Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Trotsky: A Biography
Trotsky: A Biography is a biography of the Marxist theorist and revolutionary Leon Trotsky written by the English historian Robert Service a professor in Russian history at the University of Oxford. It was first published by Macmillan in 2009 and republished in other languages. Having converted to the Marxist revolutionary movement in early life, Trotsky had been a member of the Bolshevik Party and a significant figure in the October Revolution of 1917 which brought the Bolsheviks to power in the Russian Empire. Following the death of Vladimir Lenin, Trotsky's rival Joseph Stalin ascended to the Soviet leadership, with Trotsky fleeing into exile, where he was murdered in Mexico. Following his death, various biographers produced works studying Trotsky, he argues that Trotsky has been romanticized by western leftists for decades, instead claiming that Trotsky laid the groundwork for the Stalinist totalitarian state in the Soviet Union and that had he become Soviet leader rather than Stalin, the end result would have been similar.
The book received a mixed reception upon publication. The mainstream British and American press was overwhelmingly positive, but reviews in peer-reviewed, academic journals were more critical, highlighting factual errors throughout the text. Prior to the publication of Trotsky: A Biography, Service had written a number of historical studies and biographies of Russia in the period of revolution: The Bolshevik Party in Revolution 1917-23: A Study in Organizational Change, A History of Twentieth-Century Russia, The Russian Revolution, 1900-27, A History of Modern Russia, from Nicholas II to Putin, Lenin: A Biography, Russia: Experiment with a People, Stalin: A Biography and Comrades: A World History of Communism. Service is of the opinion, controversial among Trotskyists and anti-Stalinist Leninist, that politically the difference between Lenin and Stalin was only marginal and that excessive antidemocratic attitudes and use of terror as a mean of politics, was an embedded attitude with all three men and a significant portions of the Bolshevik leadership from the earliest days.
The excesses of Stalin was a matter of personality and background such as ruthlessness, jealousy, a deep feeling anger founding in him being continually overlooked and disregarded, a level of personal paranoia, never failing memory regarding hurt and perceived enemies and a deep lust for vengeance on a personal level. Lenin favoured Stalin until, too late, their fallout in 1923 opened Lenin's eyes to the danger of a future with Stalin in power. Trotsky failed to form alliances and was inept and never accepted in the Bolshevik party leadership, which he had joined late. However, contrary to his opponent, was a brilliant politician and political tactician, among the few who genuinely understood the consequences and means of political maneuvering in an environment in which appeals to the masses had been systematically cut out of the equation by the means of the red-terror and prohibition of most means and vehicles of opposition that they had themselves promoted and embraced; the ability to think theoretically, appeal in writing or speech to the public had diminished in political value by 1924 and was declining in political value, only alliances counted, Stalin's strength.
Trotsky had himself aided the cutting off the only branch. His biography of Trotsky was positively reviewed in the British and American press on its publication, but two years was criticized by Service's Hoover Institution colleague Bertrand Patenaude in a review for The American Historical Review. Patenaude, reviewing Service's book alongside a rebuttal by the Trotskyist David North, charged Service with making dozens of factual errors, misrepresenting evidence, "fail to examine in a serious way Trotsky's political ideas". Service responded that the book's factual errors were minor and that Patenaude's own book on Trotsky presented him as a "noble martyr". In July 2009, prior to the publication of his own book, Robert Service had written a review of Partenaude's publication Stalin's Nemesis: The Exile and Murder of Leon Trotsky which he applauded for being "vividly told" but criticised for neglecting Trotsky's crimes while sharing power in the USSR; the book has been harshly criticized by the German historian of communism Hermann Weber, a former KPD member, who led a campaign to prevent Suhrkamp Verlag from publishing it in Germany.
