The TAZARA Railway called the Uhuru Railway or the Tanzam Railway, is a railway in East Africa linking the port of Dar es Salaam in east Tanzania with the town of Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia's Central Province. The single-track railway is operated by the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority; the governments of Tanzania and China built the railway to eliminate landlocked Zambia's economic dependence on Rhodesia and South Africa, both of which were ruled by white-minority governments. The railway provided the only route for bulk trade from Zambia's Copperbelt to reach the sea without having to transit white-ruled territories; the spirit of Pan-African socialism among the leaders of Tanzania and Zambia and the symbolism of China's support for newly independent African countries gave rise to TAZARA's designation as the "Great Uhuru Railway", Uhuru being the Swahili word for Freedom. The project was built from 1970 to 1975 as a turnkey project supported by China. At its completion, the TAZARA was the longest railway in sub-Saharan Africa.
TAZARA was the largest single foreign-aid project undertaken by China at the time, at a construction cost of US $406 million. TAZARA has faced operational difficulties from the start and was kept running by continued assistance from China, several European countries, the United States. Freight traffic peaked at 1.2 million tons in 1986, but began to decline in the 1990s as the end of apartheid in South Africa and the independence of Namibia opened alternative transport routes for Zambian copper. Freight traffic bottomed out at 88,000 metric tons in Fiscal Year 2014/2015, less than 2% of the railway's design capacity of 5 million tonnes per year. Running some 1,860 km from Tanzania's largest city, Dar es Salaam, on the coast of the Indian Ocean to Kapiri Mposhi, near the Copperbelt of central Zambia, the TAZARA is sometimes regarded as the greatest engineering effort of its kind since the Second World War; the railway crosses Tanzania in a southwest direction, leaving the coastal strip and entering uninhabited areas of the vast Selous Game Reserve.
The line crosses the TAN-ZAM highway at Makambako and runs parallel to the highway toward Mbeya and the Zambian border, before entering Zambia, linking with Zambia Railways at Kapiri Mposhi. From sea level, the railway climbs to 550 metres at Mlimba, reaches its highest point of 1,789.43 metres at Uyole in Mbeya before descending to 1,660 metres at Mwenzo, the highest point in Zambia, settling to 1,274.63 metres at Kapiri Mposhi. Upon leaving the coast, TAZARA runs west, through the Pwani Region dips south of Mikumi National Park and enters the wilderness in the northern part of the Selous Game Reserve in the Morogoro Region; the Selous is one of the largest faunal reserves in the world and passengers can see wildlife such as giraffe, zebra and warthog, which have become accustomed to the rumbling of the trains. The railway crosses the Great Ruaha River for the first time in the Selous. Further south, the railway cuts through the fertile Kilombero Valley, skirts the great Kibasira Swamp; the next section, between Mlimba and Makambako was to be 158 km long, presented the builders of the railway with the greatest challenge.
To lay track across rugged mountains, precipitous valleys and deep swamps, it was necessary to construct 46 bridges,18 tunnels, 36 culverts. Because of the heavy rainfall in this area, intricate drainage works had to be integrated with every feature; the most spectacular feature is the bridge across the Mpanga River, which stands on three 50 m tall pillars. At Kidatu, a metre gauge branch railway connects to the Central Line at Kilosa; the TAZARA climbs into the Southern Highlands of the Iringa Region and levels out onto a rolling plateau. Here, in the coffee and tea country of the Njombe Region, the weather becomes noticeably cooler, the air sharper. On the approach to Makambako, the Udzungwa Mountains National Park rise 2,137 m to the north, while the Kipengere Range roll ahead to the south. Makambako is one of the meeting points of the Tanzania-Zambia Highway. From Makambako the railway and the highway run a parallel course towards Mbeya running past the Kipengere Range that towers to the south.
Here in the Mbeya Region, the TAZARA crosses several upstream tributaries of the Great Ruaha, which are lined with belts of forest and grasslands. After the Kipengere Mountains, the Uporoto Range takes over with the Usangu Flats stretching to the north. From Mbeya town, both the railway and the highway heads northwest to Tunduma where they cross the border into Zambia; the TAZARA enters northeastern Zambia in the Nakonde District, in the Muchinga Province, heads southwest to Kasama. It turns due south and crosses the Chambeshi River en route to Mpika. After entering the Central Province, the railway again turns to the southwest, running along the northern foothills of the Muchinga Mountains, past Serenje and Mkushi to Kapiri Mposhi, located due north of the Lusaka; as of February 2016, two passenger trains per week traverse the entire TAZARA in each direction. Departures are on Fridays in each direction; the brand new Express train travels Fridays from Tuesdays from New Kapiri Mposhi. The Ordinary train makes all possible stops, the Express service makes fewer stops The entire journey, as scheduled, takes 36 hours, though delays can extend the trip to as long as 50 hours or more.
