Castelnuovo di Garfagnana
Castelnuovo di Garfagnana is a town and comune in the province of Lucca, central Italy. It is located at the confluence of the Serchio and the Turrite Secca rivers, close to the intersection of roads passing through the Apennine Mountains and the Apuan Alps; the local economy is based on the production of cereals and on the chemical and textile industries. The first mention of the locality is in an official document dating back to the 8th century with the name of "Castro Novo". From the 13th century Castelnuovo di Garfagnana developed as a market town due to its position close to rivers which were important trading routes. In the 14th century, it developed under the jurisdiction of the city of Lucca. In 1316, control of Castelnuovo di Garfagnana was given to Castruccio Castracani, who built a bridge in order to join the castle to the village. At the beginning of the 15th century the inhabitants of Castelnuovo di Garfagnana rebelled against the domination of Lucca, putting themselves under the protection of the Estensi family of Ferrara in 1430.
Under the Este control, the village gained in importance by becoming the first seat of Vicarship and by building imposing religious buildings such as the Cathedral. In 1512 the town was occupied by troops led by Francesco Maria I della Rovere, Duke of Urbino, a few years it was conquered by the Republic of Florence, the latter, holding the town under its control for just few years. In the following years the Estensi returned to power. During French domination and the territories of the Apuan Alps became part of the Cisalpine Republic. After the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire, in 1814 it was given back to the Estensi who ruled it until the Unification of Italy in 1861; the Rocca Ariostesca, dating to the 12th century and enlarged by Castruccio Castracani in the following century. It takes its name from the Italian poet, who resided here in 1522–25 when he was governor of the Garfagnana for the House of Este, it is now home to an archaeological museum. The Duomo of Sts. Peter and Paul, erected in the 16th century.
The façade is in Renaissance style. It includes a terracotta attributed to Andrea del Verrocchio and a canvas by Domenico Ghirlandaio depicting the Madonna with Saints; the Capuchins' Convent Fortress of Monte Alfonso, built in the late 16th century by the Estensi as their last stronghold before the Republic of Lucca Parco dell'Orecchiella, a nature park and botanical garden Teatro Alfieri Garfagnana Dronero, Italy Marciana, Italy
Province of Modena
The Province of Modena is a province in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Modena, it has an area of 2,689 square kilometres and a total population of about 701,000. There are 48 comuni in the province; the largest after Modena are Carpi, Sassuolo and Castelfranco Emilia. Modena is one of the most important industrial-economy poles in Europe: it is considered as capital of Supercars and SportCars industries lodging Ferrari, Maserati, De Tomaso and Pagani car manufacturers, international food industries like Grandi Salumifici, Cremonini Group, Fini Group, pottery manufacturers and pharmaceutical. World famous and iconic trading cards company Panini Group comes from Modena. Official website
The Ligurian Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Italian Riviera and the island of Corsica. The sea is theorized to be named after the ancient Ligures people; the sea borders Italy as far as its border with France, the French island of Corsica. In the east the sea borders the Tyrrhenian Sea, while in the west it borders the Mediterranean Sea proper. Genoa is the most prominent city in the area; the northwest coast is noted for its scenic favourable climate. The Gulf of Genoa is its northernmost part; the sea receives the Arno River from the many other rivers that originate in the Apennines. The ports of Genoa, La Spezia, Livorno are on its rocky coast, it reaches a maximum depth of more than 2,800 m northwest of Corsica. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Ligurian Sea as follows: On the Southwest. A line joining Cape Corse the Northern point of Corsica to the frontier between France and Italy. On the Southeast. A line joining Cape Corse with Tinetto Island and thence through Tino and Palmaria Islands to San Pietro Point on the Coast of Italy.
On the North The Ligurian Coast of Italy. In order to provide protection for the numerous cetacean species in the Ligurian Sea the bordering countries established the sea as a SPAMI in 1999; the International Ligurian Sea Cetacean Sanctuary now covers 84,000 km2 covering territorial waters as well as high sea
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Borgo a Mozzano
Borgo a Mozzano is a town and comune in the province of Lucca, in northern Tuscany, located on the Serchio River. The town is mentioned for the first time in 879, when a document mentioned one place In loco Mozzano prope Decimo, it was held by the Soffredinghi family, by the Republic of Lucca. After the end of the Lucchese independence, it was part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and, from 1860, of Unified Italy. Borgo a Mozzano is dominated by the presence of Ponte della Maddalena called "del Diavolo"; the Devil's Bridge is located on the SP2 one kilometer north of downtown. The bridge's majestic structure attracts hundreds of tourists every year. Borgo a Mozzano hosts a large industrial zone to the south by the river which causes pollution issues due to its location in a narrow part of the valley; the Gothic Line, a German Second World War military defence line, passed through the comune. Sections of this fortification are well preserved and guided tours of the interior can be arranged; the church and convent of San Francesco is based in Borgo a Mozzano, a monastery which now houses a home for the elderly.
The 12th century church of San Martino in Greppo, Borgo a Mozzano is located in the Diecimo district of the comune. The 19th-century suspension bridge, Ponte delle Catene, Bagni di Lucca or Bridge of Chains, links Chifenti in Borgo a Mozzano to Fornoli in the neighbouring comune of Bagni di Lucca; the town of Borgo a Mozzano is centrally located between the Garfagnana and the Lucchesia, can be reached by car with the SS12 "Brennero" or the SP2 "Lodovica". The nearest major airport is the Galileo Galilei International Airport of Pisa; the comune has two train stations, Borgo a Mozzano and Diecimo-Pescaglia, which are served by the line Lucca-Aulla. An infrequent bus system connects Borgo a Mozzano with the city of Lucca and the rest of the Garfagnana. Bizarrely, fares can not be purchased on the bus. You can make a journey on the bus but find you cannot return the same day due to lack of services. Busses are not used by tourists due to being so infrequent and not knowing where to purchase the fares.
