World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Terebovlia is a small city in the Ternopil Oblast of western Ukraine, the administrative center of the Terebovlya Raion. It is an ancient settlement that traces its roots to the settlement of Terebovl which existed in Kievan Rus; the name may be variously transliterated as Terebovlya / Terebovla / Terebovlja. The population as of the 2001 census was 13,661. In 1913 the city counted 10,000 residents, of which 4,000 were Poles, 3,200 were Rusyns and 2,800 were Jews. In 1929 there were 7,015 people Polish and Jewish; until September 17, 1939, the day of the Soviet invasion of Poland, Trembowla was a county seat within the Tarnopol Voivodeship of the Second Polish Republic. Prior to the Holocaust, the city was home to 1,486 Jews, most of them were shot by Germans in the nearby village of Plebanivka on April 7, 1943. Terebovlia is one of the oldest cities in, it was first mentioned in chronicles of 1097. During the Red Ruthenia times it used to be the center of Terebovlia principality, it was called Terebovl.
Terebovlia principality included lands of the whole south east of Galicia and Bukovyna. Polish King Casimir III the Great became the suzerain of Halych after his cousin's death, Boleslaw-Yuri II of Galicia, when the city became part of the Polish domain, being incorporated into Poland in 1430 during the reign of king Władysław II Jagiełło, while his son Casimir IV Jagiellon granted the town limited Magdeburg Rights. After the rebuilding of the castle in Terebovlia in 1366, Poland administered the town, until it became part of the system of border fortifications of the Polish Kingdom and Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth against Moldavian and Wallachian transgressions; the town later resisted against constant invasion by the Crimean Tatars, the Ottomans and also the Zaporozhian Cossacks from the south and south-east. That is why the Terebovlya castle and churches, were all designed as defensive structures; this was the seat of the famous starost and most successful 16th-century anti-Tatar Polish commander Bernard Pretwicz, who died there in 1563.
In 1594, the Ukrainian cossack rebel Severyn Nalyvaiko sacked the town. During the Khmelnytsky Uprising, Terebovl became one of the centers of the struggle in Podolia; the city was raided by the Crimean Tatars and their erstwhile allies, the Zaporozhian Cossacks. The most destructive attacks happened in 1498, 1508, 1515 and 1516, resulting in a temporary decline of the town. In 1674, as part of preparations for another war with the Turks, who at that time were at war with Muscovy, the Diet decided to further strengthen Terebovlia and send garrisons there; the following year the Janissary once again embarked on raids against towns and villages, on 20 September 1675 destroyed the town, but the castle was held by a small group of defenders until King Jan III Sobieski arrived to relieve them. This episode is known as the Battle of Trembowla; the castle was destroyed during the final Turkish invasion of 1688. After the first partition of Poland in 1772, Trembowla became part of the Habsburg Empire's Galicia until 1918.
From November 18, 1918, until June 9, 1919, the town was under control of the West Ukrainian People's Republic. Following the Polish–Ukrainian War, Trembowla returned to Poland, as seat of a county in Tarnopol Voivodeship. In the interbellum period, the town was home to the 9th Regiment of Lesser Poland Uhlans. During World War II, Trembowla and its area witnessed mass murders of ethnic Poles, as some 3,000 of them were killed by Ukrainian nationalists and local Ukrainian peasantry; as a result all Polish survivors left the town in 1945, moving to the so-called Recovered Territories. The Soviet Union took the city along with eastern Poland in September 1939, until the German invasion in June 1941, again the Soviet Union took over the town at it became part of the Soviet Ukraine between 1944–1991. In 1991 Terebovl became part of an independent Ukraine; the town has ruins of a castle built by King Kazimierz Wielki in the second half of the 14th century. In 1534, the castle was expanded by the Voivode of Kraków, Andrzej Teczynski, in 1631 it was once again expanded by the Castellan of Trembowla, Andrzej Balaban.
