Harvard Graduate School of Design
The Harvard Graduate School of Design is a professional graduate school at Harvard University, located at Gund Hall, Massachusetts. The GSD offers masters and doctoral programs in architecture, landscape architecture, urban planning, urban design, real estate, design engineering, design studies; the GSD has over 13,000 alumni and has graduated many famous architects, urban planners, landscape architects. The school is considered a global academic leader in the design fields; the GSD has the world's oldest landscape architecture program, North America's oldest urban planning program. Architecture courses were first taught at Harvard University in 1874; the Graduate School of Design was established in 1936, combining the three fields of architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture under one graduate school. The market value of the school's endowment for the fiscal year 2016 was $428 million. Charles Eliot Norton brought the first architecture classes to Harvard University in 1874. In 1900, the first urban planning courses were taught at Harvard University, by 1909, urban planning courses taught by James Sturgis Pray were added into Harvard's design curriculum as part of the landscape architecture department.
In 1923, North America's first urban planning degree was established at Harvard. In 1980, the program was temporarily moved to the Harvard Kennedy School of Government until it returned to the GSD in 1984. In 1893, the nation's first professional course in landscape architecture was offered at Harvard University. In 1900, the world's first landscape architecture program was established by Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. and Arthur A. Shurcliff; the School of Landscape Architecture was established in 1913. The three major design professions were united in 1936 to form the Harvard Graduate School of Design. In 1937, Walter Gropius joined the GSD faculty as chair of the Department of Architecture and brought modern designers, including Marcel Breuer to help revamp the curriculum. In 1960, Josep Lluís Sert established the nation's first Urban Design program. George Gund Hall, the present iconic home GSD, opened in 1972 and was designed by Australian architect and GSD graduate John Andrews; the school's now defunct Laboratory for Computer Graphics and Spatial Analysis is recognized as the research/development environment from which the now-commercialized technology of geographic information systems emerged in the late 1960s and 1970s.
More recent research initiatives include the Design Robotics Group, a unit that investigates new material systems and fabrication technologies in the context of architectural design and construction. The degrees granted in the masters programs include the Master of Architecture, Master in Landscape Architecture, Master of Architecture in Urban Design, Master of Landscape Architecture in Urban Design, Master in Urban Planning, Master in Design Engineering, Master in Design Studies in more than eight concentrations; the school offers a doctoral degree, Doctor of Design, jointly administers a Doctor of Philosophy degree in architecture, urban planning, landscape architecture with the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Master of Architecture Master in Urban Planning Master of Landscape Architecture Master of Architecture in Urban Design Master in Design Engineering Master of Landscape Architecture in Urban Design Master in Design Studies with distinct concentrations:Art and the Public Domain Critical Conservation Energy and Environments History and Philosophy of Design Real Estate and the Built Environment Risk and Resilience Technology Urbanism, Ecology Doctor of Design Doctor of Philosophy in Architecture, Urban Planning, Landscape Architecture As of 2016, the program's ten-year average ranking, places it 1st, overall, on DesignIntelligence's ranking of programs accredited by the National Architectural Accrediting Board.
Executive Education operates within GSD providing continuing education classes, they are located at 7 Sumner Rd. Advanced Management Development Program in Real Estate is a six-week executive development course; the program is open to established professionals with 15+ years of experience in real estate. Upon graduating from AMDP, participants are full-fledged Harvard University Alumni; as of 2013, AMDP is in its 13th year. The other large program organized by Executive Education is summer Open Enrollment. In 2013, Executive Education held 18 classes throughout the month of July; each class lasts from 1 to 3 days and is eligible for continuing education credits through American Institute of Architects, American Society of Landscape Architects and/or American Planning Association. Open Enrollment classes are open to everyone; as of 2012–2013, there were 878 students enrolled. 362 students or 42% were enrolled in architecture, 182 students or 21% in landscape architecture, 161 students or 18% in urban planning, 173 students or 20% in doctoral or design studies programs.