Fourteen historians and sociologists signed a letter to the publishing house. The letter cited'a host of factual errors,' the'repugnant connotations' of the passages in which Service deals with Trotsky’s Jewish origins, Service’s recourse to'formulas associated with Stalinist propaganda' for the purpose of discrediting Trotsky. Suhrkamp announced in February 2012 that it will publish a German translation of Robert Service's Trotsky in July 2012. Reviews in the mainstream British press were predominantly positive. In The Daily Telegraph, the popular historian Simon Sebag Montefiore described Trotsky as "an outstanding, fascinating biography of this dazzling titan." Believing that it offered a much-needed "scholarly revision" of the revolutionary's "historical reputation", he praised the way that it explored "the ugly egotism and unpleasant, overweening arrogance, the belief in and enthusiastic practice of killing on a colossal scale, the political ineptitude the limit of ambition." Writing for the Literary Review, the political philosopher John N. Gray claimed that "the full extent of Trotsky's rol
Natalia Ivanovna Sedova is best known as the second wife of Leon Trotsky, the Russian revolutionary. She was an active revolutionary and wrote on cultural matters pertaining to Marxism, her father was a wealthy merchant. Natalia met Leon Trotsky in late 1902, after his escape from Siberia, his first wife Aleksandra Sokolovskaya had remained behind, with their two daughters, they were divorced soon thereafter. Natalia and Trotsky married in 1903, they had two children together, Lev Sedov and Sergei Sedov, both of whom would predecease their parents. Trotsky explained that after the 1917 revolution: In order not to oblige my sons to change their name, I, for "citizenship" requirements, took on the name of my wife; however he never used the name "Sedov" either or publicly. Natalia Sedova sometimes signed her name "Sedova-Trotskaya." Trotsky and his first wife Aleksandra maintained a friendly relationship after their divorce. She disappeared in 1935 during the Great Purges and was murdered by Stalinist forces three years later.
Lev Sedov was an active and leading member of the Bolshevik-Leninist movement that his father led and was certainly assassinated as a result of that. Her other son, Sergei Sedov, not politically active and remained in Russia, was certainly murdered by agents of Joseph Stalin. After her husband's assassination in 1940, Natalia Sedova remained in Mexico and maintained contact with many exiled revolutionaries, her best-known work in these last years was a biography of Trotsky, which she co-authored with fellow Russian revolutionary Victor Serge. She was close to the Spanish revolutionary Grandizo Munis who had led the tiny Spanish Sección Bolchevique-Leninista during the revolutionary events in the 1930s. Under his influence, she came to adopt the position that the USSR was a state capitalist society and that the Fourth International founded by Trotsky no longer held to the revolutionary programme of Communism. Therefore, she broke from the FI in 1951. Natalia Sedova Trotsky Archive in the Marxists Internet Archive Photo of Natalia Trotsky, Mexico, 1932 Image #31997 at the Reuther Library, Wayne State University
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Krasnoyarsk is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, located on the Yenisei River. It is the third-largest city in Siberia after Novosibirsk and Omsk, with a population of 1,035,528 as of the 2010 Census. Krasnoyarsk is an important junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and one of Russia's largest producers of aluminium; the city is known for its nature landscapes. The total area of the city, including suburbs and the river, is 348 square kilometers; the Yenisei River flows from west to east through the city. Due to the Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric dam 32 kilometers upstream, the Yenisei never freezes in winter and never exceeds +14 °C in summer through the city. Near the city center, its elevation is 136 meters above sea level. There are several islands in the river, the largest of which are Tatyshev and Otdyha Isles, used for recreation. To the south and west, Krasnoyarsk is surrounded by forested mountains averaging 410 meters in height above river level; the most prominent of them are Nikolayevskaya Sopka, Karaulnaya Gora, Chornaya Sopka, the latter being an extinct volcano.
