New International Version
The New International Version is an English translation of the Protestant Bible. Biblica is the publisher and copyright holder of the NIV. Originally published in the 1970s, the NIV was updated in 1984 and 2011, a 2014 survey of Americans who read the Bible found that 19% use it. The NIV began in 1956 with the formation of a committee to study the value of producing a translation in the common language of the American people. Wenger, Stephen W. Paine, and Marten Woudstra, the New York Bible Society was selected to do the translation. The New Testament was released in 1973 and the full Bible in 1978, the English version underwent a minor revision in 1984. In 1990 the committee on Bible translation headed by Drs, a planned 1997 English edition was discontinued over inclusive language. An easy-reader version, New International Readers Version, was published in 1996, a revised English edition titled Todays New International Version released a New Testament in March 2002, with the complete Bible published February 2005.
In 2011, a version was released. The update modified and dropped some of the language of the TNIV. Translational issues with Pauls letters were addressed, the manuscript base for the Old Testament was the Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia Masoretic Hebrew Text. The manuscript base for the New Testament was the Koine Greek language editions of the United Bible Societies, the deuterocanonical books are not included in the translation. The core translation group consisted of fifteen Biblical scholars using Hebrew, the translation took ten years and involved a team of over 100 scholars. From the USA, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, the range of those participating included many different denominations such as Anglicans, Assemblies of God, Christian Reformed and Presbyterian. The NIV is a balance between word-for-word and thought-for-thought or literal and phrase by phrase translations, recent archaeological and linguistic discoveries helped in understanding passages that have traditionally been difficult to translate.
Familiar spellings of traditional translations were generally retained, in Genesis 2,19 a translation such as the NRSV uses formed in a plain past tense So out of the ground the LORD God formed every animal. But the NIV imposes a questionable pluperfect Now the LORD God had formed out of the all the wild animals. To try to make it appear that the animals had already been created, theologian John Sailhamer states Not only is such a translation
Ethnologue, Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains information about the 7,099 living languages in its 20th edition, which was released in 2017. The publication is well respected and widely used by linguists, Ethnologue is published by SIL International, a Christian linguistic service organization with an international office in Dallas, Texas. Ethnologue follows general linguistic criteria, which are based primarily on mutual intelligibility, shared language intelligibility features are complex, and usually include etymological and grammatical evidence that is agreed upon by experts. These lists of names are not necessarily complete, in 1984, Ethnologue released a three-letter coding system, called an SIL code, to identify each language that it described. This set of codes significantly exceeded the scope of other standards, e. g. ISO 639-1, the 14th edition, published in 2000, included 7,148 language codes. In 2002, Ethnologue was asked to work with the International Organization for Standardization to integrate its codes into an international standard.
The 15th edition of Ethnologue was the first edition to use this standard and this standard is now administered separately from Ethnologue according to rules established by ISO, and since Ethnologue relies on the standard to determine what is listed as a language. e. A language with which no-one retains a sense of ethnic identity, in December 2015, Ethnologue launched a soft paywall, users in high-income countries who want to refer to more than seven pages of data per month must buy a paid subscription. Ethnologues 18th edition describes 228 language families and six typological categories, in 1986, William Bright, editor of the journal Language, wrote of Ethnologue that it is indispensable for any reference shelf on the languages of the world. In 2008 in the journal, Lyle Campbell and Verónica Grondona said, Ethnologue. has become the standard reference. However, he concluded that, on balance, Ethnologue is a comprehensive catalogue of world languages. Starting with the 17th edition, new editions of Ethnologue are to be published every year, linguasphere Observatory Register Glottolog Lists of languages List of language families Martin Everaert, Simon Musgrave, Alexis Dimitriadis, eds.
