Haganah was a Jewish paramilitary organization in the British Mandate of Palestine, which became the core of the Israel Defense Forces. The evolution of Jewish defense organisations in Palestine and Israel went from small self-defense groups active during Ottoman rule, to larger and more sophisticated ones during the British Mandate, leading through the Haganah to the national army of Israel, the IDF; the evolution went step by step from Bar-Giora, to Hashomer, to Haganah, to IDF. The Jewish paramilitary organisations in the New Yishuv started with the Second Aliyah; the first such organization was Bar-Giora, founded in September 1907. It consisted of a small group of Jewish immigrants. At no time did Bar-Giora have more than 100 members, it was converted to Hashomer in April 1909, which operated until the British Mandate of Palestine came into being in 1920. Hashomer was an elitist organization with narrow scope, was created to protect against criminal gangs seeking to steal property. During World War I, the forerunners of the Haganah/IDF were the Zion Mule Corps and the Jewish Legion, both of which were part of the British Army.
After the Arab riots against Jews in April 1920, the Yishuv's leadership saw the need to create a nationwide underground defense organization, the Haganah was founded in June of the same year. The Haganah became a full-scale defense force after the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine with an organized structure, consisting of three main units—the Field Corps, Guard Corps, the Palmach strike force. During World War II the successor to the Jewish Legion of World War I was the Jewish Brigade, joined by many Haganah fighters. During the 1947–48 civil war between the Arab and Jewish communities in what was still Mandatory Palestine, a reorganised Haganah managed to defend or wrestle most of the territory it was ordered to hold or capture. At the beginning of the ensuing 1948–49 full-scale conventional war against regular Arab armies, the Haganah was reorganised to become the core of the new Israel Defense Forces. After the 1920 Arab riots and 1921 Jaffa riots, the Jewish leadership in Palestine believed that the British, to whom the League of Nations had given a mandate over Palestine in 1920, had no desire to confront local Arab gangs that attacked Palestinian Jews.
Believing that they could not rely on the British administration for protection from these gangs, the Jewish leadership created the Haganah to protect Jewish farms and kibbutzim. The first head of the Haganah was a 28 year-old named a veteran of the Jewish Legion. In addition to guarding Jewish communities, the role of the Haganah was to warn the residents of and repel attacks by Palestinian Arabs. In the period between 1920 -- 1929, the Haganah lacked coordination. Haganah "units" were localized and poorly armed: they consisted of Jewish farmers who took turns guarding their farms or their kibbutzim. Following the 1929 Palestine riots, the Haganah's role changed dramatically, it became a much larger organization encompassing nearly all the youth and adults in the Jewish settlements, as well as thousands of members from the cities. It acquired foreign arms and began to develop workshops to create hand grenades and simple military equipment, transforming from an untrained militia to a capable underground army.
Many Haganah fighters objected to the official policy of havlagah that Jewish political leaders had imposed on the militia. Fighters had been instructed to only defend communities and not initiate counterattacks against Arab gangs or their communities; this policy appeared defeatist to many. In 1931, the more militant elements of the Haganah splintered off and formed the Irgun Tsva'i-Leumi, better known as "Irgun". During the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine, the Haganah worked to protect British interests and to quell Arab rebellion using the FOSH, Hish units. At that time, the Haganah fielded 10,000 mobilized men along with 40,000 reservists. Although the British administration did not recognize the Haganah, the British security forces cooperated with it by forming the Jewish Settlement Police, Jewish Supernumerary Police and Special Night Squads, which were trained and led by Colonel Orde Wingate; the battle experience gained during the training was useful in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War. By 1939, the British had issued the White Paper, which restricted Jewish immigration to Palestine angering the Zionist leadership.
