Moscow State University
Moscow State University is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia. It was founded on 23 January 1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov. MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was known as Lomonosov University, it houses the tallest educational building in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy. According to the 2018 QS World University Rankings, it is the highest-ranking Russian educational institution and is considered the most prestigious university in the former Soviet Union. Ivan Shuvalov and Mikhail Lomonosov promoted the idea of a university in Moscow, Russian Empress Elizabeth decreed its establishment on 23 January 1755; the first lectures were given on 7 May. Russians still celebrate 25 January as Students' Day. Saint Petersburg State University and Moscow State University engage in friendly rivalry over the title of Russia's oldest university. Though Moscow State University was founded in 1755, its competitor in St. Petersburg has had a continuous existence as a "university" since 1819 and sees itself as the successor of an academy established on 24 January 1724, by a decree of Peter the Great.
The present Moscow State University occupied the Principal Medicine Store on Red Square from 1755 to 1787. Catherine the Great transferred the University to a Neoclassical building on the other side of Mokhovaya Street. In the 18th century, the University had three departments: philosophy and law. A preparatory college was affiliated with the University until its abolition in 1812. In 1779, Mikhail Kheraskov founded a boarding school for noblemen which in 1830 became a gymnasium for the Russian nobility; the university press, run by Nikolay Novikov in the 1780s, published the most popular newspaper in Imperial Russia: Moskovskie Vedomosti. In 1804, medical education split into clinical and obstetrics faculties. During 1884–1897, the Department of Medicine—supported by private donations, the municipal and imperial governments—built an extensive, 1.6-kilometer-long, state-of-the-art medical campus in Devichye Pole, between the Garden Ring and Novodevichy Convent. The campus, medical education in general, were separated from the Moscow University in 1930.
Devichye Pole was operated by the independent I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University and by various other state and private institutions; the roots of student unrest in the University reach deep into the nineteenth century. In 1905, a social-democratic organization emerged at the University and called for the overthrow of the Czarist government and the establishment of a republic in Russia; the imperial government threatened to close the University. In 1911, in a protest over the introduction of troops onto the campus and mistreatment of certain professors, 130 scientists and professors resigned en masse, including such prominent men as Nikolay Dimitrievich Zelinskiy, Pyotr Nikolaevich Lebedev, Sergei Alekseevich Chaplygin. After the October Revolution of 1917, the institution began to admit the children of the proletariat and peasantry. In 1919, the University abolished fees for tuition and established a preparatory facility to help working-class children prepare for entrance examinations.
During the implementation of Joseph Stalin's first five-year plan, prisoners from the Gulag were forced to construct parts of the newly expanded University. After 1991, nine new faculties were established; the following year, the University gained a unique status: it is funded directly from the state budget, thus providing the University a significant level of independence. On 6 September 1997, the French electronic musician Jean Michel Jarre, whom the mayor of Moscow had specially invited to perform, used the entire front facade of the University as the backdrop for a concert: the frontage served as a giant projection screen, with fireworks and searchlights all launched from various points around the building; the stage stood directly in front of the building, the concert, entitled "The Road To The 21st Century" in Russia but renamed "Oxygen In Moscow" for worldwide release in video/DVD, attracted a world-record crowd of 3.5 million people. On 19 March 2008, Russia's most powerful supercomputer to date, the SKIF MSU was launched at the University.
Its peak performance of 60 TFLOPS makes it the fastest supercomputer in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Since 1953, most of the faculties have been situated on Sparrow Hills, in the southwest of Moscow, 5 km from the city centre; the main building was designed by architect Lev Vladimirovich Rudnev. In the post-war era, Joseph Stalin ordered seven huge tiered neoclassic towers to be built around the city, it was built using Gulag labour. Located on Moscow's outskirts at the time of its construction, the location of the main building is now about half-way between the center of Moscow a
Pyotr Yefimovich Todorovsky was a Russian film director and cinematographer of Jewish origin. His son Valery Todorovsky is a film director. Todorovsky joined the Red Army during World War II and drew on his war experiences for a number of films, including Rio-Rita. In the 1950s, he worked as a cinematographer for Marlen Khutsiev, he liked to play composed songs for some of his films. Todorovsky's early 1980s melodramas gained him wide popularity in the Soviet Union, they have been described as "delightfully unpretentious comedies and touching at the same time". Todorovsky's Intergirl caused quite a stir, his next film Encore, Once More Encore! Presents a grim picture of moral prostitution in a dull, provincial garrison town. Todorovsky was named a People's Artist of Russia in 1985. Encore, Once More, Encore! won the 1992 Nika Award for Best Film. Wartime Romance was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, it was entered into the 34th Berlin International Film Festival, where Inna Churikova won the Silver Bear for Best Actress.
Spring on Zarechnaya Street Faithfulness Magician Urban Romance It Was in May Wartime Romance Waiting for Love Along the main street with orchestra Intergirl Encore, Once More Encore! What a Wonderful Game Riorita Pyotr Todorovsky on IMDb Todorovski in Xavier Muñoz's Per tu, Rio Rita, Omnia Books, 2018 - Biography of Enric Santeugini
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Veniamin Borisovich Smekhov is a Soviet and Russian actor of stage and screen, a director of the stage and documentary film. He was the winner of the Petropol' Award as well as the Tsarskoselsky Artistic Prize, he refused the title of People's Artist of Russia, offered to him on his 70th birthday. Smekhov has long worked in the Moscow Taganka Theatre where his roles included Woland in a stage adaptation of Mikhail Bulgakov's The Master and Margarita, his portrayal of the main antagonist of the story is considered to be the best of any adaption of the novel. In film, he is best known and loved for the role of Athos in a Russian version of The Three Musketeers and its sequels, he has written children's poetry, scripts and comedic materials. Father: Boris Moiseevich Smekhov (January 10, 1912, Belarus - October 8, 2010, Germany - professor, doctor of economics. Grandfather - Moisey Yakovlevich Smekhov - accountant. Mother: Maria L'vovna Schwartzburg - doctor, head of her department in a Moscow clinic.