Trains on the TAZARA are cheaper and safer. The TAZARA trains have attracted foreign t
Railway stations in Zambia
Railway stations in Zambia include: UN Map Serenje Mkushi - Tanzania / Zambian border Chilanga Tunduma, Tanzania Mchinji - connects to Malawi Railways Chipata - railhead, Dry port Chipata - railhead from Mozambique and Malawi Petauke Serenje Mpika - junction Kasama - junction Mpulungu - Lake Tanganyika port Chingola Solwezi Kalumbila copper mine Jimbe border checkpoint Luacano Benguela Railway Lobito port on Atlantic Ocean Proposed in August 2013 Livingstone Caprivi Strip Grootfontein Botswana - Zambia - Kazungula bridge - 2010 Kapiri Mposhi to Chingola in copperbelt.
Mkushi is a town in the Central Province of Zambia, located on the Great North Road and the Tazara railway, northeast of Kapiri Mposhi. The Changwena Falls and Fort Elwes lie nearby. Mkushi is well known within Zambia for its commercial farms, is where Chengelo School is situated. Railway stations in Zambia Railway stations in Tanzania
Adele Emily Sandé, known professionally as Emeli Sandé, is a British singer and songwriter. Born in Sunderland and Wear and raised in Alford, Aberdeenshire by an English mother and Zambian father, Sande rose to prominence after being a featured artist on the 2009 Chipmunk track "Diamond Rings", it was their first top 10 single on the UK Singles Chart. In 2010, she was featured on "Never Be Your Woman" by the rapper Wiley, another top ten hit. In 2012, she received the Brit Awards' Critics' Choice Award. Sandé released her first solo single "Heaven" in August 2011, she has two number-one singles across the UK and Ireland with "Read All About It" with Professor Green and "Beneath Your Beautiful", a collaboration with Labrinth. Her album Our Version of Events spent ten non-consecutive weeks at number one and became the best-selling album of 2012 in the UK, with over 1 million sales. In 2012, she performed in Closing ceremonies of the London Olympics, she won two Brit Awards at the 2013 ceremony: Best British Female Solo Artist, British Album of the Year.
In 2016, she released her second studio album Long Live the Angels, which debuted at number 2 on the UK album chart. In 2017, she won the Brit Award for Best British Female Solo Artist, becoming her fourth win in total. Sandé was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2017 Birthday Honours for her services to music. Adele Emily Sandé was born in Sunderland, to a Zambian father, Joel Sandé, an English mother, Diane Sandé-Wood, on 10 March 1987, her father, having moved from Zambia, met her mother while they were both at the polytechnic in Sunderland. The family moved to Alford, Scotland, when she was four. Sandé wrote her first song for her primary-school talent show, she remembers. "That was the first time. I always knew I wanted to be a musician and I knew I wanted to write because the people I was listening to all wrote. I never thought; the first song she wrote was called "Tomorrow Starts Again" – the song had proper structure and a middle eight. Sandé attended school at Alford Academy.
She said, "I hated to miss a day because I was so hungry to learn. I was shy and well-behaved. Throughout secondary school, it was part and parcel of my identity that I was Mr. Sandé's daughter. No way could I get into trouble, because it would've got back to him within minutes, and Dad was strict, let me tell you."Choice FM invited the 15-year-old Sandé to London to take part in their "Rapology" competition. Richard Blackwood had her down to MTV's Camden studios to sing gospel, it was the first London appearance of her career. By the time she reached the age of 16, she had a record deal with Telstar within reach. However, understanding the opportunity that university could offer her, she turned down the deal, she studied medicine, in the five-year MBChB course at the University of Glasgow, but left after obtaining a degree in neuroscience. She has stated that education was important to her, because, if her music career failed, she would have something to fall back on, her manager Adrian Sykes, she said, had waited patiently from when she was 16: "Adrian respects that I want to get an education behind me.
He knows my parents are keen that I finish university". There have been many. One important influence was Frida Kahlo, so important that she has a tattoo of the artist's portrait on her forearm. Just after leaving medical school, she made the decision to get the tattoo, for her, represented strength and bravery. Kahlo was inspirational for Sandé due to the unique story of her battle with polio at a young age that went on to inspire her artwork, she knew that her decision to pursue music and quit school would require a sense of fearlessness that she gained through Kahlo's expression of art. Sandé's sister made a video of her playing the piano and singing to one of her favourite songs, "Nasty Little Lady", they sent the clip to Trevor Nelson's BBC Urban music competition. Sandé won the show and was offered a record deal, but the management that she met via the competition decided against the deal. Emeli had become involved in the Urban Scot collective who helped and encouraged her career by promoting her in Scotland, – according to Emeli Sandé: The Biography by David Nolan – released an album of songs called Have You Heard? on Glasgow's Souljawn Records, sold at gigs.
