Pannonia was a province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. Pannonia was located over the territory of the present-day western Hungary, eastern Austria, northern Croatia, north-western Serbia, northern Slovenia, western Slovakia and northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. Julius Pokorny believed the name Pannonia is derived from Illyrian, from the Proto-Indo-European root *pen-, "swamp, wet". Others believe that the name is related to the god of the nature and shepherds Pan and/or pan, the Proto-Slavic/Proto-Indo-European word for lord/master, which could mean Pan's Land or Land of the Master, more probable due the fact the Ionian fleet supplied Pannonia via the Black Sea and Danube, Panionium festivities were well known in the region to its Celtic, Adriatic Veneti and Scythian inhabitants. Pliny the Elder, in Natural History, places the eastern regions of the Hercynium jugum, the "Hercynian mountain chain", in Pannonia and Dacia.
He gives us some dramaticised description of its composition, in which the close proximity of the forest trees causes competitive struggle among them. He mentions its gigantic oaks, but he—if the passage in question is not an interpolated marginal gloss—is subject to the legends of the gloomy forest. He mentions unusual birds, which have feathers that "shine like fires at night". Medieval bestiaries named these birds the Ercinee; the impenetrable nature of the Hercynian Silva hindered the last concerted Roman foray into the forest, by Drusus, during 12–9 BC: Florus asserts that Drusus invisum atque inaccessum in id tempus Hercynium saltum patefecit. The first inhabitants of this area known to history were the Pannonii, a group of Indo-European tribes akin to Illyrians. From the 4th century BC, it was invaded by various Celtic tribes. Little is heard of Pannonia until 35 BC, when its inhabitants, allies of the Dalmatians, were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia; the country was not, definitively subdued by the Romans until 9 BC, when it was incorporated into Illyricum, the frontier of, thus extended as far as the Danube.
In AD 6, the Pannonians, with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, engaged in the so-called Great Illyrian Revolt, were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign, which lasted for three years. After the rebellion was crushed in AD 9, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south; the date of the division is unknown, most after AD 20 but before AD 50. The proximity of dangerous barbarian tribes necessitated the presence of a large number of troops, numerous fortresses were built on the bank of the Danube; some time between the years 102 and 107, between the first and second Dacian wars, Trajan divided the province into Pannonia Superior, Pannonia Inferior. According to Ptolemy, these divisions were separated by a line drawn from Arrabona in the north to Servitium in the south; the whole country was sometimes called the Pannonias. Pannonia Superior was under the consular legate, who had administered the single province, had three legions under his control.
Pannonia Inferior was at first under a praetorian legate with a single legion as the garrison. The frontier on the Danube was protected by the establishment of the two colonies Aelia Mursia and Aelia Aquincum by Hadrian. Under Diocletian, a fourfold division of the country was made: Pannonia Prima in the northwest, with its capital in Savaria / Sabaria, it included Upper Pannonia and the major part of Central Pannonia between the Raba and Drava, Pannonia Valeria in the northeast, with its capital in Sopianae, it comprised the remainder of Central Pannonia between the Raba and Danube, Pannonia Savia in the southwest, with its capital in Siscia, Pannonia Secunda in the southeast, with its capital in SirmiumDiocletian moved parts of today's Slovenia out of Pannonia and incorporated them in Noricum. In 324 AD, Constantine I enlarged the borders of Roman Pannonia to the east, annexing the plains of what is now eastern Hungary, northern Serbia and western Romania up to the limes that he created: the Devil's Dykes.
