Djedkare Isesi was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the eighth and penultimate ruler of the Fifth Dynasty in the late 25th century to mid-24th century BC, during the Old Kingdom period. Djedkare succeeded Menkauhor Kaiu and was in turn succeeded by Unas and his relations to both of these pharaohs remain uncertain, although it is often conjectured that Unas was Djedkares son, owing to the smooth transition between the two. Djedkare likely enjoyed a reign of more than 40 years, which heralded a new period in the history of the Old Kingdom. Breaking with a tradition followed by his predecessors since the time of Userkaf, Djedkare did not build a temple to the sun god Ra, more significantly, Djedkare effected comprehensive reforms of the Egyptian state administration, the first undertaken since the inception of the system of ranking titles. He reorganised the funerary cults of his forebears buried in the necropolis of Abusir, Djedkare commissioned expeditions to Sinai to procure copper and turquoise, to Nubia for its gold and diorite and to the fabled Land of Punt for its incense.
One such expedition had what could be the earliest recorded instance of oracular divination undertaken to ensure an expeditions success, the word Nub, meaning gold, to designate Nubia is first recorded during Djedkares reign. Under his rule, Egypt entertained continuing trade relations with the Levantine coast, in particular, one of the earliest depictions of a battle or siege scene was found in the tomb of one of Djedkares subjects. Djedkare was buried in a pyramid in Saqqara named Nefer Djedkare, the burial chamber still held Djedkares mummy when it was excavated in the 1940s. Examinations of the revealed that he died in his fifties. Following his death, Djedkare was the object of a cult that lasted at least until the end of the Old Kingdom and he seemed to have been held in particularly high esteem during the mid-Sixth Dynasty, whose pharaohs lavished rich offerings on his cult. Archaeological evidence suggests the existence of this funerary cult throughout the much New Kingdom period. Djedkare was remembered by the Ancient Egyptians as the king of vizier Ptahhotep, some Egyptologists such as Naguib Kanawati argue that this contributed heavily to the collapse of the Egyptian state during the First Intermediate Period, c.200 years later.
These conclusions are rejected by Nigel Strudwick, who says that in spite of Djedkares reforms, Djedkare is well attested in sources contemporaneous with his reign. The tombs of many of his courtiers and family members have been discovered in Giza and they give insights into the administrative reforms that Djedkare conducted during his reign and, in a few cases, even record letters that the king sent to his officials. These letters, inscribed on the walls of tombs, typically present royal praises for the tomb owner, another important source of information about Egypt during the reign of Djedkare Isesi is the Abusir papyri. These are administrative documents, covering a period of 24 years during Djedkares reign, they were discovered in the temples of pharaohs Neferirkare Kakai, Neferefre. In addition to texts, the earliest letters on papyrus preserved to the present day date to Djedkares reign. Djedkare is attested in four ancient Egyptian king lists, all dating to the New Kingdom, the earliest of these is the Karnak king list, dating to the reign of Thutmose III, where Djedkare is mentioned on the fifth entry
Old Kingdom of Egypt
The term itself was coined by eighteenth-century historians and the distinction between the Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period is not one which would have been recognized by Ancient Egyptians. The Old Kingdom is most commonly regarded as the period from the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty, many Egyptologists include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. During the Old Kingdom, the king of Egypt became a god who ruled absolutely and could demand the services. Under King Djoser, the first king of the Third Dynasty of the Old Kingdom, the capital of Egypt was moved to Memphis. A new era of building was initiated at Saqqara under his reign, King Djosers architect, Imhotep is credited with the development of building with stone and with the conception of the new architectural form—the Step Pyramid. Indeed, the Old Kingdom is perhaps best known for the number of pyramids constructed at this time as burial places for Egypts kings.
For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as the Age of the Pyramids, the first king of the Old Kingdom was Djoser of the third dynasty, who ordered the construction of a pyramid in Memphis necropolis, Saqqara. An important person during the reign of Djoser was his vizier and it was in this era that formerly independent ancient Egyptian states became known as nomes, under the rule of the king. The former rulers were forced to assume the role of governors or otherwise work in tax collection, Egyptians in this era worshipped their king as a god, believing that he ensured the annual flooding of the Nile that was necessary for their crops. Egyptian views on the nature of time during this period held that the worked in cycles. They perceived themselves as a specially selected people, the Old Kingdom and its royal power reached a zenith under the Fourth Dynasty, which began with Sneferu. Using more stones than any king, he built three pyramids, a now collapsed pyramid in Meidum, the Bent Pyramid at Dahshur.