The Use of Databases in Cross-Linguistic Studies, linguistic Genocide in Education-or Worldwide Diversity and Human Rights. Evaluating language statistics, the Ethnologue and beyond
Alderney is the northernmost of the inhabited Channel Islands. It is part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, a British Crown dependency and it is 3 miles long and 1 1⁄2 miles wide. The area is 3 square miles, making it the third-largest island of the Channel Islands, and the second largest in the Bailiwick. It is around 10 miles from the west of La Hague on the Cotentin Peninsula, Normandy and it is the closest of the Channel Islands to both France and the United Kingdom. It is separated from Cap de la Hague by the dangerous Alderney Race, as of April 2013, the island had a population of 1,903, natives are traditionally nicknamed vaques after the cows, or else lapins after the many rabbits seen in the island. Formally, they are known as Ridunians, from the Latin Riduna, the only parish of Alderney is the parish of St Anne, which covers the whole island. The main town, St Anne, historically known as La Ville, is referred to as St Annes by visitors and incomers. The towns High St, which formerly had a handful of shops, is now almost entirely residential, crossing Victoria St at its highest point.
The town area features a church and an unevenly cobbled main street. There are a school, a secondary school, a post office. Other settlements include Braye, Longis, Mannez, La Banquage, Alderney shares its prehistory with the other islands in the Bailiwick of Guernsey, becoming an island in the Neolithic period as the waters of the Channel rose. A cist survives near Fort Tourgis, and Longis Common has remains of an Iron Age site, there are traces of Roman occupation including a fort, built in the late 300s, at 49°43′09″N 2°10′36″W above the islands only natural harbour. The etymology of the name is obscure. It is known in Latin as Riduna but as with the names of all the Channel Islands in the Roman period there is a degree of confusion, Riduna may be the original name of Tatihou, while Alderney is conjectured to be identified with Sarnia. Alderney/Aurigny is variously supposed to be a Germanic or Celtic name and it may be a corruption of Adreni or Alrene, which is probably derived from an Old Norse word meaning island near the coast.
Alternatively it may derive from three Norse elements, renna and öy or -ey, Alderney may be mentioned in Paul the Deacons Historia Langobardorum as Evodia in which he discussed a certain dangerous whirlpool. The name Evodia may in turn originate from the seven Haemodae of uncertain identification in Plinys Natural History, puffins on Burhou and gannets on Les Étacs just off Alderney are a favourite of many visitors to the island. About a quarter of Alderney hedgehogs are of the white or blonde variety and these are not albinos, but descent of rarely met blonde European hedgehogs, with a blonde pair released on the island in the 1960s
Dame Sibyl Mary Hathaway, DBE was Dame of Sark from 1927 until her death. Her 47-year tenure spanned the reigns of four overlords, George V, Edward VIII, George VI, Hathaway was a financially troubled widow with six children when she succeeded her eccentric father, William Frederick Collings, as feudal lord of Sark, one of the small Channel Islands. She immediately set about reinforcing her feudal rights and promoting tourism on the island, when she remarried in 1929, her second husband, Robert Hathaway, legally became her senior co-ruler, but she kept control of the government. Hathaways tenure as dame saw the German occupation of the Channel Islands in the Second World War, during which she refused to evacuate and convinced the islanders to stay as well. Her eldest son and heir apparent, Francis William Beaumont, was killed in 1941, Hathaway remains best known for her indomitable conduct during the occupation. After the war, she continued her publicity campaign, strengthening the tourism industry.
Having been widowed again in 1954, she went on to rule alone and she was described by a British government official as a lady of unusual personality, and is often referred to as a benevolent dictator. Dame Sibyl died at the age of 90, and was succeeded by her grandson and her parents were William Frederick Collings and his Montreal-born wife Sophie. Sibyl was born two years after her notoriously intemperate father inherited the fief from his father, William Thomas Collings, Sibyl had one sibling, a sister named Doris. Collings treated Hathaway, his heir presumptive, as if she were a boy and she was lame due to unequal leg length, but that did not prevent her father from insisting on teaching her to shoot and climb cliffs. Collings never allowed his daughters to complain of pain or sadness, as the future ruler of an island situated between France and the United Kingdom, she learned standard French and the local Sercquiais dialect of the Norman language. At the age of 15, Hathaway fell in love with Dudley Beaumont, a British painter who could neither shoot nor climb cliffs, in 1901, Collings made it clear to Hathaway that he was adamantly opposed to the relationship.