In the 4th-5th century, one of the dioceses of the Roman Empire was known as the Diocese of Pannonia. It had its capital in Sirmium and included all four provinces that were formed from historical Pannonia, as well as the provinces of Dalmatia, Noricum Mediterraneum and Noricum Ripense. During the Migrations Period in the 5th century, some parts of Pannonia was ceded to the Huns in 433 by Flavius Aetius, the magister militum of the Western Roman Empire. After the collapse of the Hunnic empire in 454, large numbers of Ostrogoths were settled by Marcian in the province as foederati; the Eastern Roman Empire controlled it for a time in the 6th century, a Byzantine province of Pannonia with its capital at Sirmium was temporarily restored, but it included only a small southeastern part of historical Pannonia. Afterwards, it was again invaded by the Avars in the 560s, the Slavs, who first settled c. 480s but became independent only from the 7th century, the Franks, who named a frontier march the March of Pannonia in the late 8th century.
The term Pannonia wa
Kozara is a mountain in western Bosnia and Herzegovina, in the Bosanska Krajina region, bounded by the Sava River to the north, the Vrbas to the east, the Sana to the south, the Una to the west. Its tallest peak is Lisina. In 1942 Kozara was the site of the Kozara Offensive, part of the Yugoslav National Liberation War and Partisan resistance during World War II. Kozara National Park List of mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Gradiška, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Gradiška is a city and municipality located in northwestern Republika Srpska, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 51,727 inhabitants, it is geographically located in eastern Krajina region, the town is situated on the Lijevče plain, on the right bank of the Sava river across from Stara Gradiška, about 40 km north of Banja Luka. In the Roman period, the municipium of Serbinum existed on the location of the present-day town, it was of strategic importance. Among notable archaeological findings are a viaduct. Gradiški Brod is mentioned for the first time as a town in c. 1330. It had a major importance as the location. By 1537, the town and its surroundings came under Ottoman rule; the Ottoman built a fortress. The town was called Berbir because of the fortress. Following the outbreak of the First Serbian Uprising, in the Sanjak of Smederevo, the Jančić's Revolt broke out in the Gradiška region against the Ottoman government in the Bosnia Eyalet, following the erosion of the economic and religious rights of Serbs.
Hajduks arrived from Serbia, were active on the Kozara. Jovan Jančić Sarajlija organized the uprising with help from Metropolitan Benedikt Kraljević; the peasants took up arms on 23 September 1809, beginning from Mašići. The fighting began on 25 September, on the same night, the Ottomans captured and executed Jančić; the rebels retreated to their villages, except those in Kozara and Motajica who continued, offered strong resistance until their defeat in mid-October, after extensive looting and burning of villages by the Ottomans. Another revolt broke out in Mašići. Ottoman rule ended with the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, following the Herzegovina Uprising. Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina ended in 1918, when the South Slavic Austro-Hungarian territories proclaimed the State of Slovenes and Serbs, which subsequently joined the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. From 1929 to 1941 Gradiška was part of the Vrbas Banovina of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
During Yugoslavia, the town was known as Bosanska Gradiška. During the Bosnian War, the town was incorporated into Republika Srpska. After the war, the RS National Assembly changed the name, omitting bosanska, as was done with many other towns. Aside from the town of Gradiška, the municipality includes total of 74 other settlements: According to the 2013 census results, the municipality has 51,727 inhabitants; the ethnic composition of the municipality: The town has a Serbian Orthodox cathedral dedicated to the Mother of God. The following table gives a preview of total number of registred employed people per their core activity: Marko Marin, German footballer Zvjezdan Misimović, footballer Vaso Čubrilović, politician and historian, member of Black Hand organisation and participant in the conspiracy to kill Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. Veljko Čubrilović, member of Black Hand organisation A. Setyabudi, artist Vlado Jagodić, former footballer, now manager Vinko Marinović, former Serbian footballer, now manager Radenko Milak, artist Gojko Subotić, academic and art historian Tatjana Pašalić, poker presenter Samson Morpurgo, Medieval Italian rabbi and liturgist Nordin Gerzić, Swedish footballer Alojzije Mišić, Roman Catholic bishop Branko Grahovac, football goalkeeper Atif Dudaković, Bosnian war-time army general Nazif Hajdarović, footballer Ratko Varda, basketball player Milan Janković, footballer Miodrag Latinović, retired footballer Zlatko Janjić, footballer Ozren Perić, footballer Safet Halilović, politician Ognjen Ožegović, Serbian footballer, European U-19 champion Kavala, since 1994 Ćuprija, since 1994 Negotino, since 2006 Montesilvano, since 2018 Municipalities of Republika Srpska Subdivisions of Bosnia and Herzegovina Official website
International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina, known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, located within the Balkan Peninsula. Sarajevo is largest city. Bosnia and Herzegovina is an landlocked country – it has a narrow coast at the Adriatic Sea, about 20 kilometres long surrounding the town of Neum, it is bordered by Croatia to the north and south. In the central and eastern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, the northeast is predominantly flatland; the inland, Bosnia, is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, with hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip, has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography. Bosnia and Herzegovina traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age and after which it was populated by several Illyrian and Celtic civilizations. Culturally and the country has a rich history, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries.