In 1648, it was captured by the Cossacks. Among other sites of interest are the complex of a Carmelite church and monastery, funded in 1617 by Piotr Ozga, it had the painting of Our Lady of Trembowla, which after World War II was moved to St. Catherine church in Gdańsk. Communist authorities turned the complex into a factory, a house of culture, it is an Orthodox church. Three kilometers south of the town there are ruins of a 17th-century defensive monastery of the Basilian monks, it was completed in 1716. Terebovl has a Roman Catholic church of Saint Peter and Paul, designed in 1927 by architect Adolf Szyszko-Bohusz. Terebovlia in Encyclopedia of Ukraine Site about Terebovlya, with maps and history The fate of Jews in Terebovlia A portion of a documentary film featuring a former Polish resident of Trembowla Images of Terebovlia castle and the city Terebovlya, Ukraine at KehilaLinks Terebovlya, Ukraine at JewishGen
The Siret or Sireth is a river that rises from the Carpathians in the Northern Bukovina region of Ukraine, flows southward into Romania before it joins the Danube. It is 647 km long, of which 559 km in Romania, its basin area is 44,811 km2, of which 42,890 km2 in Romania, its average discharge is 250 m3/s. In ancient times, it was named Hierasus; the following towns and villages are situated along the river Siret, from source to mouth: Berehomet, Siret, Grămești, Zvoriștea, Dolhasca, Pașcani, Stolniceni-Prăjescu, Bacău, Adjud, Mărășești, Galați. The following rivers are tributaries to the river Siret: Left: Bahna, Molnița, Bahna, Gârla Sirețel, Gârla Huțanilor, Pleșu, Pitrosul, Sirețel, Stolniceni, Hărmănești, Pârâul Țigăncilor, Boca, Vulpășești, Țiganca, Icușești, Glodeni, Râpaș, Pârâul Morii, Răcătău, Fulgeriș, Lupa, Bârlad, Călmățui, Geru, Mălina, Cătușa. Right: Malyi Seret, Găvan, Verehia, Leahu, Hănțești, Grigorești, Sălăgeni, Suceava, Șomuzul Mic, Șomuzul Mare, Conțeasca, Valea Părului, Podul Turcului, Tămășeni, Valea Neagră, Bistrița, Cleja, Răcăciuni, Valea Seacă, Botohan, Fântânele, Conțești, Trotuș, Valea Boului, Carecna, Zăbrăuț, Șușița, Gârla Morilor, Leica, Râmnicul Sărat, Buzău.
During July 2010, Gheorghe Flutur, president of Suceava County, told the Mediafax news agency his region was one of the worst hit in the country in the morning of the 29th as he co-ordinated local flood relief work in his stricken county. That day the River Siret threatened to break through the dykes protecting the town of Șendreni, as locals and emergency services reinforced the dykes with truckloads of sandbags to prevent the river breaking out and flooding the town. Global storm activity of 2010 2010 Romanian floods Administrația Națională Apelor Române - Cadastrul Apelor - București Institutul de Meteorologie și Hidrologie - Rîurile României - București 1971
A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
The Dniester River is a river in Eastern Europe. It runs first through Ukraine and through Moldova discharging into the Black Sea on Ukrainian territory again; the name Dniester derives from Sarmatian dānu nazdya "the close river." The Dnieper of Sarmatian origin, derives from the opposite meaning, "the river on the far side". Alternatively, according to Vasily Abaev Dniester would be a blend of Scythian dānu "river" and Thracian Ister, the previous name of the river Dān-Ister; the Ancient Greek name of Dniester, Tyras, is from Scythian tūra, meaning "rapid."The names of the Don and Danube are from the same Indo-Iranian word *dānu "river". Classical authors have referred to it as Danaster; these early forms, without -i- but with -a-, contradict Abaev's hypothesis. Edward Gibbon refers to the river both as the Niester and Dniester in his History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. In Ukrainian, it is known as Дністе́р, in Romanian as Nistru. In Russian, it is known as Днестр, in Yiddish: Nester נעסטער.