However, the development of the pyramid style of building was reached not at Saqqara. Sneferu was succeeded by his son, Khufu who built the Great Pyramid of Giza, after Khufus death, his sons Djedefra and Khafra may have quarrelled. The latter built the pyramid and the Sphinx in Giza. Recent reexamination of evidence has led Egyptologist Vassil Dobrev to propose that the Sphinx had been built by Djedefra as a monument to his father Khufu, the Sphinx has been proposed to be the work of Khafra and Khufu himself. There were military expeditions into Canaan and Nubia, with Egyptian influence reaching up the Nile into what is today the Sudan, the kings of the Fourth Dynasty were king Menkaure, who built the smallest pyramid in Giza, Shepseskaf and, Djedefptah. The Fifth Dynasty began with Userkaf and was marked by the importance of the cult of sun god Ra
Ancient Egyptian funerary practices
The ancient Egyptians had an elaborate set of funerary practices that they believed were necessary to ensure their immortality after death. These rituals and protocols included mummifying the body, casting of magic spells, the burial process used by the ancient Egyptians evolved throughout time as old customs were discarded and new ones adopted, but several important elements of the process persisted. Although specific details changed over time, the preparation of the body, the rituals involved. Though no writing survives from Predynastic Egypt, scholars believe the importance of the physical body and this would explain why people of that time did not follow the common practice of cremation, but rather buried the dead. Some believe they may have feared the bodies would rise again if mistreated after death, early bodies were buried in simple, shallow oval pits, with a few burial goods. Sometimes multiple people and animals were placed in the same grave, over time, graves became more complex, with the body placed in a wicker basket, later in wooden or terracotta coffins.
The latest tombs Egyptians made were sarcophaguses and these graves contained burial goods like jewelry, food and sharpened splint. This demonstrates that this ancient period had a sense of the afterlife and this may be because admission required that the deceased must be able to serve a purpose there. The pharaoh was allowed in because of his role in life, human sacrifices found in early royal tombs reinforce this view. These people were meant to serve the pharaoh during his eternal life. Eventually and wall paintings begin to replace human victims, some of these figurines may have been created to resemble certain people, so they could follow the pharaoh after their lives ended. Note that not only the classes had to rely on the pharaoh’s favor. They believed that when he died, the became a type of god. This belief existed from the period through the Old Kingdom. In the First Intermediate Period, the importance of the pharaoh declined, funerary texts, previously restricted to royal use, became more widely available.
The first farmers in Egypt are known from the villages of Omari, the people of these villages buried their dead in a simple, round graves with one pot. The body was neither treated nor arranged in a way as would be the case in the historical period. Without any written evidence, there is little to provide information about contemporary beliefs concerning the afterlife except for the inclusion of a single pot in the grave
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Pyramid of Menkaure
The Pyramid of Menkaure, located on the Giza Plateau in the southwestern outskirts of Cairo, Egypt, is the smallest of the three main Pyramids of Giza. It is thought to have built to serve as the tomb of the fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Menkaure. Menkaures pyramid had a height of 65.5 metres and was the smallest of the three major pyramids at the Giza Necropolis. It now stands at 61 m tall with a base of 108.5 m and its angle of incline is approximately 51°20′25″. It was constructed of limestone and granite, the first sixteen courses of the exterior were made of red granite. The upper portion was cased in the manner with Tura limestone. Part of the granite was left in the rough, incomplete projects such as this pyramid help archaeologists understand the methods used to build pyramids and temples. South of the pyramid of Menkaure are three pyramids that are each accompanied with a temple and have a substructure. The southernmost is the largest and a true pyramid and its casing is partly of granite, like the main pyramid, and is believed to have been completed due to the limestone pyramidion found close by.