The gigantic rock cliffs of the Stolby Nature Reserve rise from the mountains of the southern bank of the Yenisei, the western hills form the Gremyachaya Griva crest extending westwards up to the Sobakina River, the north is plain, except for the Drokinskaya Sopka hill, with forests to the northwest and agricultural fields to the north and east. The major rivers in and near Krasnoyarsk are the Yenisei, Mana and Kacha Rivers, the latter flowing throughout the historical center of the city. Due to the nature of the terrain, a few natural lakes exist in the vicinity of Krasnoyarsk; the forests close to the city are pine and birch. The moss-covered fir and Siberian pine replaces other wood in the mountains westward of the Karaulnaya River, in about 15 kilometers to the west from the city, the forests to the south are pine and aspen; the city was founded on August 19, 1628 as a Russian border fort when a group of service class people from Yeniseysk led by Andrey Dubenskoy arrived at the confluence of the Kacha and Yenisei Rivers and constructed fortifications intended to protect the frontier from attacks of native peoples who lived along the Yenisei and its tributaries.
Along with Kansk to the east, it represented the southern limit of Russian expansion in the Yenisei basin during the seventeenth century. In the letter to Tsar Michael I the Cossacks reported:... The town of trunks we have constructed and around the place of fort, we the servants of thee, our lord, have embedded posts and fastened them with double bindings and the place of fort have strengthened mightily... The fort was named Krasny Yar after the Yarin name of the place it was built, Kyzyl Char, translated as Krasny Yar. An intensive growth of Krasnoyarsk began with the arrival of the Siberian Route in 1735 to 1741 which connected the nearby towns of Achinsk and Kansk with Krasnoyarsk and with the rest of Russia. In 1749, a meteorite with a mass of about 700 kilograms was found 230 km south of Krasnoyarsk, it was excavated by Peter Simon Pallas in 1772 and transported to Krasnoyarsk and subsequently to St. Petersburg; the Krasnoyarsk meteorite is important because it was the first pallasite studied and the first meteorite etched.
The name Krasnoyarsk was given in 1822 when the village of Krasny Yar was granted town status and became the administrative center of Yeniseysk Governorate. In the 19th century, Krasnoyarsk was the center of the Siberian Cossack movement. By the end of the 19th century, Krasnoyarsk had several manufacturing facilities and railroad workshops and an engine-house. Growth continued with the discovery of gold and the arrival of a railroad in 1895. In the Russian Empire, Krasnoyarsk was one of the places. For example, eight Decembrists were deported from St. Petersburg to Krasnoyarsk after the failure of the revolt. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, during the periods of centralized planning numerous large plants and factories were constructed in Krasnoyarsk: Sibtyazhmash, the dock yard, the paper factory, the hydroelectric power station, the river port. In 1934, Krasnoyarsk Krai, was formed, with Krasnoyarsk as its administrative center. During Stalinist times, Krasnoyarsk was a major center of the gulag system.
The most important labor camp was the Kraslag or Krasnoyarsky ITL with the two units located in Kansk and Reshyoty. In the city of Krasnoyarsk itself, the Yeniseylag or Yeniseysky ITL labor camp was prominent as well during World War II. During World War II, dozens of factories were evacuated from Ukraine and Western Russia to Krasnoyarsk and nearby towns, stimulating the industrial growth of the city. After the war additional large plants were constructed: the aluminum plant, the metallurgic plant, the plant of base metals and many others. In the late 1970s, the Soviet Union began constructing a phased array radar station at Abalakova, near Krasnoyarsk, which violated the ABM Treaty. Beginning in 1983, the United States demanded its removal, until the Soviet Union admitted the radar station was a violation in 1989. Equipment was removed from the site and by 1992 it was declared to be dismantled, though the
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
A labor camp or work camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are forced to engage in penal labor as a form of punishment under the criminal code. Labour camps have many common aspects with prisons. Conditions at labor camps vary depending on the operators. In the 20th century, a new category of labor camps was developed for the imprisonment of millions of people who were not criminals per se, but political opponents and various so-called undesirables under the totalitarian, both communist and fascist regimes; some of those camps were dubbed "reeducation facilities" for political coercion, but most others served as backbone of industry and agriculture for the benefit of the state in times of war. Labor camps of forced labor were abolished by Convention no. 105 of the United Nations International Labour Organization, adopted internationally on 27 June 1957. Communist Albania Allies of World War IIThe Allies of World War II operated a number of work camps after the war. At the Yalta Conference in 1945, it was agreed that German forced labor was to be utilized as reparations.