David Ben-Gurion chairman of the Jewish Agency, set the policy for the Zionist relationship with the British: "We shall fight the war against Hitler as if there were no White Paper, we shall fight the White Paper as if there were no war." In reaction to the White Paper, the Haganah built up the Palmach as the Haganah's elite strike force and organized illegal Jewish immigration to Palestine. 100,000 Jews were brought to Palestine in over one hundred ships during the final decade of what became known as Aliyah Bet. The Haganah organized demonstrations against British immigration quotas. In 1940 the Haganah sabotaged the Patria, an ocean liner being used by the British to deport 1,800 Jews to Mauritius, with a bomb intended to cripple the ship; however the ship sank, killing 267 people and injuring 172. In the first years of World War II, the British authorities asked Haganah for cooperation again, due to the fear of an Axis breakthrough
Corporal is a military rank in use in some form by many militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. Within NATO, each member nation's corresponding military rank of corporal is combined under the NATO-standard rank scale code OR-3 or OR-4. However, there are differences in how each nation employs corporals; some militaries may instead have a Junior Sergeant. In some militaries, the rank of corporal nominally corresponds to commanding a section or squad of soldiers. However, in the United States Army, the rank of corporal is considered a "lateral promotion" from E-4 Specialist and only occurs when the soldier has been selected by a promotion board to become an E-5 Sergeant and is serving in an E-5 billet such as a fireteam leader in a rifle squad; the lateral promotion is used to make the soldier a non-commissioned officer without changing the soldier's pay. As the Table of Organization & Equipment rank of a fire team leader is sergeant and that of squad leader is staff sergeant.
In the United States Marine Corps, corporal is the Table of Organization rank for a rifle fire team leader, machine gun team leader, light mortar squad leader, assault weapon squad leader, as well as gunner on most larger crew served weapons, armored vehicles, the two assistant gunners on a howitzer. In most countries that derive their military structure from the British military system, corporal is a more senior rank than that of private. However, in several other countries, such as Canada and Norway, corporal is a junior rank, indicating a more experienced soldier than a private, on a higher pay scale, but having no particular command appointment corresponding to the rank, similar to specialist in the U. S. Army; the word is derived from the medieval Italian phrase capo corporale. It may be derived from an appointment as an officer's bodyguard being an adjective pertaining to the word "body". All three branches of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic use two or three ranks of corporal, or cabo.
Corporals in the Argentine military are considered suboficiales subalternos, superior only to all ranks of Volunteers and Seamen. In the Argentine Army, there are two ranks of corporal and senior: Cabo and cabo primero. While the Argentine Navy has three corporal ranks, from junior to senior: Cabo segundo, Cabo primero and cabo principal, equal to the army rank of sargento; the Air Force has the same number of corporal ranks as the navy, keeps the same titles, with the exception of cabo instead of the navy's cabo segundo. The rank is used by the Argentine National Gendarmerie and the Argentine Federal Police, which use the rank in the same manner as the Army, as well as the Argentine Naval Prefecture. Corporal is the second lowest of the non-commissioned officer ranks in the Australian Army, falling between lance-corporal and sergeant. A corporal is appointed as a section commander, is in charge of 7-14 soldiers of private rank, they are assisted by a second-in-command a lance-corporal or senior private.
A Corporal within Artillery is known as a bombardier. Corporal is a rank of the Royal Australian Air Force, being equal to both the Australian Army and Royal Air Force rank of corporal; the branches of the Belgian Armed Forces use three ranks of corporal: corporal, master corporal and 1st master corporal. Corporal is equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-3, whereas master corporal and 1st master corporal are equivalent to OR-4; the rank below corporal is 1st private and the rank directly above 1st master corporal is sergeant. Units with a cavalry, artily or Logistic Corps tradition replace Corporal by “Brigadier”; the equivalent of these ranks in the Naval Component are quartermaster, chief quartermaster and 1st chief quartermaster. Corporal is the first NCO rank of the Army, Air Force and states military police forces. Soldiers who complete the corporal course may be promoted to the rank of corporal should they excel in the course. A corporal in the Brazilian Army will lead the smallest fractions of units as machine gun squads and infantry squads.
