Serbs in Italy
Serbs in Italy or Italian Serbs, number around 46,958 in the territory of Italy. In 1497 Italian court poet Rogeri de Pacienza di Nardo wrote about a group of Serbian refugees who left the Despotate of Đurađ Branković to settle in the village of Gioia del Colle near Bari, Italy. He describes how they sang and danced the kolo in honour of the Queen of Naples, the names of the singers that Pacienza wrote down are common Serbian names. In 1782 the first Serbian school opened in Trieste, and in the 19th century the Serbian Orthodox Saint Spyridon church in Trieste was built near the Ponte Rosso square, some 40,000 Serbs live in northern Italy. In Arzignano there are thousands of Serbs from all over former Yugoslavia, in Trieste,10, 000-15,000 Serbs live in the city. 46,958, Foreign citizens from Serbia There are several community organizations of Serbs in Italy, the Association of Serbs of Italy was established in April 2015 by the combined organizations meeting in Trieste. Sportspeople Giovanni Raicevich was a famous Italian wrestler in the early 20th century and he is the father of Dragan Travica Marko Stanojevic, rugby union player born in Birmingham to a Serbian father and an Italian mother.
He played for the Italian national team, Rada Rassimov, actress born in Trieste to Serbian parents as Rada Djerasimović, sister of Ivan Rassimov. Singers Sara Jovanović, Serbian singer born in Rome that represented Serbia at Eurovision Song Contest 2008 Artists Marcello Dudovich was born in 1878 and he was one of the most acclaimed commercial artists of art and posters during his time. Nobility Darinka Kvekić, wife of Danilo I, Prince of Montenegro Triestine Serbs Serbian diaspora Svetionik
Serbian traditional clothing
Serbian folk costumes, like any traditional dress of a nation or culture, has been lost to the advent of urbanization, industrialization, and the growing market of international clothing trends. The wide range of folk costumes show influence from historical Austrian, German, Italian. Today, these costumes are only worn by some elderly in rural areas, on national holidays, and as part of celebrations, tourist attractions. From the 19th century on, Serbs have adopted the usual European way of dressing, Serbian costume is known for the variety of textures and embroidery. The jelek is a Waistcoat made from wool or velvet while womens jackets are lined with fur, the peony embroidery design often found on aprons and elsewhere is colored bright red, symbolising the blood lost at the Battle of Kosovo. Characteristic features of Serbian dress include opanci, footwear dating back to antiquity, traditional Serbian female dress consists of opanci, embroidered woolen socks that reached to the knees and nazuvice.
Skirts were very varied, of plaited or gathered and embroidered linen, an important part of the costume were aprons decorated with floral motifs. Shirts were in the shape of tunics, richly decorated with silver thread, in some areas it was replaced by an upper sleeveless dress of red or blue cloth, knee-long, richly decorated and buttoned in front. Scarves and caps bordered with cords were worn as headdress, girls wore collars, or a string of gold coins around their throats, earrings and their caps were decorated with metal coins or flowers. In medieval times, the nobility and senior churchmen brought many of their fabrics from the Republic of Ragusa, the most common fabric for ordinary Serbs was sclavina or schiavina, a coarse woollen fabric. Linen was made within Serbia while silk was grown at the Dečani Monastery as well as near Prizren, few secular garments have survived from the medieval period the most notable being the costume worn by Lazar Hrebeljanović at the Battle of Kosovo. More decorated vestments have survived from the period, the typical Serbian costume comprises shirts, skirts, sleeveless coats called jeleks, ordinary coats, socks and head-gear, often called oglavja.