The majority of the camps were in the Soviet Union, but more than 1,000,000 Germans were forced to work in French coal-mines and British agriculture, as well as 500,000 in U. S.-run Military Labor Service Units in occupied Germany itself. See Forced labor of Germans after World War II. Communist Bulgaria BurmaAccording to the New Statesman, Burmese military government operated, from 1962 to 2011, about 91 labour camps for political prisoners. ChinaThe anti-communist Kuomintang operated various camps between 1938 and 1949, including the Northwestern Youth Labor Camp for young activists and students; the Communist Party of China has operated many labor camps for some crimes at least since taking power in 1949. Many leaders of China were put into labor camps after purges, including Deng Xiaoping and Liu Shaoqi. May Seventh Cadre Schools are an example of Cultural Revolution-era labor camps. According to CNN, hundreds — if not thousands — of labor camps and forced-labor prisons still exist in modern-day China, housing political prisoners and dissidents alongside dangerous criminals.
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People’s Republic of China, which closed on December 28, 2013, passed a decision on abolishing the legal provisions on reeducation through labor. CubaBeginning in November 1965, people classified as "against the government" were summoned to work camps referred to as "Military Units to Aid Production". Communist CzechoslovakiaAfter the communists took over Czechoslovakia in 1948, many forced labor camps were created; the inmates included political prisoners, kulaks, Boy Scouts leaders and many other groups of people that were considered enemies of the state. About half of the prisoners worked in the uranium mines; these camps lasted until 1961. Between 1950 and 1954 many men were considered "politically unreliable" for compulsory military service, were conscripted to labour battalions instead. Italian LibyaDuring the colonisation of Libya the Italians deported most of the Libyan population in Cyrenaica to concentration camps and used the survivors to build in semi-slave conditions the coastal road and new agricultural projects.
Nazi Germany During World War II the Nazis operated several categories of Arbeitslager for different categories of inmates. The largest number of them held Jewish civilians forcibly abducted in the occupied countries to provide labor in the German war industry, repair bombed railroads and bridges or work on farms. By 1944, 19.9 % of all workers were either civilians or prisoners of war. The Nazis employed many slave laborers, they operated concentration camps, some of which provided free forced labor for industrial and other jobs while others existed purely for the extermination of their inmates. A notable example is the Mittelbau-Dora labor camp complex that serviced the production of the V-2 rocket. See List of German concentration camps for more; the Nazi camps played a key role in the extermination of millions. Imperial JapanDuring the early 20th century, the Empire of Japan used the forced labor of millions of civilians from conquered countries and prisoners of war during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War, on projects such as the Death Railway.
Hundreds of thousands of people died as a direct result of the overwork, preventable disease and violence which were commonplace on these projects. North KoreaNorth Korea is known to operate six camps with prison-labor colonies in remote mountain valleys; the total number of prisoners in the Kwan-li-so is 150,000 – 200,000. Once condemned as a political criminal in North Korea, the defendant and his family are incarcerated for lifetime in one of the camps without trial and cut off from all outside contact. See also: North Korean prison systemCommunist Romania Russia and Soviet Union Imperial Russia operated a system of remote Siberian forced labor camps as part of its regular judicial system, called katorga; the Soviet Union took over the extensive katorga system and expanded it immensely organizing the Gulag to run the camps. In 1954, a year after Stalin's death, the new Soviet government of Nikita Khrushchev began to release political prisoners and close down the camps. By the end of the 1950s all "corrective labor camps" were reorganized into the system of corrective labor colonies.
The Gulag was terminated by the MVD order 20 of January 25, 1960. During the period of Stalinism, the Gulag labor camps in the Soviet Union were called "Corrective labor camps." The term "lab