Martorell, Spain Ålesund, Norway St. John Leonardi, founder of the Clerks Regular of the Mother of God of Lucca Giuseppe Antonio Luchi, painter Nicolò Fazzi, footballer Federico Mattiello, footballer Official website Borgo a Mozzano tourist information website
Abetone was a comune in the Province of Pistoia in the Italian region of Tuscany, located about 80 kilometres northwest of Florence and about 49 kilometres northwest of Pistoia. It has been a frazione of Abetone Cutigliano since 2017. Abetone was created as a custom post on the main road from the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena, founded in 1732; the name derives from that of a large tree cut down to allow the construction to proceed. Starting from the early 20th century, it became a popular skiing resort. Zeno Colò, an Italian skier, was born here in 1920. Abetone served as the finish of the 5th Stage of the 2015 Giro d'Italia. Orto Botanico Forestale dell'Abetone, a botanical garden Abetone Tourist Web Portal
Brenner, South Tyrol
Brenner is a comune in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 60 km north of Bolzano. Brenner lies about 60 km north of the city of Bolzano; the municipality is named after the Brenner Pass, whose summit marks the border between Italy and Austria. Brenner borders the following municipalities: Pfitsch, Sterzing, Gries am Brenner, Neustift im Stubaital and Obernberg am Brenner; the municipality of Brenner contains the frazioni of Gossensaß, Pflersch and Pontigl. Gossensaß is the main village of the municipality, it dates back 4000 years. In the 15th and 16th century, Gossensaß prospered due to silver mining. Today Gossensaß benefits from the local tourism during the winter when the ski resort in Ladurns is open; the Breuni were a people who lived in the Eisacktal and in the Brenner region on both sides of the pass until the 9th century. The place, after the Roman Conquest in 15 BC, was called "Vibidena", the only road was a track; the Romans built a military road in the 2nd century, milestone of Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus and Caracalla period were found in the region and in the 3rd century the Romans completed the Retica road.
In 565 Venantius Fortunatus mentioned in his writings the "Saint Valentine" temple that became a church. In the period of the barbaric migrations in 590 the region was invaded by Baiuvarii, the place declined, however 66 German Sovereigns of the Holy Roman Empire, from 960 to 1530 and among them, in 1154, Frederick I known as Barbarossa, passed through Brenner as he headed towards the Pope in Rome. In about 1,000 A. D. a permanent village was settled with the name of "Oberes Mittewald" while "Prenner" is mentioned in 1288. During the 14th and 15th centuries the village was busy with the traffic and the trade connected with the pass and a new carriage was built in 1314 while in 1414 the Count of Tyrol established a Customs in order to check the goods in transit; the two historic inhabited places of the village were the "Saint Valentine" church, the "Post Hotel" and few other houses on the south side, the "Kerschbaumer Hotel", "Griesberg" and "Venn" on the north, nowadays in Austria. The old carriage was enlarged and the tracing modified in 1740.
The construction of the Brenner railway, between Innsbruck and Bolzano through the Brenner Pass, began on 23 February 1864 at Bergisel and the building involved the village with hundreds of workers who lived there for three years. The railway transformed the planimetry of the village. On 25 July 1867 at 8.05 the first train departed from Brenner station directed to Bozen though the official opening would be August 24. At Brenner Bad, few miles south of the village, a "Grand Hotel", with a train stop, was built and attracted a new class of tourists until the beginning of the first World War. On 26 April 1915 the Treaty of London assigned to Italy the South Tyrol, from Trent to Brenner, on 10 November 1918, at the end of the war, Italian troops arrived at Brenner; the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye was signed on 10 September 1919 and just at Brenner the new boundary line was traced. The shield is party per pale: the first is a miner holding a hammer in his right hand and a lamp in his left, on a vert hill with a gules background.
The emblem was adopted in 1906. The new modern church was built between 1962 on project of Luis Plattner; the altar piece is a creation by Max Spielmann and represent “Saint Mary of the road” to whom the church is dedicated. The font and the way of the Cross are by Maria Delago while the stained glass windows were created by Hans Prünster; the church is dedicated to the Immaculate Conception and was built in 1750 on the same place of the old gothic church erected in 1471 and dedicated to Saint George of which remains the bell tower. The church was built on design of de:Franz de Paula Penz in baroque, it is possible a former project by Johann G. D. Grasmair; the church was consecrated on July 5, 1754 by bishop Leopold von Spaur. The front shows the portal of the old church and the three niches in which are placed the statues of the Immaculate Conception and Saint Anne; the nave has a cross shape with two arms forming four lateral chapels. The high altar is rich in golden shades and at the centre of the throne is placed the statue of the Immaculate with the child was installed on April 23, 1752 by Josepf Stapf.
The four statues are: St. Stephen, St. Lawrence and St. Florien. To the left side, between the two lateral chapels, is the baroque pulpit of 1777 positioned in a central site. To the right side between the two lateral chapels is a Crucifix by Bartlmä Kleinhans; the first right lateral altar is dedicated to Our Lady of Sorrows encircled by the statues of Mary Magdalene, Saint Elisabeth and Saint James works of 1750. The second right lateral altar is dedicated to Francis Xavier and two Bishops: Saint Ingenuinus and Saint Albuin coming from the old Saint George church; the first left lateral alt