Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Ural State University
The Ural State University is located in the city of Yekaterinburg, Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russian Federation. Founded in 1920, it was an exclusive educational establishment made of several institutes which became independent universities and schools. Established in 1936 the University was named after one of Russian author Maxim Gorky, it is the second oldest University in the Middle Urals and one of the most prestigious universities in Russia. It offers education in dozens of educational fields including 53 graduate programs. In 2007 Dmitriy Bugrov was elected new rector, while the incumbent Vladimir Tretyakov took the office of the President, representing the University in international affairs; the USU is organized into 14 departments. These are Biology, Culturology & Arts, History and Mechanics, Politology and Sociology, Physics, Philosophy, Public relations, Foreign affairs, Economics. Among the University's faculty there are 18 academicians of the Russian Academy of Sciences; the University has a Lyceum, the Leonardo Italian College, an Institute of Physics and Applied Mathematics, an Interregional Institute of Social Sciences, the Russian-American Institute of Economy and Business, the Institute of Management and Entrepreneurship, a distance education center, the Russian Culture Institute, an observatory, a botanical garden, a scientific library with over 1,200,000 volumes, a publishing house, several museums, a special chair of Russian as foreign language, a laboratory for e-learning of foreign languages, offers refresher courses and Institutes for Further Education and Training.
Every year the Ural State University hosts the Demidov Lectures - a series of lectures given by the Demidov Prize winners. Since 2010, the University has been The Ural Federal university after Boris Yeltsin, it was caused by the Russian Federation's President's decree #1172 from 21.10.2010. The University is now joint with The Ural State Technical University; the most prominent scientific schools created in Ural State University: Ural scientific school in electrochemistry founded by Professor S. V. Karpachiov Ural scientific school in ferromagnetism founded by Academician Sergei Vonsovsky Ural scientific school in population ecology founded by Academician Stanislav Shwarts Ural scientific school in sociology founded by Professor L. N. Kogan Ural scientific school in Byzantine studies founded by Professor M. Syuzyumov Ural scientific school in algebra founded by Professor P. G. Kontorovich Ural scientific school in the generalized functions theory and the ill-posed problems theory founded by Professor V. K. Ivanov Ural scientific school in mathematical theory of control and the theory of differential games founded by Academician Nikolai Nikolaevich Krasovsky, winner of the Lomonosov Gold Medal of the Russian Academy of Sciences Ural scientific school in toponymy founded by Professor Aleksandr Matveyev Ural scientific school in photosynthesis founded by Academician A. T. Mokronosov USU was ranked 25th among Russian Ministry of Education's top universities in 2004.
According to the Webometrics Ranking's, based on the volume of the Web presence and the amount of Web publications, USU is ranked 7th in Russia. Yury Osipov - President of the Russian Academy of Sciences, member of the Russian government Faina Mihajlovna Kirillova - mathematician and control theorist Viktor Koksharov - head of the government of Sverdlovsk Oblast Vladislav Krapivin - author of children's books Ilya Kormiltsev - poet, rock musician Alexander Bashlachev - famous poet, rock musician, songwriter Arkadiy Krazhimskiy - Russian mathematician, full member of RAS Dmitriy Bugrov - present-day rector of the USU Vladimir Tretyakov - former rector, present-day president of the USU Yevgeny Roizman - Russian politician, he served as Mayor of Yekaterinburg from 2013 to 2018Also the next famous people and scientists are Notable alumni of the Ural state university: Babochenko, Yuri Petrovich - film producer. Kuritsyn, Vyacheslav - critic, literary figure.
Victor Mikhailovich Glushkov was a Soviet mathematician, the founding father of information technology in the Soviet Union, one of the founders of Cybernetics. He was born in Russian SFSR, in the family of a mining engineer. Glushkov graduated from Rostov State University in 1948, in 1952 proposed solutions to Hilbert's fifth problem and defended his thesis in Moscow State University. In 1956 he began working with computers and worked in Kiev as a Director of the Computational Center of the Academy of Science of Ukraine. In 1958 he became a member of the Communist Party, he made contributions to the theory of automata. He and his followers applied that theory to enhance construction of computers, his book on that topic "Synthesis of Digital Automata" became well known. For that work, he was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1964 and elected as a Member of the Academy of Science of USSR, he influenced many other fields of theoretical computer science as well as its applications in the USSR. He published nearly 800 printed works.