Corporal is an Air Force non-commissioned member rank of the Canadian Forces. Its Naval equivalent is leading seaman, it is senior to the rank of private and its naval equivalent able seaman, junior to master corporal and its equivalent master seaman. It is part of the cadre of junior non-commissioned officers, one of the junior ranks. In French, the rank is caporal; the rank insignia of a corporal is a two-bar chevron, point down, worn in gold thread on both upper sleeves of the service dress jacket. On army ceremonial uniforms, it is rendered in gold braid, on either both sleeves, or just the right, depending on unit custom. Corporal is the first non-commissioned officer r
Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in the armed forces of several countries. It is a police rank in some police services. In origin, certain senior sergeants were assigned to administrative, supervisory, or other specialist duties as part of the staff of a British army regiment; as such they held seniority over sergeants who were members of a battalion or company, were paid correspondingly increased wages. Their seniority was indicated by a crown worn above the three sergeant's stripes on their uniform rank markings. In the Australian Army and Cadets, the rank of staff sergeant is being phased out, it was held by the company quartermaster sergeant or the holders of other administrative roles. Staff sergeants are always addressed as "Staff Sergeant" or "Staff", never as "Sergeant" as it degrades their rank. "Chief" is another nickname. A staff sergeant ranks above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2. For further information, see Israel Defense Forces ranks. In the Israel Defense Forces, soldiers are promoted from sergeant to staff sergeant after 28 months of service for combat soldiers, 32 months of service for non-combat soldiers, if they performed their duties appropriately during this time.
Soldiers who take a commander's course may become staff sergeants earlier. The rank insignia is composed of three clear-blue stripes with an embroidered fig leaf, a biblical motif, in the center of the rank insignia. Staff sergeants get a symbolic pay raise. For further information, see Military ranks and insignia of Norway. In the Norwegian Defence Forces, the tasks and responsibilities of the staff sergeant are not clear. In 1975, all of the Norwegian military branches abolished the system of using non-commissioned officers. Now, Norway is reintroducing the Non-Commissioned Officer Corps, allowing people to become officers without graduating from a military academy or having a university degree. A staff sergeant in the Singapore Armed Forces ranks below master sergeant, it is the second most senior specialist rank. Staff sergeants are addressed as "Staff Sergeant" or "Staff", but never "Sergeant". Staff sergeants may be appointed as company sergeant major if they are due for promotion to master sergeant.
They are addressed as "CSM" in camp, although in the past they were referred to as "Encik", now used to address only warrant officers. The rank insignia consists of two chevrons pointing up and three chevrons pointing down, with the Singapore coat of arms in the middle. In the Singapore Prison Service, the rank of Staff Sergeant is above the rank of Sergeant, is below the rank of Chief Warder; the rank insignia of SSGT is three pointed-down chevrons below it. In the Singapore Police Force, the rank of Staff Sergeant is being phased out with the newly overhauled "unified police rank structure" which allows a direct-entry Sergeant to be eligible for emplacement to the rank of Inspector without a degree. In the past, the rank of Staff Sergeant is above the rank of Sergeant, below the rank of Senior Staff Sergeant. However, all three grades of Sergeants all don the same three chevrons insignia. In the National Cadet Corps, Staff Sergeants are cadets who have passed the 3-days 2-nights Senior Specialists Leaders Course successfully.
The rank of Staff Sergeant is below Master Sergeant. Staff sergeants wear a rank insignia of two pointed-up chevrons, one Singapore coat of arms and three pointed-down chevrons, with the letters'NCC' located below the insignia to differentiate NCC cadets from SAF personnel. In the National Police Cadet Corps and the National Civil Defence Cadet Corps, the rank of Staff Sergeant is above Sergeant, below Station Inspector and Warrant Officer respectively; the rank of Staff Sergeant is awarded to cadets when they are in Secondary Four, before they pass out. NPCC and NCDCC Staff Sergeants wear a rank insignia of one Singapore coat of arms and three pointed-down chevrons; the letters'NPCC' and'NCDCC' are located below the insignia so as to differentiate NPCC and NCDCC cadets from Singapore Police Force and Singapore Civil Defence Force personnel respectively. In the St John Brigade, the rank of Staff Sergeant is above Sergeant, below Senior Staff Sergeant. Staff Sergeants in SJB wear a rank insignia of one St John coat of arms and three pointed-down chevrons.
