Seating capacity is the number of people who can be seated in a specific space, in terms of both the physical space available, limitations set by law. Seating capacity can be used in the description of anything ranging from an automobile that seats two to a stadium that seats hundreds of thousands of people; the largest sporting venue in the world, the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, has a permanent seating capacity for more than 235,000 people and infield seating that raises capacity to an approximate 400,000. Safety is a primary concern in determining the seating capacity of a venue: "Seating capacity, seating layouts and densities are dictated by legal requirements for the safe evacuation of the occupants in the event of fire"; the International Building Code specifies, "In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor" but provides exceptions if the total number of seats is fewer than 100, if there is a substantial amount of space available between seats or if the seats are at tables.
It delineates the number of available exits for interior balconies and galleries based on the seating capacity, sets forth the number of required wheelchair spaces in a table derived from the seating capacity of the space. The International Fire Code, portions of which have been adopted by many jurisdictions, is directed more towards the use of a facility than the construction, it specifies, "For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches of seating length". It requires that every public venue submit a detailed site plan to the local fire code official, including "details of the means of egress, seating capacity, arrangement of the seating...."Once safety considerations have been satisfied, determinations of seating capacity turn on the total size of the venue, its purpose. For sports venues, the "decision on maximum seating capacity is determined by several factors. Chief among these are the primary sports program and the size of the market area".
In motion picture venues, the "limit of seating capacity is determined by the maximal viewing distance for a given size of screen", with image quality for closer viewers declining as the screen is expanded to accommodate more distant viewers. Seating capacity of venues plays a role in what media they are able to provide and how they are able to provide it. In contracting to permit performers to use a theatre or other performing space, the "seating capacity of the performance facility must be disclosed". Seating capacity may influence the kind of contract to be the royalties to be given; the seating capacity must be disclosed to the copyright owner in seeking a license for the copyrighted work to be performed in that venue. Venues that may be leased for private functions such as ballrooms and auditoriums advertise their seating capacity. Seating capacity is an important consideration in the construction and use of sports venues such as stadiums and arenas; when entities such as the National Football League's Super Bowl Committee decide on a venue for a particular event, seating capacity, which reflects the possible number of tickets that can be sold for the event, is an important consideration.
The seating capacity for restaurants is reported as'covers'. Seating capacity differs from total capacity, which describes the total number of people who can fit in a venue or in a vehicle either sitting or standing. Where seating capacity is a legal requirement, however, as it is in movie theatres and on aircraft, the law reflects the fact that the number of people allowed in should not exceed the number who can be seated. Use of the term "public capacity" indicates that a venue is allowed to hold more people than it can seat. Again, the maximum total number of people can refer to either the physical space available or limitations set by law. All-seater stadium List of stadiums by capacity List of football stadiums by capacity List of American football stadiums by capacity List of rugby league stadiums by capacity List of rugby union stadiums by capacity List of tennis stadiums by capacity Seating assignment
Federal District (Brazil)
The Federal District is one of 27 federative units of Brazil. Located in the Center-West Region, it is the smallest Brazilian federal unit and the only one that has no municipalities, being divided into 31 administrative regions, totaling an area of 5,779,999 km². In its territory, is located the federal capital of Brazil, Brasília, the seat of government of the Federal District; the capital of Brazil was transferred from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília on 21 April 1960 and its new territory, split off from Goiás state in border with the Minas Gerais state, became the current Federal District. After the transfer the old Federal District, containing the city of Rio de Janeiro, became the state of Guanabara; this state existed from 1960 until 1975. With the merge the capital of Rio de Janeiro state was transferred back from Niterói to Rio de Janeiro itself; the region has a tropical savanna climate, with a rainy season from October to April, a dry season from May to September. During the dry season, the humidity can reach critical levels in the peak hours of the hottest days.
The artificial Paranoá Lake, with 40 km2 and 500 million cubic metres of water, was built to minimize the severe dry climatic conditions of winter in the Cerrado vegetation. According to the IBGE of 2007, there were 2,393,000 people residing in the Federal District; the population density was 410.9 inhabitants per square kilometre. Urbanization: 94%. Population growth: 2.8%. Houses: 697,000. In area, the Federal District is the island of Maui, it is larger than French Polynesia, the US State of Rhode Island, or Cape Verde. It is smaller than Bali or Trinidad and Tobago; the politics and administration of the Federal District are distinguished from the other units of the federation in some particular points, as defined in the Brazilian Constitution of 1988: The Federal District is governed by an organic law, typical of municipalities, not by a state constitution. It builds up the legislative powers reserved to states and municipalities, which are not forbidden by the Constitution; the hybrid character of the Federal District is observable by its Legislative Chamber, a mixture of Municipal Chamber and Legislative Assembly.