One of his great practical goals was the creation of a National Automatized System of Administration of Economy, which included the establishment of a network of computers to manage the allocation of resources and information among organizations in the national economy, which would represent a higher form of socialist planning than the extant Stalinist command economy. This ambitious project was ahead of its time, first being proposed and modeled in 1962, it received opposition from many senior Communist Party leaders who felt the system threatened Party control of the economy. By the early 1970s official interest in this system ended. Glushkov founded a Kiev-based Chair of Theoretical Cybernetics and Methods of Optimal Control at the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in 1967 and a Chair of Theoretical Cybernetics at Kiev State University in 1969; the Institute of Cybernetics of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, which he created, is named after him. Member of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine since 1961.
Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1964. Member of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina since 1970. Lenin Prize, 1964 Order of Lenin, 1967, 1975 USSR State Prize, 1968, 1977 Hero of Socialist Labor, 1969 Ukrainian State Prize, 1970, 1981 Order of the October Revolution, 1973 Computer Pioneer Award, For digital automation of computer architecture, 1996. Аналитик Project Cybersyn Cybernetics Victor Glushkov - Founder of Information Technologies in Ukraine and former USSR Pioneers of Soviet Computing
Sergiyev Posad is a city and the administrative center of Sergiyevo-Posadsky District in Moscow Oblast, Russia. Population: 111,179 , it was known as Sergiyev Posad, Zagorsk. Sergiyev Posad grew in the 15th century around one of the greatest of Russian monasteries, the Trinity Lavra established by St. Sergius of Radonezh, still one of the largest monasteries in Russia. Town status was granted to Sergiyev Posad in 1742; the town's name, alluding to St. Sergius, has strong religious connotations. Soviet authorities changed it first to just Sergiyev in 1919, to Zagorsk in 1930, in memory of the revolutionary Vladimir Mikhailovich Zagorsky; the original name was restored in 1991. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Sergiyev Posad serves as the administrative center of Sergiyevo-Posadsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with twenty-six rural localities, incorporated within Sergiyevo-Posadsky District as the City of Sergiyev Posad. As a municipal division, the City of Sergiyev Posad is incorporated within Sergiyevo-Posadsky Municipal District as Sergiyev Posad Urban Settlement.
Tourism associated with the Golden Ring plays a role in the regional economy. There is an important toy factory; the Moscow–Yaroslavl railway and highway pass through the town. Sergiyev Posad Bus Terminal is located in the city. Andrei Rublev, artist of the Church icons, 14th century, author icon St. Trinity Daneel Chiorniy, artist of the Church icons, 14th century Pavel Florensky, Russian Orthodox theologian and researcher Vikentii Trofimov, painter Vladimir Favorsky graphic artist, woodcut illustrator, painter Aristarkh Lentulov, artist of Russian avant-garde Boris Kustodiev, painter Mikhail Nesterov, painter Sergiyev Posad is twinned with: Губернатор Московской области. Постановление №123-ПГ от 28 сентября 2010 г. «Об учётных данных административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области», в ред. Постановления №252-ПГ от 26 июня 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в учётные данные административно-территориальных и территориальных единиц Московской области». Опубликован: "Информационный вестник Правительства МО", №10, 30 октября 2010 г..