Staff Sergeant of the R. O. C Armed Forces in Taiwan ranks below Sergeant and above Corporal, making it different from the armed forces of other countries where staff sergeant ranks higher than sergeant; the rank of Staff Sergeant exists in the Army, Air Force and the Marine Corps, is equivalent to the Petty officer 2nd Class in the Navy. In the British Army, staff sergeant ranks above sergeant and below warrant officer class 2; the rank is given a NATO code of OR-7. The insignia is the monarch's crown above three downward pointing chevrons. Staff sergeants can hold other appointments, such a
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
In the United States military, frocking is the practice of a commissioned or non-commissioned officer selected for promotion wearing the insignia of the higher grade before the official date of promotion. An officer, selected for promotion may be authorized to "frock" to the next grade; the need to frock is a result of the fact that the number of people who may serve in a particular rank is restricted by federal law. Thus though an individual may have been selected for promotion and, for officers, confirmed by the Senate, they must wait for a vacancy to occur in order to be promoted. Frocking customs and policies vary across military services for enlisted members; the United States Navy makes use of frocking much more than do the Army and the Air Force. An example of this is when all new chief petty officers of the United States Navy are frocked on September 16 of each year, although their official date of rank will be at different times over the next year; the term frocking dates back to the Age of Sail, when communications between the Department of the Navy and ships at sea could take months.
News of the promotion of an officer arrived via letters brought by another ship, with orders for the newly promoted officer to report to a new ship or station. The ship that brought the news would take that officer away to his new post. Since the departing officer created a vacancy on the first ship, the captain would forward a recommendation for promotion for one of the remaining officers, to be carried back to the Department of the Navy. Since one of the symbols of rank was a frock coat, the newly promoted officer would pass his old frock coat to the officer remaining behind and recommended for promotion. Months could go by until the captain's recommendation made it back to the Department of the Navy, was acted upon, made official, news sent back. In the intervening time, the officer recommended for promotion would be accorded the privileges and authorities of his "new" rank, but would not receive the pay for it, since it was not yet official; because it was not yet official, because he was still wearing the old frock coat of the departed and promoted officer, the officer recommended for promotion was considered "frocked".
According to current Department of Defense policy, there is no limit to the number of two-, three-, four-star generals who may be frocked at any one time. However, the number of frocked brigadier generals or rear admirals is restricted. Three- and four-star generals are frocked if headroom is not available to promote them at the time of the assumption of their new assignment; this is due both to the close relationship between these ranks and the position held, to the fact that these are considered "positions of importance and responsibility" in accordance with 10 USC § 601. For all other officers frocking is reserved for joint, international, or other high-visibility positions that require the higher rank for diplomatic, protocol, or command authority reasons. An officer must be on an approved and confirmed promotion list. An officer must not be under a suspension of favorable personnel actions. Authority to wear the grade of rank to which frocked will not be recorded in official orders. A frocked officer is not entitled to the pay and allowances commensurate with the grade of rank to which frocked.
A frocked officer does not accrue seniority for future promotion consideration. Frocked time does not count as time-in-grade in the grade of rank to which frocked, for retirement purposes. If an officer dies or is injured while in a frocked status, compensation will be based upon the officer's actual grade without regard to the grade or rank to which the officer was frocked. Functions which by law or DoD directive must be performed by an officer who holds a particular grade or rank, may not be performed by an officer frocked to that grade or rank. However, functions which by regulation require performance by an officer of a particular grade or rank may be performed by an officer frocked to that grade or rank, if permitted by the regulation concerned. An officer may continue to wear the rank to which frocked upon a change of duty or permanent change of station unless removed from the promotion list. Frocking occurs on rare occasions when officers are selected for promotion to a higher rank, but have yet to reach the effective date of promotion.