65% of students were Americans. The average student is 27 years old. GSD students are represented by the Harvard Graduate Council, the main university-wide student government organization. There are several dozen internal GSD student clubs. In addition to its degree programs, the GSD administers the Loeb Fellowship, numerous research initiatives such as the Zofnass Program for Sustainable Infrastructure; the school publishes the bi-annual Harvard Design Magazine and other design books and studio work
Historic England is an executive non-departmental public body of the British Government sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. It is tasked with protecting the historical environment of England by preserving and listing historic buildings, ancient monuments and advising central and local government; the body was created by the National Heritage Act 1983, operated from April 1984 to April 2015 under the name of English Heritage. In 2015, following the changes to English Heritage's structure that moved the protection of the National Heritage Collection into the voluntary sector in the English Heritage Trust, the body that remained was rebranded as Historic England. Historic England has a similar remit to and complements the work of Natural England which aims to protect the natural environment; the body inherited the Historic England Archive from the old English Heritage, projects linked to the archive such as Britain from Above, which saw the archive work with the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales and the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland to digitise and put online 96,000 of the oldest Aerofilms images.
The archive holds various nationally important collections and the results of older projects such as the work of the National Buildings Record absorbed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England and the Images of England project which set out to create a accessible online database of the 370,000 listed properties in England at a snapshot in time at the turn of the millennium. Historic England inherits English Heritage's position as the UK government's statutory adviser and a statutory consultee on all aspects of the historic environment and its heritage assets; this includes archaeology on land and under water, historic buildings sites and areas, designated landscapes and the historic elements of the wider landscape. It monitors and reports on the state of England's heritage and publishes the annual Heritage at Risk survey, one of the UK Government's Official statistics, it is tasked to secure the preservation and enhancement of the man-made heritage of England for the benefit of future generations.
Its remit involves: Caring for nationally important archive collections of photographs and other records which document the historic environment of England and date from the eighteenth century onwards. Giving grants national and local organisations for the conservation of historic buildings and landscapes. In 2013/14 over £13 million worth of grants were made to support heritage buildings. Advising central UK government on which English heritage assets are nationally important and should be protected by designation. Administering and maintaining the register of England's listed buildings, scheduled monuments, registered battlefields, World Heritage Sites and protected parks and gardens; this is published as an online resource as'The National Heritage List for England'. Advising local authorities on managing changes to the most important parts of heritage. Providing expertise through advice and guidance to improve the standards and skills of people working in heritage, practical conservation and access to resources.
In 2009–2010 it trained around 200 professionals working in local authorities and the wider sector. Consulting and collaborating with other heritage bodies and national planning organisations e.g. the preparation of Planning Policy statement for the Historic Environment Commissioning and conducting archaeological research, including the publication of'Heritage Counts' and ‘Heritage at Risk’ on behalf of the heritage sector which are the annual research surveys into the state of England's heritage. It is not responsible for approving alterations to listed buildings; the management of listed buildings is the responsibility of local planning authorities and the Department for Communities and Local Government. It owns the National Heritage Collection of nationally important historic sites in public care; however they do not run these sites as this function is instead carried out by the English Heritage Trust under licence until 2023. English Heritage Historic England Archive Cadw Historic Scotland Northern Ireland Environment Agency Manx National Heritage Department for Culture and Sport Conservation in the United Kingdom Heritage at Risk Historic houses in England National Trust Properties in England Heritage Open Days List of Conservation topics List of heritage registers List of museums in England Heritage film Official website The Historic England Archive: Search over 1 million catalogue entries describing photographs and drawings of England's buildings and historic sites, held in the Historic England Archive.
Britain from Above: presents the unique Aerofilms collection of aerial photographs from 1919-1953. Images of England website Heritage Explorer: Education site for teachers Department for Culture Media and Sport
An architectural drawing or architect's drawing is a technical drawing of a building that falls within the definition of architecture. Architectural drawings are used by architects and others for a number of purposes: to develop a design idea into a coherent proposal, to communicate ideas and concepts, to convince clients of the merits of a design, to enable a building contractor to construct it, as a record of the completed work, to make a record of a building that exists. Architectural drawings are made according to a set of conventions, which include particular views, sheet sizes, units of measurement and scales and cross referencing. Conventionally, drawings were made in ink on paper or a similar material, any copies required had to be laboriously made by hand; the twentieth century saw a shift to drawing on tracing paper, so that mechanical copies could be run off efficiently. The development of the computer had a major impact on the methods used to design and create technical drawings, making manual drawing obsolete, opening up new possibilities of form using organic shapes and complex geometry.