Several tracks were made available to download. Her parents sent BBC Radio 1Xtra a CD of her songs. Ras Kwame played her on his "Homegrown Sessions", four artists that year were asked to do a show in Soho, she met with Watford-born music producer/writer Shahid Khan aka Naughty Boy, who had worked with Ms Dynamite and Bashy, they began writing tracks for artists such as Alesha Dixon, Professor Green, Preeya Kalidas, Cheryl Cole, Tinie Tempah. Sandé soon signed a record deal with EMI Records. In an interview, she said "I was doing a show in London for 1Xtra and I met this guy called Naughty Boy. We got in the studio and we clicked work wise. We just started writing, not for me, we just thought'let's write a pop tune' and experiment, and we wrote the Chipmunk track and I thought nothing of it. Naughty Boy sent it off to Chipmunk who liked it and wrote his stuff around it." She signed a record deal with Virgin Records in 2010. She signed another deal with EMI Records in early 2011. Sandé made her singing career debut in 2009 after appearing on the track she wrote for Chipmunk's first debut s
Chipata is a city in the Eastern Province of Zambia. It was declared the 5th city of the country, after Lusaka, Ndola and Livingstone, by President Edgar Lungu on 24 February 2017; the city has undergone rapid economic and infrastructure growth in the years, leading up to city status. Chipata is located 570 kilometres, east of Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia; this is about 150 kilometres west of Lilongwe, the capital city of Malawi. The geographical coordinates of Chipata are 13°38'43.0"S, 32°38'47.0"E. The average elevation of Chipata is 1,181 metres, above sea level. Having a modern market, a central hospital, shopping malls, a university, some colleges and a number of schools, Chipata is the business and administrative hub of the region; the town boasts a four star hotel, a golf course, an airport, a mosque, a "welcome arch". Developed areas includes Kalongwezi and Little Bombay. Chipata is the regional head of the Ngoni of Zambia; the Ngoni adopted the languages of the tribes they conquered, so Chewa and Nsenga are the principal languages, although Tumbuka and English are spoken, plus some Indian languages, as a large number of Zambian Indians live in the town.
It is located near the border with Malawi, lies on the Great East Road which connects the capitals Lilongwe 150 kilometres to the east, Lusaka 570 kilometres to the west. It is a popular access point for the South Luangwa National Park. Chipata's name comes from the Ngoni word "Chimpata" meaning "large space," in reference to the town's situation in a shallow valley between hills; the name of the central neighbourhood of Kapata, the original centre of town, comes from the Ngoni word meaning "small space." Chipata was known as Fort Jameson, being named after Leander Starr Jameson, the 19th-century British politician and adventurer. During the colonial period, few agreed that Jameson, known for his part in the infamous Jameson Raid deserved the honour of having any town named after him. Like'Fort Manning' and'Fort Rosebery', Fort Jameson was called a "fort" because the local government offices, the "boma", were once fortified. Fort Jameson was the capital of the British protectorate of North-Eastern Rhodesia between 1900 and 1911.
Kalongwezi Kapata Umodzi Moth Muchini Nabvutika Little Bombay Mchenga Damview Old Jim New Jim Chimwemwe Magazine Eastrise Walela Chawama Munga Chipata Motel Nadalisika Katopola Referendum Rose Hillview Gash Msekera Messengers The mayor of the city of Chipata is the head of the city government. With a population of about 455,783 in 2010, Chipata, is believed to be the 3rd largest city of the country behind only Lusaka and Kitwe; the predominant ethnic groups in the city are the Chewa, Tumbuka and Nsenga. A significant amount of trade occurs between Malawi via Chipata; the city has a bustling down town area known as "Down Shops" which has a lot of shops and other businesses run by Zambians of Indian Origin. Most notable shops are Ally and Sons; the Nc'wala ceremony of the Ngoni people takes place at Mutenguleni on the outskirts of Chipata. The ceremony celebrates the first fruits harvest and is held at the end of February. Hillside Primary School Mpezeni Primary School Chipata Primary School Kapata Primary School Chongololo School St Anne's Primary School Trinity private School Mem private School Anoya Zulu Boys Secondary School Chizongwe Boys Secondary School St. Monicas Girls Secondary School Chipata Day Secondary School Hillside Girls High School St. Atanazio Secondary School St. Mary's Seminary School Damview Secondary School Muziphas high school Chipata Teacher's Training College Chipata Trades Training Institute Chipata School of Nursing DMI-St.