The Legislative Power of the Federal District is exercised by the of the Legislative Chamber, with 24 elected district deputies. The Federal District is a legal entity of internal public law, part of the political-administrative structure of Brazil, of a nature sui generis, because it is neither a state nor a municipality, but a special entity that accumulates the legislative powers reserved to the states and the municipalities, as provided in art. 32, § 1º of the CF, which gives it a hybrid nature of state and municipality. Article 32 of the 1988 Brazilian Constitution expressly prohibits the Federal District from being divided into municipalities, being considered one; the executive power of the Federal District was represented by the mayor of the Federal District until 1969, when the position was transformed into governor of the Federal District. The legislative power of the Federal District is represented by the Legislative Chamber of the Federal District, whose nomenclature represents a mixture of legislative assembly and municipal chamber.
The Legislative Chamber is made up of 24 district deputies. The judicial power which serves the Federal District serves federal territories. Brazil does not have territories therefore, the Court of Justice of the Federal District and of the Territories only serves the Federal District. Part of the budget of the Federal District Government comes from the Constitutional Fund of the Federal District. In 2012, the fund totaled 9.6 billion reais. By 2015, the forecast was of 12.4 billion Reais, with more than half billion) for public security expenditures. The Parque da CidadeLocated in Brasília, the "Parque da Cidade", named after the wife of Brazilian president Juscelino Kubitschek, extends over four million square meters, it includes landscape works of Burle Marx, wall tiles that decorate restrooms in the park designed by Athos Bulcão. Equipped with sports courts, a horse track, a racing kart track, skate tracks, playgrounds for children, bicycle tracks and trails for walks and jogging, the City Park attracts hundreds of people everyday, specially on weekends.
The park's main entrance is located in the Monumental Axis South, but there are secondary exits that lead to other areas in the city's south wing. The Metropolitan Cathedral of BrasiliaDesigned by Oscar Niemeyer, it was inaugurated in 1970, its shape is circular horizontally and structured around 16 curved pillars, forming a crown filled with futuristic and/or spatial stained-glass works in a triangular shape. The pillars evoke reversed praying hands that deconstruct the gothic traditional church window pattern, but conserves the triangular vaginal shape of the stained-glasses; the curves present in many of Niemeyer's works pay homage to the beautifully built bodies of Brazilian women. The stained-glasses were designed by Marianne Peretti, their disposition ensures natural lighting into the aisle, built below street level. Around the church, in the outside area, visitors can see Alfredo Ceschiatti's sculptures — the four evangelists — and inside, suspended angels. There
Soccer-specific stadium is a term used in the United States and Canada to refer to a sports stadium either purpose-built or fundamentally redesigned for soccer and whose primary function is to host soccer matches, as opposed to a multipurpose stadium, for a variety of sports. A soccer-specific stadium may host other sporting events and concerts, but the design and purpose of a soccer-specific stadium is for soccer; some facilities have a permanent stage at one end of the stadium used for staging concerts. A soccer-specific stadium has amenities and scale suitable for soccer in North America, including a scoreboard, video screen, luxury suites and a roof; the field dimensions are within the range found optimal by FIFA: 110–120 yards long by 70–80 yards wide. These soccer field dimensions are wider than the regulation American football field width of 53 1⁄3 yards, or the 65-yard width of a Canadian football field; the playing surface consists of grass as opposed to artificial turf, as the latter is disfavored for soccer matches since players are more susceptible to injuries.
However, some soccer specific stadiums, such as Portland's Providence Park and Creighton University's Morrison Stadium, do have artificial turf. The seating capacity is small enough to provide an intimate setting, between 18,000 and 30,000 for a Major League Soccer franchise, or smaller for college or minor league soccer teams; this is in comparison to the much larger American football stadiums that range between 60,000 and 80,000 in which the original North American Soccer League teams played and most MLS teams occupied during the league's inception. As opposed to gridiron-style football stadiums, where the front row of seats is elevated several feet above the field of play to allow spectators to see over the heads of substitute players and coaches on the sidelines, soccer-specific venues have the front row closer to the level of the pitch, providing a more intimate experience. In the 1980s and 1990s, first-division professional soccer leagues in the United States, such as the North American Soccer League and Major League Soccer used American football fields, many of which were oversized in terms of seating capacity and undersized in terms of width of the soccer field.