Grandfather - Lev Aronovich Schwartzburg, born in the town of Shpola in Kiev Province, moved to Odessa. He was a shoemaker. Uncle - famous book illustrator Lev Moiseevich Smekhov, he was the father of Zinoviy L'vvovich Smekhov. Veniamin's other uncle, Efim Moiseevich Smekhov, was the head artist for the publication Meditsina. Alla Alexandrovna Smekhova, a radio editor, was Veniamin's first wife and the mother of his daughters, Elena, a writer, his grandchildren include Elena's son, Leonid Smekhov, Alika's sons, Artem Smekhov and Makar Smekhov. Veniamin has been married to Galina Aksenova, Candidate of Art, professor at the Moscow Art Theatre School and film and theatre scholar, since 1980. Veniamin Smekhov spent his childhood in Moscow on Second Meshchansky Street, he saw his father only after he returned from the war in 1945. From 1947 to 1957 he was a student at School № 235 on Pal'chikov Lane where he was a part of the Palace of Pioneers drama club. V. E. Struchkova led Rolan Biykov worked with the students.
In 1957 Veniamin was accepted into the B. V. Shchukin Theatre School, the conservatory of the E. Vakhtangov Theatre, he studied in the class of V. A. Etush, it was Lev Smekhov, who encouraged him to study at the school. In 1959 he began the second year of study as an auditor; this was a probationary measure. In April of 1959 he regained his student status, his graduation performances included Moliere's Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme in which he played Covielle, Ostrovsky's Warm Heart in which he played Narkis. In 1961 Veniamin graduated from acting school and was sent to the Kuybiyshevsky Drama Theatre where he worked for one year. Upon his return to Moscow in 1962, director A. K. Plotnikov accepted him into the Moscow Theatre of Comedy. In 1964 Yuri Lyubimov became head director of the theatre. Lyubimov reorganized the theatre and it became the Taganka Theatre. From 1985 to 1987 Veniamin worked in the Sovremennik Theatre where he, along with Leonid Filatov and Vitaly Shapovalov, fled after Lyubimov's expulsion from the Soviet Union.
Veniamin returned to the Taganka Theatre in 1987 and worked there until 1998. Veniamin began acting in films in 1968, but he gained widespread popularity after playing the role of Athos in the famous made-for-television film d'Artagnan' and the Three Musketeers,filmed at the Odessa Film Studio in 1978, he played Athos in all of the followup films as well. In 1967 he began working as a freelance television director at Gostelradio USSR, the main producer of literary-drama programs, his first work was the teleplay Mayakovsky's Day. It was aired as a part of the Poetic Theatre series. In 1990 he began directing theatre performances and made-for-television films in Russia and abroad, he taught acting for several years in American universities. During this time he continued to act at the Taganka Theatre. In America Veniamin released a series of compact disks, The Library of Russian Classics, in 1998, he has made around 20 solo audio books as well as a large collection of audio book compilations. In 2011 Veniamin returned to the Taganka Theatre as director.
He reprised the role of Woland in Master and Margarita on two occasions that included a dedication performance in memory of actor Vsevolod Sobolev and the 50th anniversary of the Taganka Theatre. He performs as an actor in two poetic performances No Years and The Spine of the Flute, he lives in Moscow and frequently tours with his performances and evenings of poetry. Veniamin makes poetic programs and documentary films for television, he is the author of several books of both poetry and prose, memoirs. He has called himself an actor, director and traveler. Veniamin has participated in theatrical online readings of the works of Anton Chekhov, Leo Tolstoy and Mikhail Bulgakov, including Chekhov Is Alive and Peace. We Read a Google-Reading of Master and Margarita. I Was There. Shchukin Theatre School 1957-1961 * Cruelty - author Nilin, * Man With A Gun - Chibisov, * Ward № 6 - Ivan Dmitrich, * The Minor - Adam Adamiych Vral'man * Warm Heart - Narkis, * Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme -
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
Merited Artist of the Russian Federation
Merited Artist is an honorary title in the Soviet Union, Russian Federation, Union republics, Autonomous republics in some other Eastern bloc states, as well as in a number of post-Soviet states. The title is awarded by a national government to actors, film makers, dancers, painters, etc. for exceptional achievements in arts. The honorary title was modeled after the German honorific title for distinguished opera singers; the title was bestowed by princes or kings, when it was styled Hofkammersänger. In Imperial Russia before 1917, several stars of stage and film were honored with the title "Imperial singer", but after the Soviet Revolution of 1917, the new government made changes and established the title of the Meritorious Artist of Russia; the term is confusingly used to translate two different Russian language titles: "заслуженный артист" and "заслуженный художник". Both titles are awarded for exceptional achievements in the corresponding arts; some other arts gave rise to special titles: Merited Writer, Merited Poet.
In modern Russia, the term Merited Actor applied to performing arts, the title Merited Worker of Arts is the translation of the Russian honorary title zasluzhenny deyatel iskusstv, applied to non-performing people, including visual artists, etc. People's Artist People's Artist of Russia Merited Artist of Ukraine Merited Artist of Albania Merited Artist of Vietnam