Overall traditional wear include, the Opanci peasant shoes, a construction of leather, lack of laces, the design of the horn-like ending indicates the region of Serbia the shoes are from. Until 50 years ago, they were worn in rural areas of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The Šubara shepherd hat, during harsher and colder times and it is in a conical or cylindrical shape predominantly of Black colour, because of the black lamb/sheep fur. It was used in the World War I by the Serbian soldiers and by the Chetniks in World War II and again during the Yugoslav Wars, usually with a cockade of the Serbian eagle or cross. Today, it is part of the folk attires of east and southeast Serbia, characteristic of the dress is the, Šajkača cap, easily recognisable by its design, the top looks like the letter V or like the bottom of a boat. It would continue to be used by the Royal Yugoslav Army and it continued its use by the Chetniks in World War II, but Serbs of the Yugoslav Partisans until it was replaced by Titovka cap for soldiers and Peaked cap for officers parade uniform
History of the Serbs
The History of the Serbs spans from the Early Middle Ages to present. Serbs, a South Slavic people, traditionally live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Herzegovina, a Serbian diaspora dispersed people of Serb descent to Western Europe and North America. Slavs settled in the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries, the Serbs created numerous small states located in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. One of the most powerful Serbian states during this period was Raška, ruled by Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja from 1169 to 1196, Serbia conquered the neighbouring Slavic territories of Kosovo and Zachumlje. Subsequently, he created the Nemanjić dynasty, which ruled over Serbia until the 14th century, over the next 140 years, Serbia expanded its borders. Its cultural model remained Byzantine, despite political ambitions directed against the empire, the medieval power and influence of Serbia culminated in the reign of Stefan Dušan, who ruled the state from 1331 until his death in 1355. Ruling as Emperor from 1346, his territory included Macedonia, northern Greece, when Dušan died, his son Stephen Uroš V became Emperor.
With the death of two important Serb leaders in the battle, and with the death of Stephen Uroš that same year, hrebeljanović was subsequently accepted as the titular leader of the Serbs because he was married to a member of the Nemanjić dynasty. In 1389, the Serbs faced the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo on the plain of Kosovo Polje, both Lazar and Sultan Murad I were killed in the fighting. The battle most likely ended in a stalemate, and Serbia did not fall to the Turks until 1459, there exists c.30 Serbian chronicles from the period between 1390 and 1526. The Serbs had taken a part in the wars fought in the Balkans against the Ottoman Empire. Because of this, they suffered persecution and their territories were devastated, major migrations from Serbia into Habsburg territory ensued. In early 1594, the Serbs in Banat rose up against the Ottomans, the rebels had, in the character of a holy war, carried war flags with the icon of Saint Sava. After suppressing the uprising, the Ottomans publicly incinerated the relics of Saint Sava at the Vračar plateau on April 27,1595, the incineration of Savas relics provoked the Serbs, and empowered the Serb liberation movement.
From 1596, the center of activity in Herzegovina was the Tvrdoš Monastery in Trebinje. An uprising broke out in 1596, but the rebels were defeated at the field of Gacko in 1597, Serbs, as volunteers, massively joined the Austrian side. In 1688, the Habsburg army took Belgrade and entered the territory of present-day Central Serbia, louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden called Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević to raise arms against the Turks, the Patriarch accepted and returned to the liberated Peć. As Serbia fell under Habsburg control, Leopold I granted Arsenije nobility, a large migration of Serbs to Habsburg lands was undertaken by Patriarch Arsenije III
Serbs in Hungary
The Serbs in Hungary are recognized as an ethnic minority, numbering 7,210 people or 0. 1% of the total population. The number of Serbs in Hungary has drastically diminished, in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries large Serb communities existed throughout Hungary, notably in Buda, Baja and Szeged. The Serb community in the territory of present-day Hungary has its origin in migrations from the territory of medieval Serbian states during and after the Ottoman conquest of these states. Matthias Corvinus and his successors are known to have welcomed Serbs from the side of the Danube, giving the exiled military commanders fiefdoms to rule. The presence of Serbs in the territory of present-day Hungary date from the Middle Ages, the mother of the Hungarian king Géza II was Helena of Raška, a daughter of the great župan of Raška, Uroš I. During the rule of Géza II, her brother Beloš Vukanović was a palatine of the Kingdom of Hungary, since the 14th century, escaping from the Ottoman threat, a large number of Serbs migrated to the Kingdom of Hungary where many of them served as soldiers.