Neither of the two progressed beyond the construction of the inner core. In the mortuary temple the foundations and the core were made of limestone. The floors were begun with granite and granite facings were added to some of the walls, the foundations of the valley temple were made of stone. However both temples were finished with crude bricks and it was not unusual for a son or successor to complete a temple when a Pharaoh died, so it is not unreasonable to assume that Shepseskaf finished the temples with crude brick. There was an inscription in the temple that said he made it as his monument for his father. During excavations of the temples Reisner found a number of statues mostly of Menkaure alone. These were all carved in the style of the old kingdom with a high degree of detail evident. The pyramids date of construction is unknown, because Menkaures reign has not been accurately defined and it lies a few hundred meters southwest of its larger neighbors, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu in the Giza necropolis.
Richard William Howard Vyse, who first visited Egypt in 1835, discovered in the upper antechamber the remains of a wooden anthropoid coffin inscribed with Menkaures name, deeper into the pyramid, Vyse came upon a beautiful basalt sarcophagus, rich in detail with a bold projecting corniche
A ka statue is a type of ancient Egyptian statue intended to provide a resting place for the ka of the person after death. The ancient Egyptians believed the ka along with the body, the name, the ba. Because the ancient Egyptians believed statues could magically perceive the world, in the full version of this ceremony, the mouth, eyes and ears could be touched with ritual implements to give the statue the power of breath, sight and hearing. Ka statues were carved from wood or stone and sometimes painted in the likeness of the owner to reinforce the spiritual connection. Many ka statues were placed in a mortuary chapel or niche. Like most ancient Egyptian statuary, ka statues display a rigid frontalism in which the body faces squarely forward in a formal way. Whether seated or standing, their posture reflects the need for the statue to see the world in front of them and conform to an ideal standard of beauty. The hieroglyph representing the ka is composed of a pair of upraised arms and it is sometimes depicted on top of the head of the statue to reinforce its intended purpose.
Art of ancient Egypt Ancient Egyptian religion Oakes, Ancient Egypt, An Illustrated Reference to the Myths, Religions and Temples of the Land of the Pharaohs
Djoser was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch. He is well known under his Hellenized names Tosorthros and Sesorthos and he was the son of king Khasekhemwy and queen Nimaathap, but if he was the direct throne successor is still unclear. The painted limestone statue of Djoser, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, is the oldest known life-sized Egyptian statue, today at the site in Saqqara where it was found, a plaster copy of the statue stands in place of the original. The statue was found during the Antiquities Service Excavations of 1924–1925, in contemporary inscriptions, he is called Netjerikhet, meaning divine of body. Later sources, which include a New Kingdom reference to his construction, help confirm that Netjerikhet, more significantly, the English Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson has demonstrated that burial seals found at the entrance to Khasekhemwys tomb in Abydos name only Djoser, rather than Nebka. This supports the view that it was Djoser who buried and, directly succeeded Khasekhemwy and this is suggested by another jar sealing, dating to Djosers reign, calling her Mother of the King of the Two Lands.
Her cult seems to have still been active in the reign of Sneferu. Inetkawes was their only known by name. There was a royal female attested during Djosers reign. The relationship between Djoser and his successor, Sekhemkhet, is not known, and the date of his death is uncertain, manetho states Djoser ruled Egypt for twenty-nine years, while the Turin King List states it was only nineteen years. Because of his many building projects, particularly at Saqqara. Manethos figure appears to be accurate, according to Wilkinsons analysis. Unfortunately, next to all entrances are illegible today, the Year of coronation is preserved, followed by the year events receiving the twin-pillars and stretching the cords for the fortress Qau-Netjerw. Djoser dispatched several military expeditions to the Sinai Peninsula, during which the inhabitants were subdued. He sent expeditions there to mine for minerals such as turquoise. This is known from inscriptions found in the desert there, sometimes displaying the banner of Seth alongside the symbols of Horus, the Sinai was strategically important as a buffer between the Nile valley and Asia.
His most famous monument was his step pyramid, which entailed the construction of several mastaba tombs one over another and these forms would eventually lead to the standard pyramid tomb in the Old Kingdom. Some fragmentary reliefs found at Heliopolis and Gebelein mention Djosers name, also, he may have fixed the southern boundary of his kingdom at the First Cataract