For frocking to occur in the Air Force, an unusual set of circumstances must be present to justify wearing the higher rank before the promotion becomes effective. For example, in 2005, two U. S. Air Force lieutenant colonels selected for promotion to Colonel were brevetted Colonel about six months ahead of their effective dates of promotion because of the high-profile nature of the duties that they were performing. A frocked officer may: wear the uniform of the higher rank. Use the higher rank when signing officer and enlisted evaluation forms and decorations, documents dealing with protocol, such as military etiquette and precedence. Accept general officer housing if assigned based on position, not rank. Accrue all the privileges afforded by custom or regulation to this rank. Obtain ceremonial flags. Obtain and use protocol stationery. Obtain parking stickers for the frocked rank. Update ID card, official photo and biography reflecting the higher grade. Acting Brevet Unit
Sergeant major is a senior non-commissioned rank or appointment in many militaries around the world. In Commonwealth countries, the various degrees of sergeant major are appointments held by warrant officers. In the United States, there are various grades of sergeant major, but they are all of the same pay grade of E-9. However, the Sergeant Major of the Army and the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, as their respective service's Senior Enlisted Advisor, receive a special rate of basic pay, higher than all other sergeants major. In 16th century Spain, the sargento mayor was a general officer, he commanded an army's infantry, ranked about third in the army's command structure. In the 17th century, sergeant majors appeared in individual regiments; these were field officers, third in command of their regiments, with a role similar to the older, army-level sergeant majors. The older position became known as "sergeant major general" to distinguish it. Over time, the term sergeant was dropped from both titles, giving rise to the modern ranks of major and major general.
The full title of sergeant major fell out of use until the latter part of the 18th century, when it began to be applied to the senior non-commissioned officer of an infantry battalion or cavalry regiment. It is about this time that the U. S. and British histories with the American Revolutionary War. A sergeant major is an appointment, not a rank, it is held by the senior warrant officer of an army or marine unit. These appointments are made at several levels, for example: the senior warrant officer of a company, battery or squadron; the title consists of the unit title followed by'sergeant major', abbreviated by the initials. A sergeant major of a regiment or battalion is known as a regimental sergeant major, rather than a "regiment sergeant major" or "battalion sergeant major". In the Australian Defence Force, in addition to CSMs and RSMs, the most senior warrant officer of the army carries the appointment of Regimental Sergeant Major of the Army; the sergeant-major of a unit is directly responsible to the commanding officer for all matters pertaining to dress, discipline, performance and morale of the non-commissioned members of that unit.
Sergeant majors are addressed as "sir" or "ma'am" by subordinates, as "sergeant major" or by their full title by superiors. In the British Armed Forces, the plural is sergeant majors and not sergeants major as it is in the United States; the appointment of sergeant major is given to the senior non-commissioned member within sub-units and some formations of the Canadian Army. The regimental sergeant-major is the senior sergeant major in a battalion-sized unit, including infantry battalions and artillery, armoured and signal regiments; this appointment is held by a chief warrant officer. The same position can be held by a master warrant officer in anticipation of promotion, or a shortage of available chief warrant officers. In company-sized units, the company sergeant-major holds the rank of master warrant officer, although in some cases, it may be held by a warrant officer if the company is smaller, or in a shortage of available master warrant officers. In artillery batteries, this appointment is known as battery sergeant-major, while in units with a cavalry heritage, the term is squadron sergeant-major.
In company-sized sub-units of battalions or regiments, the company sergeant-major answers both to his or her officer commanding for matters pertaining to the company in particular, to the regimental sergeant-major on matters of concern to the regimental sergeant-major. Company sergeant-majors and their equivalents are addressed as "Sergeant-Major" or by rank. By subordinates, they are referred to as "Sir", "Ma'am", or "Warrant" as appropriate. "CSM" is a title reserved for use by the commanding officer. Regimental sergeant-majors are never addressed as "Sergeant-Major", they are addressed by rank or as "Mr" or "Ms", thereafter by subordinates as "Sir" or "Ma'am". "RSM" is reserved for use by the commanding officer. In some unusual cases, a chief petty officer 1st class or chief petty officer 2nd class in the Royal Canadian Navy may succeed to a sergeant-major's position in units with a large number of "purple trades", such as service battalions; the forms of address remain the same, except that chief petty officers 1st and 2nd class are never addressed as "Sir" or "Ma'am", but as "Chief".