After the Battle of Mohács in 1526, much of the territory of present-day Hungary came under Ottoman administration, during Ottoman administration towns in the territory of present-day Hungary began decaying and the former Hungarian and German population left them. In that time, especially in the 17th century, many Serb and it is interesting that most of the Ottoman soldiers in the territory of present-day Hungary were South Slavs. After territory of present-day Hungary came under Habsburg administration, a new wave of Serb refugees migrated to the area in 1690, as a consequence of the Habsburg-Ottoman war. In the first half of the 18th century and South Slavs were ethnic majority in several cities in the territory of present-day Hungary, including Buda, Baja, Pécs, after the devastating Ottoman wars these cities had a very low population. In 1698, more than a half of population of Pécs were South Slavs, in 1715, the population of Buda numbered 1,539 houses, of which 769 were South Slavic,701 German, and 68 Hungarian.
In 1715, the population of Baja numbered 237 houses, of which 216 were South Slavic,16 Hungarian, in 1720, 88% of population of Szentendre were South Slavs. In 1720, the population of Szeged numbered 193 houses, of which 99 were Serb, during the 18th and 19th century, the Hungarian-Serb ethnic border moved southward and fixed in the territory of present-day Vojvodina. The Treaty of Trianon from 1920 defined the border between Hungary and the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes and assigned most of Baranya, as a response to this, a short-lived Serb-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic was formed in this area in 1921. The president of the republic was Serb, Petar Dobrović, after the Serb-Croat-Slovene army evacuated the territory of the Baranya-Baja Republic the two countries signed a citizenship treaty. According to that treaty, members of the Serb minority in Hungary gained right to opt for citizenship of the Kingdom of Serbs, about two-thirds of the Serbs left Hungary in the following decade. Almost the whole Serb population of Sárok, Deszk, Újszentiván, Szőreg, Majs, in 1910,26,248 people in the territory of present-day Hungary spoke Serbian language.
In 1920, number of Serbian speakers was 17,132, in 19307,031, in 19415,442, in 197011,177, in 19803,426, in 19902,953,20013,388 and in 20113,708
Serbian Orthodox Church
The Serbian Orthodox Church is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Christian churches. It is the second oldest Slavic Orthodox Church in the world, the Serbian Orthodox Church comprises the majority of population in Serbia and the Republika Srpska entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is organized into metropolises and eparchies located primarily in Serbia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Croatia, the Serbian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous, or ecclesiastically independent, member of the Orthodox communion. Serbian Patriarch serves as first among equals in his church, the current patriarch is Irinej, the Church achieved autocephalous status in 1219 under the leadership of St. Sava, becoming independent Archbishopric of Žiča. Its status was elevated to that of a patriarchate in 1346 and this patriarchate was abolished by the Ottoman Turks in 1766. The modern Serbian Orthodox Church was re-established in 1920 after the unification of the Patriarchate of Karlovci, the Metropolitanate of Belgrade, Christianity spread to the Balkans beginning in the 1st century.
Florus and Laurus are venerated as Christian martyrs of the 2nd century, Constantine the Great, born in Niš, was the first Christian Roman Emperor. Several bishops seated in what is today Serbia participated in the First Council of Nicaea, in 380, Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius decreed that his subjects would be Christians according to the Council of Nicea formula. Greek was used in the Byzantine church, while the Roman church used Latin, with the definite split in 395, the line in Europe ran south along the Drina river. Tim Judah says that the Roman split resulted in that Serbs are Orthodox, among old Christian heritage is the Archbishopric of Justiniana Prima, established in 535, which had jurisdiction over the whole of present-day Serbia. However, the Archbishopric did not last, as the Slavs and Avars destroyed the region sometime after 602, in 731 Leo III attached Illyricum and Southern Italy to Patriarch Anastasius of Constantinople, transferring the papal authority to the Eastern Church.