Today the vast majority of drawings are created using CAD software. The size of drawings reflects the materials available and the size, convenient to transport – rolled up or folded, laid out on a table, or pinned up on a wall; the draughting process may impose limitations on the size, realistically workable. Sizes are determined according to local usage; the largest paper size used in modern architectural practice is ISO A0 or in the USA Arch E or Large E size. Architectural drawings are drawn to scale, so that relative sizes are represented; the scale is chosen both to ensure the whole building will fit on the chosen sheet size, to show the required amount of detail. At the scale of one eighth of an inch to one foot or the metric equivalent 1 to 100, walls are shown as simple outlines corresponding to the overall thickness. At a larger scale, half an inch to one foot or the nearest common metric equivalent 1 to 20, the layers of different materials that make up the wall construction are shown.
Construction details are drawn in some cases full size. Scale drawings enable dimensions to be "read" off i.e. measured directly. Imperial scales are readable using an ordinary ruler. On a one-eighth inch to one foot scale drawing, the one-eighth divisions on the ruler can be read off as feet. Architects use a scale ruler with different scales marked on each edge. A third method, used by builders in estimating, is to measure directly off the drawing and multiply by the scale factor. Dimensions can be measured off drawings made on a stable medium such as vellum. All processes of reproduction introduce small errors now that different copying methods mean that the same drawing may be re-copied, or copies made in several different ways. Dimensions need to be written on the drawing; the disclaimer "Do not scale off dimensions" is inscribed on architects drawings, to guard against errors arising in the copying process. This section deals with the conventional views used to represent a structure. See the Types of architectural drawing section below for drawings classified according to their purpose.
A floor plan is the most fundamental architectural diagram, a view from above showing the arrangement of spaces in building in the same way as a map, but showing the arrangement at a particular level of a building. Technically it is a horizontal section cut through a building, showing walls and door openings and other features at that level; the plan view includes anything that could be seen below that level: the floor, stairs and sometimes furniture. Objects above the plan level can be indicated as dashed lines. Geometrically, plan view is defined as a vertical orthographic projection of an object on to a horizontal plane, with the horizontal plane cutting through the building. A site plan is a specific type of plan, showing the whole context of a building or group of buildings. A site plan shows property boundaries and means of access to the site, nearby structures if they are relevant to the design. For a development on an urban site, the site plan may need to show adjoining streets to demonstrate how the design fits into the urban fabric.
Within the site boundary, the site plan gives an overview of the entire scope of work. It shows the buildings existing and those that are proposed as a building footprint. For a construction project, the site plan needs to show all the services connections: drainage and sewer lines, water supply and communications cables, exterior lighting etc. Site plans are used to represent a building proposal prior to detailed design: drawing up a site plan is a tool for deciding both the site layout and the size and orientation of proposed new buildings. A site plan is used to verify that a proposal complies with local development codes, including restrictions on historical sites. In this context the site plan forms part of a legal agreement, there may be a requirement for it to be drawn up by a licensed professional: architect, landscape architect or land surveyor. An elevation is a view of a building seen from a flat representation of one façade. This
London Borough of Camden
The London Borough of Camden is a borough in north west London, forms part of Inner London. In Middlesex, some southern areas of the borough, such as Holborn, are sometimes described as part of the West End of London; the local authority is Camden London Borough Council. The borough was created in 1965 from the former area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hampstead, St Pancras, which had formed part of the County of London; the borough was named after Camden Town, which had gained its name from Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden in 1795. The transcribed diaries of William Copeland Astbury made available, describe Camden and the surrounding areas in great detail from 1829–1848. Sir Jan inspired many of his art works in this area. There are 162 English Heritage blue plaques in the borough of Camden representing the many diverse personalities that have lived there; the southern part of the borough is in the Central Activities Zone including Holborn and King's Cross. The northern part of the borough includes the less densely developed areas of Hampstead, Hampstead Heath and Kentish Town.
