History of architecture
The history of architecture traces the changes in architecture through various traditions, overarching stylistic trends, and dates. The branches of architecture are civil, naval, Neolithic architecture is the architecture of the Neolithic period. In Southwest Asia, Neolithic cultures appear soon after 10,000 BC, initially in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. There are early Neolithic cultures in Southeast Anatolia and Iraq by 8000 BC, and food-producing societies first appear in southeast Europe by 7000 BC, and Central Europe by c.5500 BC. The neolithic people in the Levant, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were great builders, at Çatalhöyük, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals. The Mediterranean neolithic cultures of Malta worshiped in megalithic temples, in Europe, long houses built from wattle and daub were constructed. Elaborate tombs for the dead were built and these tombs are particularly numerous in Ireland, where there are many thousands still in existence.
Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges flint mines and cursus monuments. Ancient Mesopotamia is most noted for its construction of mud brick buildings, the word Ziggurat is an anglicized form of the Akkadian word ziqqurratum, the name given to the solid stepped towers of mud brick. It derives from the verb zaqaru, ‘to be high, the buildings are described as being like mountains linking Earth and heaven. The ziggurat at Ur, excavated by Leonard Woolley, is 64 by 46 meters at base and it was built under Ur-Nammu and rebuilt under Nabonidus when it was increased in height to probably seven stories. Harvests for example were seen as the benevolence of fertility deities, Ancient architecture is characterized by this tension between the divine and mortal world. Cities would mark a contained sacred space over the wilderness of nature outside, the architect, be he priest or king, was not the sole important figure, he was merely part of a continuing tradition.
The architecture and urbanism of the Greeks and Romans was very different from that of the Egyptians and Persians, civic life gained importance for all members of the community. Greek civic life was sustained by new, open spaces called the agora which were surrounded by public buildings, the agora embodied the newfound respect for social justice received through open debate rather than imperial mandate. Though divine wisdom still presided over human affairs, the rituals of ancient civilizations had become inscribed in space. Each place had its own nature, set within a world refracted through myth, the Romans conquered the Greek cities in Italy around three hundred years BCE and much of the Western world after that. One way to look at the unity of Roman architecture is through a new-found realization of theory derived from practice, civically we find this happening in the Roman forum, where public participation is increasingly removed from the concrete performance of rituals and represented in the decor of the architecture
Russians are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in Ukraine, Kazakhstan. A large Russian diaspora exists all over the world, with numbers in the United States, Israel. Russians are the most numerous group in Europe. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion, the Russian language is official in Russia, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan, and spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states. There are two Russian words which are translated into English as Russians. One is русские, which most often means ethnic Russians, another is россияне, which means citizens of Russia. The former word refers to ethnic Russians, regardless of what country they live in, under certain circumstances this term may or may not extend to denote members of other Russian-speaking ethnic groups from Russia, or from the former Soviet Union. The latter word refers to all people holding citizenship of Russia, regardless of their ethnicity, translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups.
The name of the Russians derives from the Rus people, the name Rus would have the same origin as the Finnish and Estonian names for Sweden and Rootsi. According to other theories the name Rus is derived from Proto-Slavic *roud-s-ь, the modern Russians formed from two groups of East Slavic tribes and Southern. The tribes involved included the Krivichs, Ilmen Slavs, Vyatiches, genetic studies show that modern Russians do not differ significantly from Belarusians and Ukrainians. Some ethnographers, like Zelenin, affirm that Russians are more similar to Belarusians, such Uralic peoples included the Merya and the Muromians. Outside archaeological remains, little is known about the predecessors to Russians in general prior to 859 AD when the Primary Chronicle starts its records and it is thought that by 600 AD, the Slavs had split linguistically into southern and eastern branches. Later, both Belarusians and South Russians formed on this ethnic linguistic ground, the same Slavic ethnic population settled the present-day Tver Oblast and the region of Beloozero.