Slavs invaded and settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries, the history of the early medieval Serbian Principality is recorded in the work De Administrando Imperio, compiled by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus. The DAI drew information on the Serbs from, among others, the Serbs were said to have received the protection of Emperor Heraclius, and Porphyrogenitus stressed that the Serbs had always been under Imperial rule. The Christianization was due partly to Byzantine and subsequent Bulgarian influence, at least during the rule of Kocel in Pannonia, communications between Serbia and Great Moravia, where Methodius was active, must have been possible. This fact, the pope was presumably aware of, when planning Methodius diocese as well as that of the Dalmatian coast, there is a possibility that some Cyrillomethodian pupils reached Serbia in the 870s, perhaps even sent by Methodius himself. Serbia was accounted Christian as of about 870, the first Serbian bishopric was founded at Ras, near modern Novi Pazar on the Ibar river.
According to Vlasto, the affiliation is uncertain, it may have been under the subordination of either Split or Durazzo. The early Ras church can be dated to the 9th–10th century, the names of Serbian rulers through Mutimir are Slavic dithematic names, per the Old Slavic tradition
Serbian cuisine is the traditional cuisine of the Balkan country Serbia, sharing characteristics with the rest of the Balkan nations. The national dishes include pljeskavica, ćevapi, and Karađorđeva šnicla, the national drink is the plum brandy šljivovica or Homemade rakija. Serbian food is characterized not only of elements from Serbia, peasantry has greatly influenced the cooking process. In recent times, the Serbian diaspora has spread the cuisine across the world. William, archbishop of Tyre, who visited Constantinople in 1179, described the Serbs, They are rich in herds and flocks and unusually well supplied with milk, butter, meat and wax. The first published cookbook in Serbia is The Big Serbian Cookbook, the best known Serbian cookbook is Patas Cookbook, written by Spasenija Pata Marković in 1907, the book remains in publication even today. An old Serbian legend says that during the time of the 14th-century Serbian Empire, under the rule of Stefan Uroš IV Dušan, meals in the Serbian palace were eaten with golden spoons, historians say that mediaeval Serbian cuisine mainly consisted of milk, dairy produce and vegetables.
Not a lot of bread was eaten, but when it was, the rich ate bread made from wheat, the only meat consumed was game, with cattle kept for agricultural use. Most people in Serbia will have three meals daily, breakfast and dinner, with lunch being the largest in the Mediterranean fashion, traditionally, only lunch and dinner existed, with breakfast being introduced in the second half of the 19th century. It has a mix of various traditions, Serbian confectioneries often offer koljivo, nut roll. A number of foods which are bought in the West, are often made at home in Serbia. These include rakija, jam, various pickled foods, notably sauerkraut, the reasons for this range from economical to cultural. Food preparation is a part of the Serbian family tradition. Breakfast in Serbia is an early but hearty meal, although before breakfast most people take a cup of coffee. The most common are simple pottages made of beef or poultry with added noodles, fishermans soup and lamb soup are considered to be delicacies.
Grilled meats are the main course dishes offered in most restaurants. They are often eaten as fast food and they are traditionally made by holding the meat to the wind and cold air and only smoked. A traditional Serbian welcome is to offer the guest with just bread and salt, some people believe that it is sinful to throw away bread regardless of how old it is
Serbs in Austria
The Serbs in Austria are the second largest ethnic minority group in Austria, after Germans. The first wave of Serbs to Austria began in the early 19th century, Serb immigration to Austria is still active today due to economic and familial factors. Like in most Western European countries, the Serb community in Austria consists mainly of Serbs from Serbia and Bosnia, according to the 2014 census, there were 132,553 Austrian citizens who declared Serbian as their native language. The real number of ethnic Serbs in Austria is estimated to be much higher – e. g. the membership of Serbische Gemeinschaft in Österreich, the common estimation is a total of 300,000. The Österreichisch Serbische Gesellschaft was founded in 1936 as Österreichisch-Jugoslawischen Gesellschaft, Serbs were a notable minority of the Habsburg Monarchy, having settled Central Europe following the Ottoman conquest of Serbia. The Serbs with the aid of Austrian troops occupied Serbia in 1686–91, established the Kingdom of Serbia, and occupied it again in 1788–92
Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina
The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina are one of the three constitutive nations of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska. In the other entity Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Serbs form the majority in Drvar, Glamoč, Bosansko Grahovo and they are frequently referred to as Bosnian Serbs in English, regardless of whether they are from Bosnia or Herzegovina. They are known by names such as Krajišnici, Bosanci, Hercegovci. The 2013 population census registered 1,086,733 Serbs or 30. 8% of the population of Bosnia. Bosnian Serbs are the most territorially widespread nation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the vast majority live on the territory of the Republika Srpska, where they constitute around 88% of population. The majority of Bosnian Serbs are adherents of the Serbian Orthodox Church, the Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina speak the Serbian language in its Ijekavian accent, similar to that of Serbs of Montenegro and Croatia, and to the language of Bosniaks and Bosnian Croats.