Neighbouring boroughs are the City of Westminster and the City of London to the south, Brent to the west and Haringey to the north and Islington to the east. It covers all or part of the N1, N6, N7, N19, NW1, NW2, NW3, NW5, NW6, NW8, EC1, WC1, WC2, W1 and W9 postcode areas. Camden Town Hall is located in Judd Street in St Pancras. Camden London Borough Council was controlled by the Labour Party continuously from 1971 until the 2006 election, when the Liberal Democrats became the largest party. In 2006, two Green Cllrs, Maya de Souza and Adrian Oliver, were elected and were the first Green Party councillors in Camden. In 1985 when the borough was rate-capped, the Labour leadership joined the rebellion in which it declared its inability to set a budget in an unsuccessful attempt to force the Government to allow higher spending. Camden was the fourth to last council to drop out of the campaign, doing so in the early hours of 6 June. Borough councillors are elected every four years. Since May 2002 the electoral wards in Camden are Belsize, Camden Town with Primrose Hill, Fortune Green and Fitzjohns, Gospel Oak, Hampstead Town, Highgate and Covent Garden, Kentish Town, King's Cross, Regent's Park, St Pancras and Somers Town, Swiss Cottage and West Hampstead.
Between 2006 and 2010 Labour lost two seats to the Liberal Democrats through by-elections, in Kentish Town and Haverstock wards. A Labour Councillor in Haverstock ward defected to the Liberal Democrats in February 2009; the Conservatives lost two seats, one to the Liberal Democrats in Hampstead, one to the Green Party, Alexander Goodman, in Highgate, taking the total number of Green Party Councillors to three. At the local elections on 6 May 2010 the Labour party regained full control of Camden council; the organisation's staff are led by the Chief Executive, Mike Cooke. The organisation is divided into five directorates: Housing and Adult Social Care Children and Families Culture & Environment Central Services: Finance Legal Strategy and Organisation Development Chief Executives DepartmentThe directorates are headed by a director who reports directly to the Chief Executive; each directorate is divided into a number of divisions headed by an assistant director. They, in turn, are divided into groups.
This is a similar model to most local government in London. Camden forms part of the Barnet and Camden London Assembly constituency, represented by Andrew Dismore of the Labour Party There are two parliamentary constituencies covering Camden: Hampstead and Kilburn in the north, represented by Labour's Tulip Siddiq, Holborn and St. Pancras in the south, represented by Labour's Keir Starmer. In 1801, the civil parishes that form the modern borough were developed and had a total population of 96,795; this continued to rise swiftly throughout the 19th century as the district became built up, reaching 270,197 in the middle of the century. When the railways arrived the rate of population growth slowed, for while many people were drawn in by new employment, others were made homeless by the new central London termini and construction of lines through the district; the population peaked at 376,500 in the 1890s, after which official efforts began to clear the overcrowded slums around St Pancras and Holborn.
After World War II, further suburban public housing was built to rehouse the many Londoners made homeless in the Blitz, there was an exodus from London towards the new towns under the Abercrombie Plan for London. As industry declined during the 1970s the population continued to decline, falling to 161,100 at the start of the 1980s, it has now begun to rise again with new housing developments on brownfield sites and the release of railway and gas work lands around Kings Cross. A 2017 study found that the eviction rate of 6 per 1,000 renting households in Camden is the lowest rate in London; the 2001 census gave Camden a population of 198,000, an undercount, revised to 202,600. The projected 2006 figure is 227,500. On 20 May 1999, the Camden New Journal newspaper documented'Two Camdens' syndrome as a high-profile phenomenon differentiating the characteristics of education services in its constituencies. In 2006, Dame Julia Neuberger's book reported similar variation as a characteristic of Camden's children's health services.
