Looney House in Ashville, Alabama, is a two-story dogtrot house built in the 1820s. The Sam Houston Memorial Museum in Huntsville, has two dogtrot cabins; the Woodland House, the most important structure at the museu
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Lee County, Texas
Lee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 16,612, its county seat is Giddings. The county is named for the first settler of the area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 634 square miles, of which 629 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 77 U. S. Highway 290 State Highway 21 Milam County Burleson County Washington County Fayette County Bastrop County Williamson County As of the census of 2000, there were 15,657 people, 5,663 households, 4,150 families residing in the county; the population density was 25 people per square mile. There were 6,851 housing units at an average density of 11 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 76.59% White, 12.08% Black or African American, 0.46% Native American, 0.24% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 8.87% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. 18.19% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.5% were of German and 8.3% American ancestry according to Census 2000.
80.1% spoke English, 14.4% Spanish and 5.1% German as their first language. There were 5,663 households out of which 35.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.00% were married couples living together, 8.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.70% were non-families. 23.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.15. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.80% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 14.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 101.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,280, the median income for a family was $42,073. Males had a median income of $30,635 versus $21,611 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,163.
About 9.70% of families and 11.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.70% of those under age 18 and 16.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 census, Lee County has a similar ethnic makeup relative to the overall United States. Lee County was Democratic, although less so than the majority of Texas as it was somewhat allied with the isolated Republican German-American Unionist stronghold centred upon Gillespie and Kendall Counties, it nonetheless voted Democratic in every election up to 1976 except the landslide Republican triumphs of 1956 and 1972, plus the war-influenced elections of 1916 and 1940 when its German-American population was suspicious of the Democratic Party's position towards Germany. Since 1980, like all of the rural White South, Lee County has become powerfully Republican. No Democratic Presidential candidate has won a majority in the county since Jimmy Carter in 1976, although during the drought- and farm crisis-dominated 1988 election Michael Dukakis won a fourteen-vote plurality.
In the past five elections the GOP candidate has always passed two third of the county's vote and Donald Trump exceeded three-quarters in 2016. The Texas Youth Commission operates the Giddings State School in unincorporated Lee County, near Giddings; as of 2004 the Giddings State School, a Texas Youth Commission facility, was Lee County's largest employer. Giddings Lexington Corinth Dime Box Hills Lincoln Old Dime Box Serbin List of memorials to Robert E. Lee National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Lee County Lee County Lee County from the Handbook of Texas Online
Dime Box, Texas
Dime Box is an unincorporated community in Lee County, United States. The Dime Box Independent School District serves area students and home to the Dime Box High School Longhorns, it is named after what is now called Texas. In 1913, the Southern Pacific Railroad built a line three miles southeast of the original location of Dime Box. Most of the residents and businesses moved to a site near the tracks. From that point onward, the original settlement became known as Old Dime Box and the new community was referred to as Dime Box; the climate in this area is characterized by humid summers. The Köppen Climate System describes the weather as humid subtropical, uses the abbreviation Cfa. Dime Box was cast as the capital of the Second Republic of Texas in Howard Waldrop's book Texas-Israeli War: 1999. Dime Box was visited by author William Least Heat-Moon as described in his book Blue Highways. Heat-Moon got a haircut from Claud Tyler. Texas songwriter and musician Max Stalling recorded a song set in Texas.
The town gets a mention in the song "Northeast Texas Women" by Willis Alan Ramsey. Season 4, Episode 9 of Walker, Texas Ranger featured Dime Box. Dime Box is the setting for the 1973 movie "Kid Blue" starring Dennis Hopper. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Dime Box, Texas