Slavs settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries, according to De Administrando Imperio, the Serbs had settled what is now Bosnia and Herzegovina. They inhabited and ruled Serbia, which included Bosnia, and the principalities of Travunija and Paganija. Serbia was at the time ruled by the Vlastimirović dynasty, during the rule of Mutimir, the Serbs were Christianized. Prince Petar, defeated Tišemir in Bosnia, annexing the valley of Bosna, Petar took over the Neretva, after which he seems to have come into conflict with Michael, a Bulgarian vassal ruling Zahumlje. Časlav defeated the Magyars on the Drina river banks when protecting Bosnia, after his death, Duklja emerged as the most powerful Serb polity, ruled by the Vojislavljević dynasty. Constantine Bodin installed his relative Stefan as Ban of Bosnia, the Nemanjić dynasty acquired the rule of the Serbian lands. With the establishment of the autocephalous Serbian Church, Archbishop Sava founded the Metropolitanate of Zahumlje, with the Ottoman conquest of medieval Serbia, there were large migrations towards Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Serb Uprising of 1596–97 was suppressed at Gacko, in 1809, Jančićs Revolt broke out in Gradiška. In 1834, Priest Jovicas Revolt broke out in Gradiška, in 1858, Pecijas First Revolt broke out in Knešpolje. In 1875, the Herzegovina Uprising broke out in the Bosnia Vilayet, on July 2,1876, Golub Babić and his 71 commanders signed the Proclamation of the Unification of Bosnia with Serbia. In 1878, Bosnia and Herzegovina became a protectorate of Austria-Hungary, the first parliamentary elections in Bosnia and Herzegovina were held in 1910, the winner was Serbian National Organization. On June 28,1914, Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip made international headlines after assassinating Arch Duke Francis Ferdinand in Sarajevo and this sparked World War I leading to Austria-Hungarys defeat and the incorporation of Bosnia and Herzegovina into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kosovo Serbs are the largest ethnic minority group in Kosovo, numbering around 150,000 people. By the end of 19th century they were the majority population, Kosovo was the cultural and religious core of the medieval Serbian state. Because of Serbian medieval history and monuments, Kosovo has long called the Serbian Jerusalem. The Medieval Monuments in Kosovo, founded by the Nemanjić dynasty, is a combined World Heritage Site consisting of four Serbian Orthodox Christian churches and monasteries, after centuries of Ottoman rule, Kosovo was annexed by the Kingdom of Serbia in 1912, following the First Balkan War. The formal names for the Serb community in Kosovo is Serbs in Kosovo and Metohija or Serbs of Kosmet, in use by the community itself and they are referred to as Serbs of Kosovo or Serbs in Kosovo. The term Kosovo Serbs is predominantly used in English and they are known by the demonym Kosovci, though this is properly used for inhabitants of the region of Kosovo, along with Metohijci.
Sclaveni raided and settled the western Balkans in the 6th and 7th century, through linguistical studies, it is concluded that the Early South Slavs were made up of a western and eastern branch, of parallel streams, roughly divided in the Timok–Osogovo–Šar line. Parts of northwestern Kosovo were part of the Serbian Principality, in the late 9th century the region was seized by the Bulgar Khanate, while the region switched hands between the Byzantines and Bulgars until the Byzantine restoration of 1018–19. In 1040–41 a massive Slavic rebellion broke out, which included Kosovo, the new independent Serbian Grand Prince, began raiding Byzantine territories, first in Kosovo, advancing into Macedonia. He broke several peace treaties concluded personally with the Byzantine Emperor at Zvečan and Lipljan, in 1166, a Serbian prince, Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjić dynasty, asserted independence after an uprising against the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus. Nemanja defeated his brother, Tihomir, at Pantino near Pauni, Nemanja was eventually defeated and had to return some of his conquests, and vouched to the Emperor that he would not raise his hand against him.