Eugene University A rail link to Chipata from Malawi opened in August 2011. Chipata will now act as the Zambian entry point from Malawi and beyond. In the pipeline since 1982, the short link, about 35 kilometres, provides a through-route for rail traffic from Zambia via Malawi to the Indian Ocean deep-water port at Nacala in Mozambique; the route and alignment of the line has been laid out, including the site of Chipata station and the basic station building. The route will provide an alternative to two existing rail routes to the Indian Ocean, at Dar es Salaam and Beira. In 2015 it was proposed to build a rail link to a small town on the TAZARA Railway line. Railway stations in Zambia Railway stations in Malawi Transport in Zambia Transport in Malawi UN Map Largest cities of Zambia
Malawi the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa, known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, Mozambique on the east and west. Malawi is over 118,000 km2 with an estimated population of 18,091,575. Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi's area, its capital is Lilongwe, Malawi's largest city. The name Malawi comes from an old name of the Nyanja people that inhabit the area; the country is nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of the people. The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled by migrating Bantu groups around the 10th century. Centuries in 1891 the area was colonised by the British. In 1953 Malawi known as Nyasaland, a protectorate of the United Kingdom, became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; the Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964 the protectorate over Nyasaland was ended and Nyasaland became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II with the new name Malawi.
Two years it became a republic. Upon gaining independence it became a totalitarian one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who remained president until 1994. Malawi has a democratic, multi-party government headed by an elected president Arthur Peter Mutharika; the country has a Malawian Defence Force that includes a navy and an air wing. Malawi's foreign policy is pro-Western and includes positive diplomatic relations with most countries and participation in several international organisations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the African Union. Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries; the economy is based in agriculture, with a rural population. The Malawian government depends on outside aid to meet development needs, although this need has decreased since 2000; the Malawian government faces challenges in building and expanding the economy, improving education, environmental protection, becoming financially independent amidst widespread unemployment.
Since 2005, Malawi has developed several programs that focus on these issues, the country's outlook appears to be improving, with a rise in the economy and healthcare seen in 2007 and 2008. Malawi has a low life expectancy and high infant mortality. There is a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, a drain on the labour force and government expenditures. There is a diverse population of native peoples and Europeans, with several languages spoken and an array of religious beliefs. Although there was periodic regional conflict fuelled in part by ethnic divisions in the past, by 2008 it had diminished and the concept of a Malawian nationality had reemerged; the area of Africa now known as Malawi had a small population of hunter-gatherers before waves of Bantu peoples began emigrating from the north around the 10th century. Although most of the Bantu peoples continued south, some remained permanently and founded ethnic groups based on common ancestry. By 1500 AD, the tribes had established the Kingdom of Maravi that reached from north of what is now Nkhotakota to the Zambezi River and from Lake Malawi to the Luangwa River in what is now Zambia.
Soon after 1600, with the area united under one native ruler, native tribesmen began encountering, trading with and making alliances with Portuguese traders and members of the military. By 1700, the empire had broken up into areas controlled by many individual ethnic groups; the Arab slave trade reached its height in the mid- 1800s, when 20,000 people were enslaved and considered to be carried yearly from Nkhotakota to Kilwa where they were sold. Missionary and explorer David Livingstone reached Lake Malawi in 1859 and identified the Shire Highlands south of the lake as an area suitable for European settlement; as the result of Livingstone's visit, several Anglican and Presbyterian missions were established in the area in the 1860s and 1870s, the African Lakes Company Limited was established in 1878 to set up a trade and transport concern working with the missions, a small mission and trading settlement was established at Blantyre in 1876 and a British Consul took up residence there in 1883.
The Portuguese government was interested in the area so, to prevent Portuguese occupation, the British government sent Harry Johnston as British consul with instructions to make treaties with local rulers beyond Portuguese jurisdiction. In 1889, a British protectorate was proclaimed over the Shire Highlands, extended in 1891 to include the whole of present-day Malawi as the British Central Africa Protectorate. In 1907, the protectorate was renamed Nyasaland, a name it retained for the remainder of its time under British rule. In a prime example of what is sometimes called the "Thin White Line" of colonial authority in Africa, the colonial government of Nyasaland was formed in 1891; the administrators were given a budget of £10,000 per year, enough to employ ten European civilians, two military officers, seventy Punjab Sikhs and eighty-five Zanzibar porters. These few employees were expected to administer and police a territory of around 94,000 square kilometres with between one and two million people.