Московская областная Дума. Закон №60/2005-ОЗ от 28 февраля 2005 г. «О статусе и границах Сергиево-Посадского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований», в ред. Закона №161/2011-ОЗ от 14 октября 2011 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Московской области "О статусе и границах Сергиево-Посадского муниципального района и вновь образованных в его составе муниципальных образований"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ежедневные Новости. Подмосковье", №42, 10 марта 2005 г.. Trudy Ring, ed.. "Sergiev". International Dictionary of Historic Places: Northern Europe. Fitzroy Dearborn. ISBN 978-1-136-63944-9. Official website of Sergiyev Posad Unofficial website of Sergiyev Posad Official website of the Sergiyev Posad State History and Art Museum-Reserve Official website of the Holy Trinity-St. Sergius Lavra Sergiyev Posad travelog
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Moscow State University
Moscow State University is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia. It was founded on 23 January 1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov. MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was known as Lomonosov University, it houses the tallest educational building in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy. According to the 2018 QS World University Rankings, it is the highest-ranking Russian educational institution and is considered the most prestigious university in the former Soviet Union. Ivan Shuvalov and Mikhail Lomonosov promoted the idea of a university in Moscow, Russian Empress Elizabeth decreed its establishment on 23 January 1755; the first lectures were given on 7 May. Russians still celebrate 25 January as Students' Day. Saint Petersburg State University and Moscow State University engage in friendly rivalry over the title of Russia's oldest university. Though Moscow State University was founded in 1755, its competitor in St. Petersburg has had a continuous existence as a "university" since 1819 and sees itself as the successor of an academy established on 24 January 1724, by a decree of Peter the Great.
The present Moscow State University occupied the Principal Medicine Store on Red Square from 1755 to 1787. Catherine the Great transferred the University to a Neoclassical building on the other side of Mokhovaya Street. In the 18th century, the University had three departments: philosophy and law. A preparatory college was affiliated with the University until its abolition in 1812. In 1779, Mikhail Kheraskov founded a boarding school for noblemen which in 1830 became a gymnasium for the Russian nobility; the university press, run by Nikolay Novikov in the 1780s, published the most popular newspaper in Imperial Russia: Moskovskie Vedomosti. In 1804, medical education split into clinical and obstetrics faculties. During 1884–1897, the Department of Medicine—supported by private donations, the municipal and imperial governments—built an extensive, 1.6-kilometer-long, state-of-the-art medical campus in Devichye Pole, between the Garden Ring and Novodevichy Convent. The campus, medical education in general, were separated from the Moscow University in 1930.
Devichye Pole was operated by the independent I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University and by various other state and private institutions; the roots of student unrest in the University reach deep into the nineteenth century. In 1905, a social-democratic organization emerged at the University and called for the overthrow of the Czarist government and the establishment of a republic in Russia; the imperial government threatened to close the University. In 1911, in a protest over the introduction of troops onto the campus and mistreatment of certain professors, 130 scientists and professors resigned en masse, including such prominent men as Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy, Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev, Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin. After the October Revolution of 1917, the institution began to admit the children of the proletariat and peasantry. In 1919, the University abolished fees for tuition and established a preparatory facility to help working-class children prepare for entrance examinations.
During the implementation of Joseph Stalin's first five-year plan, prisoners from the Gulag were forced to construct parts of the newly expanded University. After 1991, nine new faculties were established; the following year, the University gained a unique status: it is funded directly from the state budget, thus providing the University a significant level of independence. On 6 September 1997, the French electronic musician Jean Michel Jarre, whom the mayor of Moscow had specially invited to perform, used the entire front facade of the University as the backdrop for a concert: the frontage served as a giant projection screen, with fireworks and searchlights all launched from various points around the building; the stage stood directly in front of the building, the concert, entitled "The Road To The 21st Century" in Russia but renamed "Oxygen In Moscow" for worldwide release in video/DVD, attracted a world-record crowd of 3.5 million people. On 19 March 2008, Russia's most powerful supercomputer to date, the SKIF MSU was launched at the University.