Her insider's view was corroboration – in addition to the 2001 "Inequalities" report by Director of Public Health Dr. Maggie Barker of "stark contrasts in" health and education opportunities – of earlier similar Audit Commission findings and a verification/update of the 1999 CNJ rep
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
IIT Institute of Design
IIT Institute of Design at the Illinois Institute of Technology, founded as the New Bauhaus, is a graduate school teaching systemic, human-centered design. The IIT Institute of Design is a school of design founded in 1937 in Chicago by László Moholy-Nagy, a Bauhaus teacher. After a spell in London, Bauhaus master Moholy-Nagy, at the invitation of Chicago's Association of Art and Industry, moved to Chicago in 1937 to start a new design school, which he named the New Bauhaus; the philosophy of the school was unchanged from that of the original, its first headquarters was the Prairie Avenue mansion that architect Richard Morris Hunt, designed for department store magnate Marshall Field. Due to financial problems the school closed in 1938. However, Walter Paepcke, Chairman of the Container Corporation of America and an early champion of industrial design in America, soon offered his personal support, in 1939, Moholy-Nagy re-opened the school as the Chicago School of Design. In 1944, this became the Institute of Design, in 1949 it became part of the new Illinois Institute of Technology university system and the first institution in the United States to offer a PhD in design.
Moholy authored an account of his efforts to develop the curriculum of the School of Design in his book Vision in Motion. Archival materials are held by the Burnham Libraries at the Art Institute of Chicago; the Institute of Design Collection includes articles, letters and other materials documenting the institute's history and works by faculty and students. Select archival film materials are held at Chicago Film Archives, who store and provide access to a handful of Institute of Design films; the Institute of Design offers two professional degrees, the Master of Design and the Master of Design Methods, as well as a research degree, the PhD, the first doctoral program in design in the United States, a dual MDes/MBA degree program the first of its kind, with the IIT Stuart School of Business. At one time, the Institute of Design offered a Bachelor of Science in Design degree, with specialties in Photography, Product Design and Communication Design; the Bachelor's program was halted in 1998. The Institute of Design annually organizes two large design conferences in the Chicago area: The Strategy Conference for international executives and designers who come together to address how businesses can use design to explore emerging opportunities, the Design Research Conference, organized by students, exploring emerging trends in design research.
1937–1945, László Moholy-Nagy 1946–1951, Serge Chermayeff 1951–1955, Crombie Taylor 1955–1969, Jay Doblin 1969–1974, James S. Montague 1974–1982, various 1982–1986, Dale Fahnstrom 1986–2017, Patrick Whitney 2017-present, Denis Weil George Anselevicius 1949 Alexander Archipenko John Cage Jay Doblin, Director Harry Callahan, Photography Buckminster Fuller Michael Higgins, Head of Visual Design George Fred Keck György Kepes Ralph Rapson Arthur Siegel, Photography Aaron Siskind, Photography Robert Bruce Tague, Architecture Konrad Wachsmann Taught at the IIT from 1949, at the University of Illinois. Hugo Weber Massimo Vignelli 1958-60 Michael McCoy and Katherine McCoy 1995-2003 New Bauhaus - American School of Design 1938: 1905 S. Prairie Avenue, ChicagoThe School of Design in Chicago 1939–1945: 247 E. Ontario Street, ChicagoThe Institute of Design 1945–1946: 1009 N. State Street, Chicago 1946–1956: 632 N. Dearborn Street, Chicago 1956–1989: S. R. Crown Hall IIT campus on South State Street 1989–1996: 10 West 35th Street 1996–2016: 350 N. LaSalle Blvd, Chicago 2016-2018: 565 W. Adams St, Chicago 2018-Present: Kaplan Institute, 3137 S Federal St. Chicago Robert Brownjohn and graphic designer Ivan Chermayeff, Principal of Chermayeff & Geismar, son of former Institute of Design director Serge Chermayeff and designer of the Chase Manhattan Bank logo among other achievements.
June Leaf, sculptor Ray Metzker, photographer Richard Nickel and architectural preservationist Charles L. Owen, creator of the Structured Planning method for complex systems design Louis Sauer, architect Burton Kramer, graphic designer, artist, A. G. I. Order of Ontario, D. Des O. C. A. D. U. Estes W. Mann, Memphis based architect who produced numerous NRHP listed residences Art Sinsabaugh, American photographer.
Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School, along with Alvar Aalto, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright, is regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modernist architecture. Gropius was a leading architect of the International Style. Born in Berlin, Walter Gropius was the third child of Walter Adolph Gropius and Manon Auguste Pauline Scharnweber, daughter of the Prussian politician Georg Schwarnweber. Walter's uncle Martin Gropius was the architect of the Kunstgewerbemuseum in Berlin and a follower of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, with whom Walter's great-grandfather Carl Gropius, who fought under Field Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher at the Battle of Waterloo, had shared a flat as a bachelor. In 1915 Gropius married Alma Mahler, widow of Gustav Mahler. Walter and Alma's daughter, named Manon after Walter's mother, was born in 1916; when Manon died of polio at age 18, in 1935, composer Alban Berg wrote his Violin Concerto in memory of her.
Gropius and Mahler divorced in 1920. On 16 October 1923, Gropius married Ilse Frank; the couple adopted a daughter together, Beate Gropius, known as Ati. Ise Gropius died on 9 June 1983 in Massachusetts. Walter's only sister Manon Burchard is the great-grandmother of the German film and theater actresses Marie Burchard and Bettina Burchard, of the curator and art historian Wolf Burchard. Gropius could not draw, was dependent on collaborators and partner-interpreters throughout his career. In school he hired an assistant to complete his homework for him. In 1908, after studying architecture in Munich and Berlin for four semesters, Gropius joined the office of the renowned architect and industrial designer Peter Behrens, one of the first members of the utilitarian school, his fellow employees at this time included Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, Dietrich Marcks. In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period: the Faguswerk in Alfeld-an-der-Leine, Germany, a shoe last factory.
Although Gropius and Meyer only designed the facade, the glass curtain walls of this building demonstrated both the modernist principle that form reflects function and Gropius's concern with providing healthful conditions for the working class. The factory is now regarded as one of the crucial founding monuments of European modernism. Gropius was commissioned in 1913 to design a car for the Prussian Railroad Locomotive Works in Königsberg; this locomotive was unique and the first of its kind in Germany and in Europe. Other works of this early period include the office and factory building for the Werkbund Exhibition in Cologne. In 1913, Gropius published an article about "The Development of Industrial Buildings," which included about a dozen photographs of factories and grain elevators in North America. A influential text, this article had a strong influence on other European modernists, including Le Corbusier and Erich Mendelsohn, both of whom reprinted Gropius's grain elevator pictures between 1920 and 1930.
Gropius's career was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. He was drafted August 1914 and served as a sergeant major at the Western front during the war years and as a lieutenant in the signal corps. Gropius was awarded the Iron Cross twice after fighting for four years. Gropius like his father and his great-uncle Martin Gropius before him, became an architect. Gropius's career advanced in the postwar period. Henry van de Velde, the master of the Grand-Ducal Saxon School of Arts and Crafts in Weimar was asked to step down in 1915 due to his Belgian nationality, his recommendation for Gropius to succeed him led to Gropius's appointment as master of the school in 1919. It was this academy which Gropius transformed into the world-famous Bauhaus, attracting a faculty that included Paul Klee, Johannes Itten, Josef Albers, Herbert Bayer, László Moholy-Nagy, Otto Bartning and Wassily Kandinsky. In principle, the Bauhaus represented an opportunity to extend beauty and quality to every home through well designed industrially produced objects.
The Bauhaus program was experimental and the emphasis was theoretical. One example product of the Bauhaus was the armchair F 51, designed for the Bauhaus's directors room in 1920 – nowadays a re-edition in the market, manufactured by the German company TECTA/Lauenfoerde. In 1919, Gropius was involved in the Glass Chain utopian expressionist correspondence under the pseudonym "Mass." More notable for his functionalist approach, the "Monument to the March Dead," designed in 1919 and executed in 1920, indicates that expressionism was an influence on him at that time. In 1923, Gropius designed his famous door handles, now considered an icon of 20th-century design and listed as one of the most influential designs to emerge from Bauhaus. Gropius designed the new Bauhaus Dessau school building in 1925-26 on commission from the city of Dessau, he collaborated with Carl Fieger, Ernst Neufert and others within his private architectural practice. He designed large-scale housing projects in Berlin and Dessau in 1926–32 that were major contributions to the New Objectivity movement, including a contribution to the Siemensstadt project in Berlin.
Gropius moved to Berlin. Hannes Meyer to