In the 12th century the Banate of Bosnia was established, which evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it remained from the mid-15th to the late 19th centuries. The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country; this was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. In the interwar period and Herzegovina was part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and after World War II, it was granted full republic status in the newly formed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Following the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the republic proclaimed independence in 1992, followed by the Bosnian War, lasting until late 1995. Tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina has grown at double digit rates in recent years. Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural environment and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique music and its festivals, some of which are the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.
The country is home to three main ethnic groups or constituent peoples, as specified in the constitution. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second, Croats third. A native of Bosnia and Herzegovina, regardless of ethnicity, is identified in English as a Bosnian. Minorities, defined under the constitutional nomenclature "Others", include Jews, Poles and Turks. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is limited, as the country is decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third unit, the Brčko District, governed under local government; the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of 10 cantons. Bosnia and Herzegovina ranks in terms of human development, has an economy dominated by the industry and agriculture sectors, followed by the tourism and service sectors; the country has a social security and universal healthcare system, primary- and secondary-level education is tuition-free.
It is a member of the UN, OSCE, Council of Europe, PfP, CEFTA, a founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean upon its establishment in July 2008. The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan; the first preserved acknowledged mention of Bosnia is in De Administrando Imperio, a politico-geographical handbook written by the Byzantine emperor Constantine VII in the mid-10th century describing the "small land" of "Bosona". The name is believed to have derived from the hydronym of the river Bosna coursing through the Bosnian heartland. According to philologist Anton Mayer the name Bosna could derive from Illyrian *"Bass-an-as"), which would derive from the Proto-Indo-European root "bos" or "bogh"—meaning "the running water". According to English medievalist William Miller the Slavic settlers in Bosnia "adapted the Latin designation Basante, to their own idiom by calling the stream Bosna and themselves Bosniaks ".
The name Herzegovina originates from Bosnian magnate Stjepan Vukčić Kosača's title, "Herceg of Hum and the Coast". Hum Zahumlje, was an early medieval principality, conquered by the Bosnian Banate in the first half of the 14th century; the region was administered by the Ottomans as the Sanjak of Herzegovina within the Eyalet of Bosnia up until the formation of the short-lived Herzegovina Eyalet in the 1830s, which remerged in the 1850s, after which the entity became known as Bosnia and Herzegovina. On initial proclamation of independence in 1992, the country's official name was the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina but following the 1995 Dayton Agreement and the new constitution that accompanied it the official name was changed to Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosnia has been inhabited by humans since at least the Neolithic age; the earliest Neolithic population became known in the Antiquity as the Illyrians. Celtic migrations in the 4th century BC were notable. Concrete historical e
Novosti is a Croatian weekly magazine based in Zagreb. It is published by the Serb National Council, the main state-funded body concerned with promotion of human rights and dealing with issues of ethnic identity and participation of Serbs in Croatia; the organization was established in July 1997 in Zagreb, based on the provisions granting the right to self-government for Serbs in Croatia as set in the Erdut Agreement. The magazine, billed as an "independent Serb weekly", describes its editorial policy as being concerned with covering general news and publishing "critical writing about all the relevant political and cultural developments in Croatia", it deals with issues related to the Serb community in Croatia and the development of civil society. The Novosti weekly was launched by SNV in December 1999 in broadsheet format as a weekly publication concerned with minority politics related to Serbs of Croatia. Since its first issue the magazine adopted a policy of linguistic pluralism and featured articles written in both Croatian and Serbian, offered a mix of sections printed in Latin and Cyrillic scripts.