With the Uralic substratum, they formed the tribes of the Krivichs, in 2010, the worlds Russian population was 129 million people of which 86% were in Russia,11. 5% in the CIS and Baltic countries, with a further 2. 5% living in other countries. Roughly 111 million ethnic Russians live in Russia, 80% of whom live in the European part of Russia, ethnic Russians historically migrated throughout the area of former Russian Empire and Soviet Union, sometimes encouraged to re-settle in borderlands by the Tsarist and Soviet government. On some occasions ethnic Russian communities, such as Lipovans who settled in the Danube delta or Doukhobors in Canada, after the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War starting in 1917, many Russians were forced to leave their homeland fleeing the Bolshevik regime, and millions became refugees
Tribal art is the visual arts and material culture of indigenous peoples. The term primitive is criticized as being Eurocentric and pejorative, Tribal art is often ceremonial or religious in nature. Typically originating in rural areas, tribal art refers to the subject, in the 19th century, non-western art was not seen by mainstream Western art professional as being as art at all. The art world perception of tribal arts is becoming less paternalistic, major exhibitions of tribal arts in the late 19th through mid-20th centuries exposed the Western art world to non-Western art. Major exhibitions included the Museum of Modern Arts 1935 Africa Negro Art and 1941 Indian Art of the United States, exposure to tribal arts provide inspiration to many modern artists, notably Expressionists and Surrealists, notably Surrealist Max Ernst. The Anthropology of Art, A Reader, edmund Snow Carpenter, The Tribal Terror of Self-Awareness. In Paul Hockings, Principles of Visual Anthropology,1975, pages 451–461, denis Dutton, Tribal Art and Artefact.
Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism,51, 13–21, Winter 1993, denis Dutton, Mythologies of Tribal Art. Herbert E. Roese, African Wood Carvings - the sculptural art of West Africa,2011, Cardiff ISBN 978-0-9560294-2-3 Ralph T. Coe, the responsive eye, Ralph T. Coe and the collecting of American Indian art. New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Tribal Art Magazine Paleobree — Tribal Art Information Service Art Tribal Newsletter Tribal art forgeries Oceanic Art Society
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Primitivism is a Western art movement that borrows visual forms from non-Western or prehistoric peoples, such as Paul Gauguins inclusion of Tahitian motifs in paintings and ceramics. Borrowings from primitive art has been important to the development of modern art, the term primitivism is often applied to other professional painters working in the style of naïve or folk art like Henri Rousseau, Mikhail Larionov, Paul Klee and others. Whether and to what extent we should simplify our lives and get back to basics is a debate that has been going on since the invention of writing. In antiquity the superiority of the life was expressed in the Myth of the Golden Age, depicted in the genre of European poetry. During the Enlightenment, arguments about the superiority of indigenous peoples were chiefly used as a rhetorical device to criticize aspects of European society. In the 18th century, the German scholar Friedrich August Wolf identified the character of oral literature and located Homer. Vico and Wolfs ideas were developed further in the beginning of the 19th century by Herder, although influential in literature, such arguments were known to a relatively small number of educated people and their impact was limited or non-existent in the sphere of visual arts.
The 19th century saw for the first time the emergence of historicism, or the ability to judge different eras by their own context, a result of this new historicism, new schools of visual art arose that aspired to hitherto unprecedented levels of historical fidelity in setting and costumes. Neoclassicism in visual art and architecture was one result, another such historicist movement in art was the Nazarene movement in Germany, which took inspiration from the so-called Italian primitive school of devotional paintings. Two phenomena shook the world of art in the mid-19th century. The first was the invention of the camera, which arguably spurred the development of Realism in art. The discovery of new dimensions had the opposite effect of photography. Beaux Arts academies held than non-Western and tribal peoples had had no art or only inferior art and they looked to Japanese and Chinese art, which was learned and sophisticated and did not employ Renaissance one-point perspective. Non-euclidean perspective and tribal art fascinated Western European artists who saw them as portraying the reality of the spirit world and other non-European art appealed to those who were unhappy with the repressive aspects of European culture, as pastoral art had done for millennia.