In 1944, the Nyasaland African Congress was formed by the Africans of Nyasaland to promote local interests to the British g
Zambia the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa. It neighbours the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique to the southeast and Botswana to the south, Namibia to the southwest, Angola to the west; the capital city is Lusaka, located in the south-central part of Zambia. The population is concentrated around Lusaka in the south and the Copperbelt Province to the northwest, the core economic hubs of the country. Inhabited by Khoisan peoples, the region was affected by the Bantu expansion of the thirteenth century. After visits by European explorers in the eighteenth century, the region became the British protectorates of Barotziland-North-Western Rhodesia and North-Eastern Rhodesia towards the end of the nineteenth century; these were merged in 1911 to form Northern Rhodesia. For most of the colonial period, Zambia was governed by an administration appointed from London with the advice of the British South Africa Company.
On 24 October 1964, Zambia became independent of the United Kingdom and prime minister Kenneth Kaunda became the inaugural president. Kaunda's socialist United National Independence Party maintained power from 1964 until 1991. Kaunda played a key role in regional diplomacy, cooperating with the United States in search of solutions to conflicts in Rhodesia and Namibia. From 1972 to 1991 Zambia was a one-party state with the UNIP as the sole legal political party under the motto "One Zambia, One Nation". Kaunda was succeeded by Frederick Chiluba of the social-democratic Movement for Multi-Party Democracy in 1991, beginning a period of social-economic growth and government decentralisation. Levy Mwanawasa, Chiluba's chosen successor, presided over Zambia from January 2002 until his death in August 2008, is credited with campaigns to reduce corruption and increase the standard of living. After Mwanawasa's death, Rupiah Banda presided as Acting President before being elected President in 2008. Holding office for only three years, Banda stepped down after his defeat in the 2011 elections by Patriotic Front party leader Michael Sata.
Sata died on 28 October 2014. Guy Scott served as interim president until new elections were held on 20 January 2015, in which Edgar Lungu was elected as the sixth President. In 2010, the World Bank named Zambia one of the world's fastest economically reformed countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa is headquartered in Lusaka. The territory of what is now Zambia was known as Northern Rhodesia from 1911, it was renamed Zambia at independence in 1964. The new name of Zambia was derived from the Zambezi river; the area of modern Zambia is known to have been inhabited by the Khoisan until around AD 300, when migrating Bantu began to settle around these areas. These early hunter-gatherer groups were either annihilated or absorbed by subsequent more organised Bantu groups. Archaeological excavation work on the Zambezi Valley and Kalambo Falls show a succession of human cultures. In particular, ancient camping site tools near the Kalambo Falls have been radiocarbon dated to more than 36,000 year ago.
The fossil skull remains of Broken Hill Man, dated between 300,000 and 125,000 years BC, further shows that the area was inhabited by early humans. The early history of the peoples of modern Zambia can only be gleaned from knowledge passed down by generations through word of mouth. In the 12th century, waves of Bantu-speaking immigrants arrived during the Bantu expansion. Among them, the Tonga people were the first to settle in Zambia and are believed to have come from the east near the "big sea"; the Nkoya people arrived early in the expansion, coming from the Luba–Lunda kingdoms in the southern parts of the modern Democratic Republic of the Congo and northern Angola, followed by a much larger influx between the late 12th and early 13th centuries To the east, the Maravi Empire spanning the vast areas of Malawi and parts of modern northern Mozambique began to flourish under Kalonga. At the end of the 18th century, some of the Mbunda migrated to Barotseland, Mongu upon the migration of among others, the Ciyengele.
The Aluyi and their leader, the Litunga Mulambwa valued the Mbunda for their fighting ability. In the early 19th century, the Nsokolo people settled in the Mbala district of Northern Province. During the 19th century, the Ngoni and Sotho peoples arrived from the south. By the late 19th century, most of the various peoples of Zambia were established in their current areas; the earliest European to visit the area was the Portuguese explorer Francisco de Lacerda in the late 18th century. Lacerda led an expedition from Mozambique to the Kazembe region in Zambia, died during the expedition in 1798; the expedition was from on led by his friend Francisco Pinto. This territory, located between Portuguese Mozambique and Portuguese Angola, was claimed and explored by Portugal in that period. Other European visitors followed in the 19th century; the most prominent of these was David Livingstone, who had a vision of ending the slave trade through the "3 Cs": Christianity and Civilization. He was the first European to see the magnificent waterfalls on the Zambezi River in 1855, naming them the Victoria Falls after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom.
He described them thus: "Scenes so lovely must have been gazed upon by angels in their flight". Locally the falls are known as "Mosi-o-Tunya" or "thunder