Nemanjas son, ruled a realm reaching the river of Lab in the south, Stefan conquered all of Kosovo by 1208, by which time he had conquered Prizren and Lipljan, and moved the border of his realm to the Šar mountain. In 1217, Stefan was crowned King of Serbs, due to which he is known in historiography as Stefan the First-Crowned, in 1219, the Serbian Church was given autocephaly, with Hvosno and Lipljan being the Orthodox Christian eparchies with territory in modern-day Kosovo. By the end of the 13th century, the centre of the Serbian Church was moved to Peć from Žiča. King Stefan Dušan founded the great Monastery of the Holy Archangel near Prizren in 1342–52, the Serbian Kingdom was elevated into an Empire in 1345–46. Stefan Dušan received John VI Kantakuzenos in 1342 at Pauni to discuss an alliance against the Byzantine Emperor, in 1346, the Serbian Archbishopric at Peć was upgraded into a Patriarchate, but it was not recognized before 1375. After the death of Dušan in 1355, the fall of the Serbian Empire began, with feudal disintegration during the reign of his successor, parts of Kosovo became domain of Vukašin Mrnjavčević, but Vojislav Vojinović expanded his demesne further onto Kosovo.
The armies of Vukašin from Pristina and his allies defeated Vojislavs forces in 1369, after the Battle of Maritsa on 26 September 1371 in which the Mrnjavčević brothers lost their lives, Đurađ I Balšić of Zeta took Prizren and Peć in 1372. A part of Kosovo became the demesne of the Lazar of Serbia, the Ottoman Empire invaded the realm of Prince Lazar on 28 June 1389, at the Battle of Kosovo near Pristina, at Gazimestan
Founded as a Roman city, in the Middle Ages Barcelona became the capital of the County of Barcelona. Barcelona has a cultural heritage and is today an important cultural centre. Particularly renowned are the works of Antoni Gaudí and Lluís Domènech i Montaner. The headquarters of the Union for the Mediterranean is located in Barcelona, the city is known for hosting the 1992 Summer Olympics as well as world-class conferences and expositions and many international sport tournaments. It is a cultural and economic centre in southwestern Europe, 24th in the world. In 2008 it was the fourth most economically powerful city by GDP in the European Union, in 2012 Barcelona had a GDP of $170 billion, it is leading Spain in both employment rate and GDP per capita change. In 2009 the city was ranked Europes third and one of the worlds most successful as a city brand, since 2011 Barcelona has been a leading smart city in Europe. During the Middle Ages, the city was known as Barchinona, Barçalona, Barchelonaa.
Internationally, Barcelonas name is abbreviated to Barça. However, this refers only to FC Barcelona, the football club. The common abbreviated form used by locals is Barna, another common abbreviation is BCN, which is the IATA airport code of the Barcelona-El Prat Airport. The city is referred to as the Ciutat Comtal in Catalan. The origin of the earliest settlement at the site of present-day Barcelona is unclear, the ruins of an early settlement have been excavated in the El Raval neighbourhood, including different tombs and dwellings dating to earlier than 5000 BC. The founding of Barcelona is the subject of two different legends, the first attributes the founding of the city to the mythological Hercules. In about 15 BC, the Romans redrew the town as a castrum centred on the Mons Taber, under the Romans, it was a colony with the surname of Faventia, or, in full, Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino or Colonia Julia Augusta Faventia Paterna Barcino. It enjoyed immunity from imperial burdens, the city minted its own coins, some from the era of Galba survive.
Some remaining fragments of the Roman walls have incorporated into the cathedral. The cathedral, known as the Basilica La Seu, is said to have founded in 343