When she continued seeing Beaumont, her enraged father dragged her out of her bedroom at midnight and threw her out of the seigneurial residence barefoot, Hathaway remained in a hedge until Beaumont, alerted by her mother, found her predawn. She boarded a boat for the island of Guernsey. When the Seigneur stormed aboard looking for Hathaway, she was hidden by the captain and she travelled to the house of a relative in London. Beaumont soon married her at St Jamess Church, Hathaway had no contact with her father until the birth of her first child, when he sent her a telegram of condolence because the child was female, Sorry it was a vixen. The family moved to Sark in 1912, a few years after her mothers death, Hathaway wrote extensively about her relationship with Beaumont in her 1961 autobiography. Beaumont, who served in the British army as an officer during the First World War, beaumonts death left her a pregnant widow deprived of most of her income
Sark is an island in the Channel Islands in the southwestern English Channel, off the coast of Normandy, France. It is a fief, which forms part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, with its own set of laws based on Norman law. It has a population of about 600, Sark has an area of 2.10 square miles. Sark is one of the few remaining places in the world where cars are banned from roads and only tractors, in 2011, Sark was designated as a Dark Sky Community and the first Dark Sky Island in the world. Sark consists of two parts, Greater Sark, located at about 49°25′N 2°22′W, and Little Sark to the south. They are connected by an isthmus called La Coupée which is 300 feet long and has a drop of 330 feet on each side. Protective railings were erected in 1900, before then, children would crawl across on their hands, there is a narrow concrete road covering the entirety of the isthmus that was built in 1945 by German prisoners of war under the direction of the Royal Engineers. Due to its isolation, the inhabitants of Little Sark had their own form of Sercquiais.
The highest point on Sark is 374 feet above sea level, a windmill, dated 1571, is found there, the sails of which were removed during World War I. This high point is named Le Moulin, after the windmill, the location is the highest point in the Bailiwick of Guernsey. Little Sark had a number of mines accessing a source of galena, at Port Gorey, the ruins of silver mines may be seen. Off the south end of Little Sark are the Venus Pool, Sark is made up mainly of amphibolite and granite gneiss rocks, intruded by igneous magma sheets called quartz diorite. The quartz diorite sheets were intruded during this Cadomian deformation and metamorphic event, all the Sark rocks formed during geological activity in the continental crust above an ancient subduction zone. This geological setting would have been analogous to the subduction zone of the Pacific Ocean plate colliding and subducting beneath the North and South American continental plate. Sark exercises jurisdiction over the island of Brecqhou, only a few hundred feet west of Greater Sark and it is a private island, but it has recently been opened to some visitors.
Since 1993, Brecqhou has been owned by Sir David Barclay and they contest Sarks control over the island. However, the candidates endorsed by their various business interests on the Island failed to win any seats in the held in 2008 and 2010. The etymology of Sark is unknown, Richard Coates has suggested that in the absence of a Proto-Indo-European etymology it may be worthwhile looking for a Proto-Semitic source for the name
Gospel of Matthew
The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament. The narrative tells how the Messiah, rejected by Israel, most scholars believe the Gospel of Matthew was composed between AD80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD70 to 110. The title Son of David identifies Jesus as the healing and miracle-working Messiah of Israel, as Son of Man he will return to judge the world, an expectation which his disciples recognise but of which his enemies are unaware. As Son of God he is God revealing himself through his son, the gospel reflects the struggles and conflicts between the evangelists community and the other Jews, particularly with its sharp criticism of the scribes and Pharisees. The original versions of the Gospel of Matthew and the gospels are lost. The oldest relatively complete extant manuscripts of the Bible are the Codex Vaticanus and the Codex Sinaiticus, besides these, there exist manuscript fragments ranging from a few verses to whole chapters. P104 and P67 are notable fragments of Matthew, in the process of recopying, variations slipped in, different regional manuscript traditions emerged, and corrections and adjustments were made.