Its peak performance of 60 TFLOPS makes it the fastest supercomputer in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Since 1953, most of the faculties have been situated on Sparrow Hills, in the southwest of Moscow, 5 km from the city centre; the main building was designed by architect Lev Vladimirovich Rudnev. In the post-war era, Joseph Stalin ordered seven huge tiered neoclassic towers to be built around the city, it was built using Gulag labour. Located on Moscow's outskirts at the time of its construction, the location of the main building is now about half-way between the center of Moscow a
Mathematics includes the study of such topics as quantity, structure and change. Mathematicians use patterns to formulate new conjectures; when mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back; the research required to solve mathematical problems can take years or centuries of sustained inquiry. Rigorous arguments first appeared in Greek mathematics, most notably in Euclid's Elements. Since the pioneering work of Giuseppe Peano, David Hilbert, others on axiomatic systems in the late 19th century, it has become customary to view mathematical research as establishing truth by rigorous deduction from appropriately chosen axioms and definitions. Mathematics developed at a slow pace until the Renaissance, when mathematical innovations interacting with new scientific discoveries led to a rapid increase in the rate of mathematical discovery that has continued to the present day.
Mathematics is essential in many fields, including natural science, medicine and the social sciences. Applied mathematics has led to new mathematical disciplines, such as statistics and game theory. Mathematicians engage in pure mathematics without having any application in mind, but practical applications for what began as pure mathematics are discovered later; the history of mathematics can be seen as an ever-increasing series of abstractions. The first abstraction, shared by many animals, was that of numbers: the realization that a collection of two apples and a collection of two oranges have something in common, namely quantity of their members; as evidenced by tallies found on bone, in addition to recognizing how to count physical objects, prehistoric peoples may have recognized how to count abstract quantities, like time – days, years. Evidence for more complex mathematics does not appear until around 3000 BC, when the Babylonians and Egyptians began using arithmetic and geometry for taxation and other financial calculations, for building and construction, for astronomy.
The most ancient mathematical texts from Mesopotamia and Egypt are from 2000–1800 BC. Many early texts mention Pythagorean triples and so, by inference, the Pythagorean theorem seems to be the most ancient and widespread mathematical development after basic arithmetic and geometry, it is in Babylonian mathematics that elementary arithmetic first appear in the archaeological record. The Babylonians possessed a place-value system, used a sexagesimal numeral system, still in use today for measuring angles and time. Beginning in the 6th century BC with the Pythagoreans, the Ancient Greeks began a systematic study of mathematics as a subject in its own right with Greek mathematics. Around 300 BC, Euclid introduced the axiomatic method still used in mathematics today, consisting of definition, axiom and proof, his textbook Elements is considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time. The greatest mathematician of antiquity is held to be Archimedes of Syracuse, he developed formulas for calculating the surface area and volume of solids of revolution and used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, in a manner not too dissimilar from modern calculus.
Other notable achievements of Greek mathematics are conic sections, trigonometry (Hipparchus of Nicaea, the beginnings of algebra. The Hindu–Arabic numeral system and the rules for the use of its operations, in use throughout the world today, evolved over the course of the first millennium AD in India and were transmitted to the Western world via Islamic mathematics. Other notable developments of Indian mathematics include the modern definition of sine and cosine, an early form of infinite series. During the Golden Age of Islam during the 9th and 10th centuries, mathematics saw many important innovations building on Greek mathematics; the most notable achievement of Islamic mathematics was the development of algebra. Other notable achievements of the Islamic period are advances in spherical trigonometry and the addition of the decimal point to the Arabic numeral system. Many notable mathematicians from this period were Persian, such as Al-Khwarismi, Omar Khayyam and Sharaf al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī. During the early modern period, mathematics began to develop at an accelerating pace in Western Europe.
The development of calculus by Newton and Leibniz in the 17th century revolutionized mathematics. Leonhard Euler was the most notable mathematician of the 18th century, contributing numerous theorems and discoveries; the foremost mathematician of the 19th century was the German mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss, who made numerous contributions to fields such as algebra, differential geometry, matrix theory, number theory, statistics. In the early 20th century, Kurt Gödel transformed mathematics by publishing his incompleteness theorems, which show that any axiomatic system, consistent will contain unprovable propositions. Mathematics has since been extended, there has been a fruitful interaction between mathematics and science, to