Imitations of tribal or archaic art fall into the category of nineteenth-century historicism, actual examples of tribal and folk art were prized by both creative artists and collectors. Paul Gauguins paintings, Pablo Picassos paintings and Igor Stravinskys music are sometimes cited as examples of primitivism in art, Stravinskys The Rite of Spring, is primitivist in that its programmatic subject is a pagan rite, a human sacrifice in pre-Christian Russia. It uses dissonance and loud, repetitive rhythms to depict Dionysian modernism, Stravinsky was a master of learned classical tradition and worked within its bounds. In his work he adopted a more Apollonian neoclassicism, to use Nietzsches terminology and they began questioning the nature of humanity and its origins through a discussion of the natural man, which had intrigued theologians since the European encounter with the New World
Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, known as Pablo Picasso, was a Spanish painter, printmaker, stage designer and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, Picassos work is often categorized into periods. Much of Picassos work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style and his work often combines elements of his earlier styles. Ruiz y Picasso were included for his father and mother, born in the city of Málaga in the Andalusian region of Spain, he was the first child of Don José Ruiz y Blasco and María Picasso y López. His mother was of one quarter Italian descent, from the territory of Genoa, though baptized a Catholic, Picasso would on become an atheist. Picassos family was of middle-class background and his father was a painter who specialized in naturalistic depictions of birds and other game.
For most of his life Ruiz was a professor of art at the School of Crafts, Picasso showed a passion and a skill for drawing from an early age. According to his mother, his first words were piz, piz, a shortening of lápiz, from the age of seven, Picasso received formal artistic training from his father in figure drawing and oil painting. Ruiz was an academic artist and instructor, who believed that proper training required disciplined copying of the masters. His son became preoccupied with art to the detriment of his classwork, the family moved to A Coruña in 1891, where his father became a professor at the School of Fine Arts. On one occasion, the father found his son painting over his sketch of a pigeon. In 1895, Picasso was traumatized when his sister, Conchita. After her death, the moved to Barcelona, where Ruiz took a position at its School of Fine Arts. Picasso thrived in the city, regarding it in times of sadness or nostalgia as his true home, Ruiz persuaded the officials at the academy to allow his son to take an entrance exam for the advanced class.
This process often took students a month, but Picasso completed it in a week, the student lacked discipline but made friendships that would affect him in life. His father rented a room for him close to home so he could work alone, yet he checked up on him numerous times a day. Picassos father and uncle decided to send the young artist to Madrids Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, at age 16, Picasso set off for the first time on his own, but he disliked formal instruction and stopped attending classes soon after enrolment
Mikhail Fyodorovich Larionov was an avant-garde Russian painter. Larionov was born at Tiraspol, in the Kherson Governorate of the Russian Empire, in 1898 he entered the Moscow School of Painting and Architecture under Isaac Levitan and Valentin Serov. He was suspended three times for his radical outlook, in 1900 he met Natalia Goncharova and formed a lifelong relationship with her. From 1902 his style was Impressionism, after a visit to Paris in 1906 he moved into Post-Impressionism and a Neo-primitive style which derived partly from Russian sign painting. In 1908 he staged the Golden Fleece exhibition in Moscow, which included paintings by international artists such as Matisse, Braque, Gauguin. Other group shows promoted by him included Tatlin and Malevich, Larionov was a founding member of two important Russian artistic groups Jack of Diamonds and the more radical Donkeys Tail. He gave names to both groups and his first solo show was for one day in Moscow in 1911. Larionov was influenced by the Georgian artist Niko Pirosmani, in 1913 he created Rayonism, which was the first creation of near-abstract art in Russia.
He had a show at the Omega Workshops. In 1915 he left Russia and worked with the ballet owner Sergei Diaghilev in Paris on the productions of the Ballets Russes and he spent the rest of his life in France and obtained the French citizenship. He died, aged 82, in the Paris suburb of Fontenay-aux-Roses, in 2001, the Central Bank of Transnistria minted a silver coin honoring this native of todays Transnistria, as part of a series of memorable coins called The Outstanding People of Pridnestrovie. The highest price paid for a Larionov painting at auction is 2,200,000 British pounds and he is in the highest category 1A – a world famous artist in United Artists Rating. Mikhail Larionov at the McNay Art Museum
Chiaroscuro is an oil painting technique, developed during the Renaissance, that uses strong tonal contrasts between light and dark to model three-dimensional forms, often to dramatic effect. The underlying principle is that solidity of form is best achieved by the light falling against it, artists known for developing the technique include Leonardo da Vinci and Rembrandt. It is a mainstay of black and white photography and these in turn drew on traditions in illuminated manuscripts going back to late Roman Imperial manuscripts on purple-dyed vellum. Such works used to be called chiaroscuro drawings, but are often described in modern museum terminology by such formulae as pen on prepared paper. Chiaroscuro woodcuts began as imitations of this technique, when discussing Italian art, the term sometimes is used to mean painted images in monochrome or two colours, more generally known in English by the French equivalent, grisaille. The term broadened in meaning early on to cover all strong contrasts in illumination between light and dark areas in art, which is now the primary meaning.