Although many of the baseball parks had smaller capacities, natural grass, a wider field, these parks were in use during summer, when North American–based soccer leagues, such as Major League Soccer hold their seasons, the irregular field dimensions and sightlines were considered undesirable. Soccer-specific stadiums first came into use after the multi-purpose stadium era; the term "soccer-specific stadium" was coined by Lamar Hunt, who financed the construction of the Columbus Crew Stadium, the first soccer-specific stadium in Major League Soccer. In the 2000s, other Major League Soccer teams in the United States began constructing their own stadiums. Canada's first soccer-specific stadium was BMO Field in Toronto, home to Toronto FC; this stadium was renovated to accommodate Canadian football for subsequent seasons. The distinction is less prominent in Canada, where MLS's attendance figures are comparable to those of the domestic Canadian Football League, the CFL's wider field means fewer compromises must be made to accommodate both.
Of the three Canadian cities that host both MLS and CFL teams, only one has separate stadiums for each. In 2011 Bob Lenarduzzi confirmed that the Vancouver Whitecaps are now committed to BC Place, that plans for the waterfront stadium have been put on hold. All USL Championship teams will be required to play in self-owned, soccer-specific stadiums by the 2020 season; the following is a list of current USL stadiums that are soccer-specific stadiums: The term "football-specific stadium" is sometimes used in countries where the sport is known as football rather than soccer, although the term is not common in countries where football is the dominant sport and thus football-specific stadiums are quite common. The term tends to have a different meaning in these countries referring to a stadium without an athletics track surrounding the field; some soccer stadiums in Europe are used for other sports, including rugby, American football, field hockey. The problem with oversized stadiums designed for another sport is visible in European American football leagues and conflicts between teams sharing the stadium and owners of the stadiums sometimes arise, leading to attempts at single sport-specific venues.
List of soccer stadiums in the United States List of soccer stadiums in Canada List of football stadiums by capacity List of Major League Soccer stadiums List of NASL stadiums List of National Women's Soccer League stadiums List of Women's Professional Soccer stadiums
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Taguatinga, Federal District
Taguatinga is an administrative region in the Federal District in Brazil. By around 1749, near the Córrego Cortado, appeared a small settlement, formed by pioneers and drovers who sought to establish allotments in the Captaincy of Goiás, this was the first landing of the white man in the land of the future city of Taguatinga occupied by indigenous macro-Ge linguistic branch, as acroás, the xacriabás, the xavantes, the kayapos, the javaés, etc. However, some of these adventurers settled excited by the possibility of gold and diamonds, near the Cut. On the banks of the same stream was installed the farmhouse Taguatinga, owned by Gabriel da Cruz Miranda. In 1781, the farm Taguatinga was sold to Antonio Couto de Abreu, son of the Bandeirante and Urban Couto e Menezes; the consolidation of the city took place much almost two centuries after this period generated by large populations attracted by the construction of Brasília. With the transfer of the capital of Brazil into the country, many workers moved from all regions to build the new capital, decided to make his home there too.
But how were poor, invaded land and built huts, revealing to a country establishing its rapid development in the reality of poverty in which they lived their population. To contain the constant invasions on land near the capital, the city Taguatinga was created on June 5, 1958, on land which belonged to the Farm Taguatinga; the city was called "Villa Sarah Kubitschek" but its name was changed to "Santa Cruz de Taguatinga", leaving only "Taguatinga". It is called by locals of "Taguá". A few months after the first residents have moved to Taguatinga worked in local schools, it was the beginning of settlement the first satellite city of Brasília. Taguatinga has developed in function of commerce and jobs that its population obtained in Brasília, it became an important commercial center in the Federal District and pole of attraction for the population of nearby cities, harboring large shopping centers. Taguatinga today is one of the richest regions of the Federal District, today being is considered the economic capital of the Federal District.
Some cities that were part of the administrative region of Taguatinga are: Ceilândia, Samambaia, Águas Claras and Vicente Pires. The patron saint is Our Lady of Perpetual Help, which lithurgic celebration happens at June 27. List of administrative regions of the Federal District Regional Administration of Taguatinga website Government of the Federal District website