Serer language

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Serer
Seereer
Native to Senegal, Gambia, Mauritania
Native speakers
1.2 million (2006)[1]
Standard forms
Seereer-Siin
Official status
Regulated by CLAD (Centre de linguistique appliquée de Dakar)
Language codes
ISO 639-2 srr
ISO 639-3 srr
Glottolog sere1260[2]
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Serer, often broken into differing regional dialects such as Serer-Sine and "Serer saloum." It is a language of the Senegambian branch of Niger–Congo spoken by 1.2 million people in Senegal and 30,000 in the Gambia.[3] It is the principal language of the Serer people.

Classification[edit]

Serer is one of the Senegambian languages, which are characterized by consonant mutation, the traditional classification of Atlantic is that of Sapir (1971), which found that Serer was closest to Fulani.[4] However, a widely cited misreading of the data by Wilson (1989) inadvertently exchanged Serer for Wolof. Dialects of Serer are Serer Sine (the prestige dialect), Segum, Fadyut-Palmerin, Dyegueme (Gyegem), and Niominka, they are mutually intelligible with the exception of the Sereer spoken in some of the areas surounding the city of Thies.

Not all Serer people speak Serer. About 200,000 speak Cangin languages, because the speakers are ethnically Serer, these are commonly thought to be Serer dialects. However, they are not closely related: Serer is significantly closer to Fulani (Also pronounced Pulbe, Pulaar, or Fulbe) than it is to Cangin.[citation needed]

Phonology[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Consonants[5]
Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m m n n ñ ɲ ŋ ŋ
Stop p p
 
b b
ᵐb
t t
 
d d
ⁿd
c c
 
j ɟ
ᶮɟ
k k
 
g g
ᵑɡ
q q
 
 
ᶰɢ
ʔ
 
Implosive ƥ ɓ̥ ɓ ɓ ƭ ɗ̥ ɗ ɗ ƈ ʄ̊ ƴ ʄ
Fricative f f s s x x h h
Approximant
(Lateral)
y j w w
l l
Flap r ɾ

The voiceless implosives are highly unusual sounds.

Serer greetings[edit]

The following greetings and responses are spoken in most regions of Senegal that have Serer speakers.

  • Nam fi'o? (pronounced nam feeyoh) = How are you doing?
  • Mexe meen. (pronounced may hay men) = I am here.
  • Ta mbind na? (pronounced, tah mbind nah) = How is the family (or more literally house)?
  • Awa maa. (pronounced Awa maa) = They are good (or more literally They are there).

It should be noted that spacial awareness is very important in Sereer, for example this exchange only works if the household in question is not near. Certian gramatical changes would need to occur if this was said in a home the greeter has just entered.

  • Ta mbind ne? (pronounced tah mbind neh) = How is the family/house (which is here)?
  • Awa meen (pronounced Awa men) = they are good (or more literally They are here).

In Senegalese culture, greetings are very important. Sometimes, people will spend several minutes greeting each other.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Serer at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Serer". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  3. ^ Lewis, M. Paul (ed.), 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Sixteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International, Ethnologue.com. Figures for (2006) The Gambia only.
  4. ^ Sapir, David, 1971. "West Atlantic: an inventory of the languages, their noun-class systems and consonant alternation". In Sebeok, ed, Current trends in linguistics, 7: linguistics in sub-Saharan Africa. Mouton, 45–112
  5. ^ Mc Laughlin (2005:203)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fall, Papa Oumar (2013). "The ethnolinguistic classification of Seereer in question.". in Africa: Challenges of Multilingualism, ds Altmayer, Claus / Wolff, H. Ekkehard, Peter Lang, Frankfurt am Main, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford: 47–60. 
  • McLaughlin, Fiona (1994). "Consonant mutation in Seereer-Siin". Studies in African Languages. 23: 279–313. 
  • McLaughlin, Fiona (2000). "Consonant mutation and reduplication in Seereer-Siin". Phonology. 17: 333–363. doi:10.1017/S0952675701003955. 
  • Mc Laughlin, Fiona (2005), "Voiceless implosives in Seereer-Siin", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 201–214, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002215 
  • Crétois, L. (1972). Dictionnaire sereer-français (différents dialects) (in French). Dakar: Centre de Linguistique Appliquée de Dakar. 
  • Fal, A. (1980). Les nominaux en sereer-siin: Parler de Jaxaaw (in French). Dakar: Nouvelles Editions Africaines. 
  • Senghor, L. S. (1994). "L'harmonie vocalique en sérère (dialecte du Dyéguème)". Journal de la Société des Linguistes (in French). 14: 17–23.