The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous, the author is not named within the text, the consensus is that Papias does not describe the Gospel of Matthew as we know it, and it is generally accepted that Matthew was written in Greek, not in Aramaic or Hebrew. The majority view of scholars is that Mark was the first gospel to be composed. The author of Matthew did not, simply copy Mark, an additional 220 verses, shared by Matthew and Luke but not found in Mark, from a second source, a hypothetical collection of sayings to which scholars give the name Quelle, or the Q source. The author had at his disposal the Greek scriptures, both as book-scrolls and in the form of collections, and, if Papias is correct. The majority view among scholars is that Matthew was a product of the last quarter of the 1st century, the Christian community to which Matthew belonged, like many 1st-century Christians, were still part of the larger Jewish community, hence the designation Jewish Christian to describe them. The author of Matthew wrote for a community of Greek-speaking Jewish Christians located probably in Syria, alone among the gospels, alternates five blocks of narrative with five of discourse, marking each off with the phrase When Jesus had finished.
The Gospel of Matthew begins with the words The Book of Genealogy of Jesus Christ, John baptizes Jesus, and the Holy Spirit descends upon him. Jesus prays and meditates in the wilderness for forty days, and is tempted by Satan and his early ministry by word and deed in Galilee meets with much success, and leads to the Sermon on the Mount, the first of the discourses. The sermon presents the ethics of the kingdom of God, introduced by the Beatitudes and it concludes with a reminder that the response to the kingdom will have eternal consequences, and the crowds amazed response leads into the next narrative block. From the authoritative words of Jesus the gospel turns to three sets of three miracles interwoven with two sets of two stories, followed by a discourse on mission and suffering. Opposition to Jesus comes to a head with accusations that his deeds are done through the power of Satan, Jesus in turn accuses his opponents of blaspheming the Holy Spirit
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet. It was devised by the International Phonetic Association as a representation of the sounds of spoken language. The IPA is used by lexicographers, foreign students and teachers, speech-language pathologists, actors, constructed language creators. The IPA is designed to represent only those qualities of speech that are part of language, phonemes, intonation. IPA symbols are composed of one or more elements of two types and diacritics. For example, the sound of the English letter ⟨t⟩ may be transcribed in IPA with a letter, or with a letter plus diacritics. Often, slashes are used to signal broad or phonemic transcription, thus, /t/ is less specific than, occasionally letters or diacritics are added, removed, or modified by the International Phonetic Association. As of the most recent change in 2005, there are 107 letters,52 diacritics and these are shown in the current IPA chart, posted below in this article and at the website of the IPA.
In 1886, a group of French and British language teachers, led by the French linguist Paul Passy, for example, the sound was originally represented with the letter ⟨c⟩ in English, but with the digraph ⟨ch⟩ in French. However, in 1888, the alphabet was revised so as to be uniform across languages, the idea of making the IPA was first suggested by Otto Jespersen in a letter to Paul Passy. It was developed by Alexander John Ellis, Henry Sweet, Daniel Jones, since its creation, the IPA has undergone a number of revisions. After major revisions and expansions in 1900 and 1932, the IPA remained unchanged until the International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention in 1989, a minor revision took place in 1993 with the addition of four letters for mid central vowels and the removal of letters for voiceless implosives. The alphabet was last revised in May 2005 with the addition of a letter for a labiodental flap, apart from the addition and removal of symbols, changes to the IPA have consisted largely in renaming symbols and categories and in modifying typefaces.