The invention of these effects in the West, skiagraphia or shadow-painting to the Ancient Greeks, traditionally was ascribed to the famous Athenian painter of the fifth century BC, Apollodoros. Chose her place to sit for that purpose in the alley of a goodly garden. In drawings and prints, modelling chiaroscuro often is achieved by the use of hatching, stipple or dotting effects, and surface tone in printmaking are other techniques. Chiaroscuro woodcuts are old master prints in woodcut using two or more blocks printed in different colours, they do not necessarily feature strong contrasts of light and they were first produced to achieve similar effects to chiaroscuro drawings. Other printmakers to use the technique include Hans Wechtlin, Hans Baldung Grien, in Germany the technique achieved its greatest popularity around 1520, but it was used in Italy throughout the sixteenth century. Later artists such as Goltzius sometimes made use of it, in most German two-block prints, the keyblock was printed in black and the tone block or blocks had flat areas of colour.
In Italy, chiaroscuro woodcuts were produced without keyblocks to achieve a different effect. Manuscript illumination was, as in areas, especially experimental in attempting ambitious lighting effects since the results were not for public display. The development of compositional chiaroscuro received an impetus in northern Europe from the vision of the Nativity of Jesus of Saint Bridget of Sweden. Hugo van der Goes and his followers painted many scenes lit only by candle or the light from the infant Christ. As with some painters, in their hands the effect was of stillness, strong chiaroscuro became a popular effect during the sixteenth century in Mannerism and Baroque art. Divine light continued to illuminate, often rather inadequately, the compositions of Tintoretto, tenebrism was especially practiced in Spain and the Spanish-ruled Kingdom of Naples, by Jusepe de Ribera and his followers
Russian Academy of Arts
Russian Academy of Arts is the State scientific Institution of Russian Federation, eligible heir to the USSR Academy of Arts. RAKh is the public cultural Institution—a counterpart of the Russian Academy of Sciences in the field of arts, decorations, design. A founder of RAKh is the Government of the Russian Federation, Art education is one of the main aspects of the Russian Academy of Arts activity. In order to facilitate the development of art school creativity, Art Academy works on its scientific and methodological management
Doctor of Philosophy
A Doctor of Philosophy is a type of doctoral degree awarded by universities in many countries. Ph. D. s are awarded for a range of programs in the sciences, engineering. The Ph. D. is a degree in many fields. The completion of a Ph. D. is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, individuals with an earned doctorate can use the title of Doctor with their name and use the post-nominal letters Ph. D. The requirements to earn a Ph. D. degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, a person who attains a doctorate of philosophy is automatically awarded the academic title of doctor. A student attaining this level may be granted a Candidate of Philosophy degree at some institutions. A Ph. D. candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of academic research. In many countries, a candidate must defend this work before a panel of examiners appointed by the university. Universities award other types of doctorates besides the Ph. D.
such as the Doctor of Musical Arts, a degree for music performers and the Doctor of Education, in 2016, ELIA launched The Florence Principles on the Doctorate in the Arts. The Florence Principles have been endorsed are supported by AEC, CILECT, CUMULUS, the degree is abbreviated PhD, from the Latin Philosophiae Doctor, pronounced as three separate letters. In the universities of Medieval Europe, study was organized in four faculties, the faculty of arts. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees and final degrees, the doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current Ph. D. degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements, besides these degrees, there was the licentiate. According to Keith Allan Noble, the first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around 1150, the doctorate of philosophy developed in Germany as the terminal Teachers credential in the 17th century.
Typically, upon completion, the candidate undergoes an oral examination, always public, starting in 2016, in Ukraine Doctor of Philosophy is the highest education level and the first science degree. PhD is awarded in recognition of a contribution to scientific knowledge. A PhD degree is a prerequisite for heading a university department in Ukraine, upon completion of a PhD, a PhD holder can elect to continue his studies and get a post-doctoral degree called Doctor of Sciences, which is the second and the highest science degree in Ukraine. Scandinavian countries were among the early adopters of a known as a doctorate of philosophy
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format