The Dniester rises in Ukraine, near the city of Drohobych, close to the border with Poland, flows toward the Black Sea. Its course marks part of the border of Ukraine and Moldova, after which it flows through Moldova for 398 kilometres, separating the main territory of Moldova from its breakaway region Transnistria, it forms an additional part of the Moldova-Ukraine border flows through Ukraine to the Black Sea, where its estuary forms the Dniester Liman. Along the lower half of the Dniester, the western bank is high and hilly while the eastern one is low and flat; the river represents the de facto end of the Eurasian Steppe. Its most important tributaries are Bîc. During the Neolithic, the Dniester River was the centre of one of the most advanced civilizations on earth at the time; the Cucuteni–Trypillian culture flourished in this area from 5300 to 2600 BC, leaving behind thousands of archeological sites. Their settlements had up to 15,000 inhabitants, making them among the first large farming communities in the world.
In antiquity, the river was considered one of the principal rivers of European Sarmatia, it was mentioned by many Classical geographers and historians. According to Herodotus it rose in a large lake, whilst Ptolemy places its sources in Mount Carpates, Strabo says that they are unknown, it ran in an easterly direction parallel with the Ister, formed part of the boundary between Dacia and Sarmatia. It fell into the Pontus Euxinus to the northeast of the mouth of the Ister, the distance between them being 900 stadia – 210 km – according to Strabo, while 210 km according to Pliny. Scymnus describes it as of easy navigation, abounding in fish. Ovid speaks of its rapid course. Greek authors referred to the river as Tyras. At a period it obtained the name of Danastris or Danastus, whence its modern name of Dniester, though the Turks still called it Turla during the 19th century; the form Τύρις is sometimes found. According to Constantine VII, the Varangians used boats on their trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, along Dniester and Dnieper and along the Black Sea shore.
The navigation near the western shore of Black Sea contained stops at Aspron Conopa and Messembria. From the 14th century to 1812, part of the Dniester formed the eastern boundary of the Principality of Moldavia. Between the World Wars, the Dniester formed part of the boundary between Romania and the Soviet Union. In 1919, on Easter Sunday, the bridge was blown up by the French Army to protect Bender from the Bolsheviks. During World War II, German and Romanian forces battled Soviet troops on the western bank of the river. After the Republic of Moldova declared its independence in 1991, the small area to the east of the Dniester, part of the Moldavian SSR refused to participate and declared itself the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, or Transnistria, with its capital at Tiraspol on the river. From source to mouth, right tributaries, i.e. on the southwest side, are the Stryi, Lomnytsia, Bystrytsia, Răut, Ichel, Bîc, Botna. Left tributaries, on the northeast side, are the Strv'yazh, Hnyla Lypa, Zolota Lypa, Strypa, Zbruch, Ushytsia, Liadova, Rusava and Kuchurhan.
Dniester Canyon Dniester Pumped Storage Power Station Euroregion Dniester This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Volodymyr Kubijovyč, Ivan Teslia, Dnister River in the Encyclopedia of Ukraine, vol. 1. Dniester.org: a trans-boundary Dniester river project eco-tiras.org
Ratyshchi is a village in the Zboriv Raion, Ternopil Oblast. Local government – Ratyshchivska village council. Unto her is subordinated to the village Pishchane; the village is situated on the banks of the Seret River, the left tributary of the Dniester. Village Ratyshchi distant from the administrative center of Ternopil 45 kilometres, from Zboriv — 32 kilometres, from Lviv — 102 kilometres; the first written record dates from the 12th century. У ЗБОРОВІ ВШАНУВАЛИ РАТИЩІВСЬКУ ІКОНУ ПРЕСВЯТОЇ БОГОРОДИЦІ weather.in.ua Pogoda w Ratyshchi Ukrainian: Історія міст і сіл УРСР: Тернопільська область. – К.: ГРУРЕ, 1973 р. – 640 с