Extensions to the International Phonetic Alphabet for speech pathology were created in 1990, the general principle of the IPA is to provide one letter for each distinctive sound, although this practice is not followed if the sound itself is complex. There are no letters that have context-dependent sound values, as do hard, the IPA does not usually have separate letters for two sounds if no known language makes a distinction between them, a property known as selectiveness. These are organized into a chart, the chart displayed here is the chart as posted at the website of the IPA. The letters chosen for the IPA are meant to harmonize with the Latin alphabet, for this reason, most letters are either Latin or Greek, or modifications thereof. Some letters are neither, for example, the letter denoting the glottal stop, ⟨ʔ⟩, has the form of a question mark
The Joret line is an isogloss used in the linguistics of the langues doïl. Dialects north of the line have preserved Vulgar Latin /k/ and /ɡ/ before /a/, dialects south of the line have palatalized /k/ and this palatalization gave Old French /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, modern French /ʃ/ and /ʒ/. The line was first identified by Charles Joret and published in 1883, to the north of the line lie the Picard language and some dialects of the Norman language. To the south and the east lie other Oïl dialects including southern Norman, the area north of the ligne Joret is sometimes called the Normano-Picard domain. The Joret line extends from the Channel Islands and across the continent from Granville, Manche to the border with the Dutch language in the North of France. It passes through Normandy north of Granville and Villedieu-les-Poêles and divides Manche in two linguistically and separates Calvados and Orne along with Eure, in Picardy, the line runs with the Amiénois and Thiérache, up to the west of Rebecq and Chimay in Belgium.
Norman Picard /k/ ~ Southern Norman, French /ʃ/ Latin cattu gave rise to /ka/ cat north of the line, low Latin *captiare gave rise to cachier / cacher north of the line and chasser to the south. Frankish *pokka gave rise to /puk/ pouque north of the line, Latin candela gave rise to candelle north of the line and chandelle to the south. Celtic *carros > Latin carrus gave rise to car north of the line and char, frankish *gard- gave rise to gardin north of the line and jardin to the south. It includes all of Picardy, Champagne, germanic /w/ was kept north of the line, but became /g/ south of the line. Norman place-names derived from the Gallo-Romance word Campaniacum show initial C- in some cases, Norman language Picard language Walloon language La Normandie dialectale Lepelley, Caen 1999 ISBN 2-84133-076-1
Parable of the Sower
The Parable of the Sower is a parable of Jesus found in the three Synoptic Gospels in Matthew 13, 1-23, Mark 4, 1-20, and Luke 8, 1-15. In the story, a sower sows seed, some seed falls on the path, on ground and among thorns, and it is lost, but when it falls on good earth it grows, yielding thirty, sixty. In each narrative, Jesus used the boat as a means of being able to address the crowd gathered on the lake shore. Whilst the parable was told to the multitude, the explanations were given to the disciples. It was, according to the parable, only the seeds that fell on soil that were able to germinate, producing a crop thirty, sixty, or even a hundredfold. The seeds falling on good soil represents those who hear the word, most scholars think the parable was originally optimistic in outlook, in that despite failures eventually the seed will be successful, take root and produce a large crop. It is not the first parable to occur in Mark, which according to the Q hypothesis was the first book it occurred in, Jesus says he is teaching in parables because he does not want everyone to understand him, only those who are his followers.
Those outside the group are not meant to understand them, thus one must already be committed to following Jesus to fully understand his message and that without that commitment one will never fully understand him or be helped by his message. If one does not correctly understand the parables, this is a sign that one is not a disciple of Jesus. He teaches in this way so that their sins will not be forgiven, there is some debate whether this was Jesus original meaning or whether Mark added this interpretation himself. According to Genesis 26, 12-13, the Hebrew patriarch Isaac sowed seed and reaped a hundredfold, began to prosper, and continued prospering until he became very prosperous. Should not be pressed, serving as they do merely to enliven, the parable has sometimes been taken to mean that there are three levels of divine progress and salvation. Five Discourses of Matthew Life of Jesus in the New Testament Ministry of Jesus Kilgallen, a Brief Commentary on the Gospel of Mark, Paulist Press,1989.
ISBN 0-8091-3059-9 Bruce R. McConkie, Doctrinal New Testament Commentary, Vol. I,289 James E. Talmage, Jesus The Christ, pg