The opera Leo, the Royal Cadet by Oscar Ferdinand Telgmann and George Frederick Cameron includes a character "Battalion Sergeant Major at the Royal Military College of Canada" and song "The Royal Cadet - The Battalion Sergeant Major". The senior cadet of the Royal Military College of Canada was a battalion sergeant major from 1878–1923 and from 1934–42. Since 1952, the senior cadet is known as a cadet wing-commander. Sergeant major is a rank in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. While technically it is the 6th level of rank, below corps sergeant major and above staff sergeant major, it, along with the other two, are specialized ranks and not part of the normal progression, which would proceed from staff sergeant to inspector. A sergeant major appointment exists in
A warrant officer is an officer in a military organisation, designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer, designated an officer by a commission, a non-commissioned officer, designated an officer by virtue of seniority. The rank was first used in the 13th century in the Royal Navy and is today used in most services in many countries, including the Commonwealth nations and the United States. Outside the United States, warrant officers are included in the "other ranks" category, equivalent to the US "E" category and rank between non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers; the warrant officers in Commonwealth navies rank between chief petty officer and sub-lieutenant, in Commonwealth air forces between flight sergeant and pilot officer, in Commonwealth armies between staff sergeant and second lieutenant. Warrant officers in the United States are in the "W" category. Chief warrant officers are commissioned by the President of the United States and take the same oath as regular commissioned officers.
They may be technical experts with a long service as enlisted personnel, or direct entrants, notably for U. S. Army helicopter pilots; the warrant officer corps began in the nascent Royal Navy. At that time, noblemen with military experience took command of the new navy, adopting the military ranks of lieutenant and captain; these officers had no knowledge of life on board a ship—let alone how to navigate such a vessel—and relied on the expertise of the ship's master and other seamen who tended to the technical aspects of running the ship. As cannon came into use, the officers required gunnery experts. Literacy was one thing that most warrant officers had in common, this distinguished them from the common seamen: according to the Admiralty regulations, "no person shall be appointed to any station in which he is to have charge of stores, unless he can read and write, is sufficiently skilled in arithmetic to keep an account of them correctly". Since all warrant officers had responsibility for stores, this was enough to debar the illiterate.
In origin, warrant officers were specialist professionals whose expertise and authority demanded formal recognition. In the 18th century they fell into two clear categories: on the one hand, those privileged to share with the commissioned officers in the wardroom and on the quarterdeck. Somewhere between the two, were the standing officers; these classes of warrant officer messed in the wardroom with the commissioned officers: the master: the senior warrant officer, a qualified navigator and experienced seaman who set the sails, maintained the ship's log and advised the captain on the seaworthiness of the ship and crew. In the early 19th century, they were joined in the wardroom by naval chaplains, who had warrant officer status; the standing officers were: the boatswain: responsible for maintenance of the ship's boats, rigging and cables. Other warrant officers included surgeon's mates, boatswain's mates and carpenter's mates, armourers and clerks. Masters-at-arms, who had overseen small-arms provision on board, had by this time taken on responsibility for discipline.
By the end of the century, the rank structure could be illustrated as follows: In 1843, the wardroom warrant officers were given commissioned status, while in 1853 the lower-grade warrant officers were absorbed into the new rate of chief petty officer, both classes thereby ceasing to be warrant officers. On 25 July 1864 the standing warrant officers were divided into two grades: warrant officers and chief warrant officers. By the time of the First World War, their ranks had been expanded with the adoption of modern technology in the Royal Navy to include telegraphists, shipwrights, artificer engineers, etc. Both warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers messed in the warrant officers' mess rather than the wardroom. Warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers carried swords, were saluted by ratings, ranked between sub-lieutenants and midshipmen. In 1949, the ranks of warrant officer and commissioned warrant officer were changed to "commissioned officer" and "senior commissioned officer", the latter ranking with but after the rank of lieutenant, they were admitted to the wardroom, the warrant officers' messes closing down.
Collectively, these officers were known as "branch officers", being retitled "special duties" officers in 1956. In 1998, the special dutie