However, its circulation was limited to subscribers and was not available in newsstands for the first ten years of its existence. In late 2009 the magazine underwent an extensive makeover in an effort to transform it into a weekly magazine which would appeal to the mainstream public, with more space dedicated to commentary pieces and coverage of nationally significant political and cultural events, as well as investigative journalism. To that extent, the magazine hired a number of prominent columnists and intellectuals as commentators, including Viktor Ivančić, Boris Dežulović, Vladimir Arsenijević, Tomislav Jakić and Igor Mandić, was for the first time made available for purchase at newsstands; as of December 2009 its circulation is 8,000. Its editor-in-chief is Ivica Đikić of Novi list daily. Over the time magazine published interviews with Noam Chomsky, Etgar Keret, Zygmunt Bauman, Henry Giroux, Srećko Horvat, Milorad Pupovac, Chris Hedges, Jacques Rancière, Vivek Chibber, Filip David, Georges Wolinski, Mladen Ivanić, Vesna Teršelič, Andrej Nikolaidis, Mirjana Karanović.
Political satire and social commentary are integral part of Novosti editorial policy. This at some points caused strong criticism among some Croatian nationalists with dogmatic views on historical events such as Croatian War of Independence, who saw ridicule of militarism, Croatian military and national symbols as unacceptable excess of limits of freedom of speech; some of them were calling for cancellation of funding the newspapers from public money, criminal prosecution or censorship. Some mainstream politicians in Croatia, including the president Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović, warned the editors that they shall take care what they are writing about implicitly calling them to use self-censorship. President stated that she consider journal satire to be inappropriate and similar to cartoons of Muhammad in foreign press such as Charlie Hebdo. On April 4, 2017 Reporters Without Borders condemned "a campaign of lawsuits and verbal attacks that Croatian nationalist groups have been orchestrating for several months against Novosti, the newspaper of Croatia’s Serbian minority".
Some of the sentences published in Novosti that made part of the Croatian public feel insulted, were following: "Asshole Croatia is a national state of assholes and their public service""Scientists brag that they found the reason for existence of an appendix, while for Croatian sovereignty, up to this day, no one knows what it serves for, or does it exists...". Initiators of the petition for repeal of the funding refer to the same tender criterium which enabled the funding of Novosti weekly, which states: "those who promote intolerance towards any national minority or majority, will be banned from contesting on tender in period of 3 years" Drago Kovačević Official website Serb National Council official website
Stara Gradiška is a village and a municipality in Slavonia, in the Brod-Posavina County of Croatia. It is located across Gradiška in Bosnia and Herzegovina; the total population is 1,363, distributed in the following settlements:The town is well known for the Stara Gradiška prison and Stara Gradiška concentration camp. The municipality is home to the cultural organization KUD Posavina, it celebrates the feast of St. Michael as its municipal day. Stara Gradiška is underdeveloped municipality, statistically classified as the First Category Area of Special State Concern by the Government of Croatia; the first word in the name means Old, there's a New Gradiška nearby, the city of Nova Gradiška. Donji Varoš, population 284 Gornji Varoš, population 258 Gređani, population 173 Novi Varoš, population 204 Pivare, population 17 Stara Gradiška, population 327 Uskoci, population 100 Until 1918, ALT-GRADISKA was part of the Austrian monarchy, in the Croatia-Slavonia Military Border District; the post-office was opened in 1859.
In the late 19th and early 20th century, Stara Gradiška was part of the Požega County of the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia