Ian Ronald Bell MBE is an English cricketer who played international cricket in all formats for the England cricket team. He plays county cricket for Warwickshire County Cricket Club, he is a right-handed higher/middle order batsman, described in The Times as an "exquisite rapier,", a good cover driver on the off side. He is a slip fielder, he is noted for his sharp reflexes and fields in close catching positions. He has scored four One Day International 100s. In 2015, he became the second player since Ian Botham to be involved in five Ashes series wins. In the 2006 New Year Honours List, Ian Bell was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire for his role in the successful Ashes campaign of 2005. In November 2006, he was awarded the Emerging Player of the Year award by the International Cricket Council. During 2008 and 2009, he was a more infrequent member of the England teams – however he reclaimed his Test place during the 2009 Ashes, which England won, featured in several ODIs the following year.
During 2010, he captained Warwickshire to victory in the CB40 final before scoring his first Ashes century the following winter as he helped England retain the Ashes down-under. Warwickshire County Cricket Club awarded Bell a benefit in 2011. In July 2012, Bell signed a new three-year contract with Warwickshire extending his stay at the club at least till 2015. In November 2015, England selectors announced that Bell would be dropped from the English side ahead of the test series with South Africa. In August 2016, it was announced that Bell would be playing for the Perth Scorchers in the 2016–17 Big Bash League season. In August 2018, Bell scored his 20,000 run in first-class cricket. Bell's family hailed from Dunchurch, near Rugby and he played for the local cricket club as a junior. Bell was educated at Princethorpe College, a Roman Catholic independent school in the nearby village of Princethorpe and made the 1st XI in year 7, he attended Coventry City's football school of excellence, despite being a supporter of Aston Villa, played for Coventry and North Warwickshire Cricket Club.
His brother Keith, born two years has played amateur cricket for Staffordshire, has played seven games for the Warwickshire Second XI. Bell made three appearances for Warwickshire's second team in 1998, his next matches at senior level were with the England Under-19 cricket team on their tour of New Zealand that winter, he made 91 in the first innings of the first Test, 115 in the first innings of the third. Bell played in several more Under-19 series, captaining the team at home against Sri Lanka in 2000, in their 2000/01 tour of India, for the first match at home against West Indies in 2001. By this time Bell had made his first-class debut, appearing in a single match for the Warwickshire first team in September 1999, but was out for a duck in his only innings and played no further part at that level until 2000/01, when he followed on from his Under-19 matches by playing for England A against the Leeward Islands in the Busta Cup tournament game in Anguilla. Bell broke into the Warwickshire first-team in 2001 as he scored 836 runs in 16 innings including three centuries and two scores of 98.
His first century, a score of 130 against Oxford UCCE, made him the county's youngest centurion at 19 years and 56 days. He became the county's youngest capped player when Warwickshire awarded him a county cap on the final day of the season. Bell was named in the first intake of the ECB National Academy who spent the 2001/02 winter in Australia; the day after he returned home from Adelaide he was brought into the full England Test squad to cover for the injured Mark Butcher on the New Zealand tour. In 2002 Bell's four-day form fell away as he scored 658 at an average of 24.37 however he was instrumental in the county's Benson & Hedges Cup success. He top-scored in the Quarter-final, Semi-final and Final, the latter performance winning him the Gold Award in the last Benson & Hedges Cup final. Bell's best form in 2003 once again came in the one-day format, he scored 779 runs at 28.85 in the County Championship compared to 560 runs at 43.07 in the National League, his best performance came at Chelmsford where he scored his maiden one-day century, 125 off 113 deliveries, as well as taking 5/41, his best one-day bowling figures.
This was only the second time. After two poor seasons Bell was back to his best in 2004, he scored 1498 Championship runs which included six centuries. One of the six was a career-best 262 not out against Sussex. In late July he began an impressive sequence of four centuries in five first-class innings, the other being a score of 96 not out; the centuries in both innings against Lancashire were the first by a Warwickshire batsman against an authentic attack since Brian Lara in 1994. This run of form led to him being brought into the England Test squad when Graham Thorpe was left doubtful with a finger injury. Bell made his international debut in the final match of the Test series against the West Indies at The Oval, he hit 70, batting at number five in England's first innings. Bell was selected as part of the squad to tour Zimbabwe and South Africa and he made his One Da
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Province of Novara
Novara is a province in the Piedmont region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Novara, it has an area of 1,339 square kilometres and a total population of 373,081. It consists of 88 comuni; the province of Novara is home to the Denominazione di origine controllata wine of Colline Novaresi, created in 1994 for the red and white Italian wines of the area. All grapes destined for DOC wine production need to be harvested to a yield no greater than 11 tonnes/ha; the red wine is a blend of at least 30% Nebbiolo, up to 40% Uva Rara and no more than 30% collectively of Croatina and Vespolina. Varietal styles of each of the red grape varieties can be made provided that the grape makes up at least 85% of the wine; the white wine is a made 100% from the Erbaluce grape. The finished wine must attain a minimum alcohol level of 11% in order to be labelled with the Colline Novaresi DOC designation. ISTAT Official website
Pirmin Zurbriggen is a former World Cup alpine ski racer from Switzerland. One of the most successful ski racers he won the overall World Cup title four times, an Olympic gold medal in 1988 in Downhill, nine World Championships medals. Zurbriggen was born in Saas-Almagell in the canton of Valais, the son of Alois, an innkeeper, Ida, his father competed as a ski racer in local competitions in the 1940s and 1950s, but quit the sport after his brother was killed in a training accident. Zurbriggen made his World Cup debut in January 1981, a month before his 18th birthday. With his victory in the downhill at Kitzbühel in January 1985 at age 21, he became the first to win World Cup races in all five disciplines. Incidentally Marc Girardelli, the second to enter this exclusive circle, won his first downhill race four years at the same venue. Zurbriggen retired from international competition after having won the 1990 World Cup overall title – his fourth, the most overall titles won by a single racer, reached only once before by Gustav Thöni in 1975.
Again it was Marc Girardelli who followed him in 1991 with a fourth overall title, Girardelli added another in 1993 to become the only male racer with five overall titles in World Cup history. Zurbriggen grew up near Saas-Fee. With a total of 40 World Cup victories over nine years and five gold medals, he belongs to the "All-Time Greats" of alpine skiing, ranking fifth in all-time wins and having 169 Top Ten finishes. Zurbriggen left the World Cup tour as a hero to start a family, he is the older brother of Heidi Zurbriggen, a winner of three World Cup downhill races, a distant cousin of Silvan Zurbriggen. Zurbriggen now runs the "Wellness Hotel Pirmin Zurbriggen" with his parents in Saas-Almagell and another, "Apparthotel Zurbriggen," in Zermatt. In addition, after his World Cup career had ended he partnered with Authier Ski company on a line of signature skis. 13 titles plus unofficial 3 K 40 wins 83 podiums Ski World Cup Most podiums & Top 10 results Pirmin Zurbriggen at the International Ski Federation Pirmin Zurbriggen at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com FIS-ski.com – World Cup season standings – Pirmin Zurbriggen Ski-db.com – results – Pirmin Zurbriggen Evans, Hilary.
"Pirmin Zurbriggen". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC
Milan is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,372,810 while its metropolitan city has a population of 3,245,308. Its continuously built-up urban area has a population estimated to be about 5,270,000 over 1,891 square kilometres; the wider Milan metropolitan area, known as Greater Milan, is a polycentric metropolitan region that extends over central Lombardy and eastern Piedmont and which counts an estimated total population of 7.5 million, making it by far the largest metropolitan area in Italy and the 54th largest in the world. Milan served as capital of the Western Roman Empire from 286 to 402 and the Duchy of Milan during the medieval period and early modern age. Milan is considered a leading alpha global city, with strengths in the field of the art, design, entertainment, finance, media, services and tourism, its business district hosts Italy's stock exchange and the headquarters of national and international banks and companies.
In terms of GDP, it has the third-largest economy among European cities after Paris and London, but the fastest in growth among the three, is the wealthiest among European non-capital cities. Milan is considered part of the Blue Banana and one of the "Four Motors for Europe"; the city has been recognized as one of the world's four fashion capitals thanks to several international events and fairs, including Milan Fashion Week and the Milan Furniture Fair, which are among the world's biggest in terms of revenue and growth. It hosted the Universal Exposition in 1906 and 2015; the city hosts numerous cultural institutions and universities, with 11% of the national total enrolled students. Milan is the destination of 8 million overseas visitors every year, attracted by its museums and art galleries that boast some of the most important collections in the world, including major works by Leonardo da Vinci; the city is served by a large number of luxury hotels and is the fifth-most starred in the world by Michelin Guide.
The city is home to two of Europe's most successful football teams, A. C. Milan and F. C. Internazionale, one of Italy's main basketball teams, Olimpia Milano; the etymology of the name Milan remains uncertain. One theory holds that the Latin name Mediolanum planus. However, some scholars believe that lanum comes from the Celtic root lan, meaning an enclosure or demarcated territory in which Celtic communities used to build shrines. Hence Mediolanum could signify the central sanctuary of a Celtic tribe. Indeed, about sixty Gallo-Roman sites in France bore the name "Mediolanum", for example: Saintes and Évreux. In addition, another theory links the name to the boar sow an ancient emblem of the city, fancifully accounted for in Andrea Alciato's Emblemata, beneath a woodcut of the first raising of the city walls, where a boar is seen lifted from the excavation, the etymology of Mediolanum given as "half-wool", explained in Latin and in French; the foundation of Milan is credited to two Celtic peoples, the Bituriges and the Aedui, having as their emblems a ram and a boar.
Alciato credits Ambrose for his account. The Celtic Insubres, the inhabitants of the region of northern Italy called Insubria, appear to have founded Milan around 600 BC. According to the legend reported by Livy, the Gaulish king Ambicatus sent his nephew Bellovesus into northern Italy at the head of a party drawn from various Gaulish tribes; the Romans, led by consul Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus, fought the Insubres and captured the city in 222 BC. They conquered the entirety of the region, calling the new province "Cisalpine Gaul" – "Gaul this side of the Alps" – and may have given the site its Latinized Celtic name of Mediolanum: in Gaulish *medio- meant "middle, center" and the name element -lanon is the Celtic equivalent of Latin -planum "plain", thus *Mediolanon meant " in the midst of the plain". In 286 the Roman Emperor Diocletian moved the capital of the Western Roman Empire from Rome to Mediolanum. Diocletian himself chose to reside at Nicomedia in the Eastern Empire, leaving his colleague Maximian at Milan.
Maximian built several gigantic monuments, the large circus, the thermae or "Baths of Hercules", a large complex of imperial palaces and other services and buildings of which fewer visible traces remain. Maximian increased the city area surrounded by a new, larger stone wall encompassing an area of 375 acres with many 24-sided towers; the monumental area had twin towers. From Mediolanum the Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, granting tolerance to all religions within the Empire, thus paving the way for Christianity to become the dominant religion of Roman Europe. Constantine had come to Mediolanum to celebrate the wedding of his sister
John Patrick McEnroe Jr. is an American retired tennis player considered among the greatest in the history of the sport. He was known for his shot-making artistry and volleying skills, as well as his confrontational on-court behavior that landed him in trouble with umpires and tennis authorities. McEnroe attained the No. 1 ranking in both singles and doubles, finishing his career with 77 singles and 78 doubles titles. He won seven Grand Slam single titles, including four US Open titles and three Wimbledon titles, added nine men's Grand Slam doubles titles, his singles match record of 82–3 in 1984 remains the best single season win rate of the Open Era. McEnroe excelled at the year-end tournaments, winning eight singles and seven doubles titles, both of which are records. Three of his winning singles year-end championships were at the Masters Grand Prix and five were at the World Championship Tennis Finals, an event which ended in 1989. Since 2000, there has been only the ATP Finals, he was named the ATP Player of the Year and the ITF World Champion three times each: 1981, 1983 and 1984.
McEnroe contributed to five Davis Cup titles for the U. S. and served as team captain. He has stayed active in retirement competing in senior events on the ATP Champions Tour. For many years he has worked as a television commentator during the majors. McEnroe was born in Wiesbaden, West Germany to American parents, John Patrick McEnroe Sr. and his wife Kay, née Tresham. His father, the son of Irish immigrants, was at the time stationed with the United States Air Force. In 1960, the family moved to the New York City area, where McEnroe's father worked daytime as an advertising agent while attending Fordham Law School by night, he has two younger brothers: former professional tennis player Patrick. When he was about nine months old, the family moved to the Stewart Air Force Base in Newburgh, New York because his father was transferred back to the US. In 1961, they moved to Flushing, moving to Douglaston in 1963. McEnroe grew up in Douglaston, New York City, he started playing tennis. When he was nine, his parents enrolled him in the Eastern Lawn Tennis Association, he soon started playing regional tournaments.
He began competing in national juniors tournaments, at twelve—when he was ranked seventh in his age group—he joined the Port Washington Tennis Academy, Long Island, New York. McEnroe attended Trinity School and graduated in 1977; as an 18-year-old amateur in 1977, McEnroe won the mixed doubles at the French Open with Mary Carillo, made it through the qualifying tournament at Wimbledon and into the main draw, where he lost in the semifinals to Jimmy Connors in four sets. It was the best performance by a qualifier at a Grand Slam tournament and a record performance by an amateur in the open era. After Wimbledon in 1977, McEnroe was recruited by Coach Dick Gould and entered Stanford University, where, in 1978, he led the Stanford team to an NCAA championship, won the NCAA singles title. In 1978, he joined the ATP tour and signed his first professional endorsement deal, with Sergio Tacchini, he again advanced to the semifinals at this time the US Open, losing again to Connors. Following which, he proceeded to win five titles that year, including his first Masters Grand Prix, beating Arthur Ashe in straight sets, as well as Grand Prix events at Stockholm and Wembley.
His late season success allowed him to finish as the number four ranked player for the year. In 1979, McEnroe and partner Peter Fleming won the Wimbledon Doubles title, followed shortly by a win in the US Open Doubles; that same week, McEnroe won his first Grand Slam singles title. He defeated his friend Vitas Gerulaitis in straight sets in the final to become the youngest male winner of the singles title at the US Open since Pancho Gonzales, 20 in 1948, he won the prestigious season-ending WCT Finals, beating Björn Borg in four sets. McEnroe won 10 singles and 17 doubles titles that year finishing at number 3 in the ATP year-end rankings. At Wimbledon, McEnroe reached the 1980 Wimbledon Men's Singles final—his first final at Wimbledon—where he faced Björn Borg, gunning for his fifth consecutive Wimbledon title. At the start of the final, McEnroe was booed by the crowd as he entered Centre Court following heated exchanges with officials during his semifinal victory over Jimmy Connors. In a fourth-set tiebreaker that lasted 20 minutes, McEnroe saved five match points and won 18–16.
McEnroe, could not break Borg's serve in the fifth set, which the Swede won 8–6. This match was called the best Wimbledon final by ESPN's countdown show "Who's Number One?" McEnroe exacted revenge two months beating Björn Borg in the five-set final of the 1980 US Open. He was a finalist at the season-ending WCT Finals and finished as the number 2 ranked player for the year behind only Borg. McEnroe remained controversial when he returned to Wimbledon in 1981. Following his first-round match against Tom Gullikson, McEnroe was fined U. S. $1,500 and came close to being thrown out after he called umpire Ted James "the pits of the world" and swore at tournament referee Fred Hoyles. He made famous the phrase "you cannot be serious", which years became the title of McEnroe's autobiography, by shouting it after several umpires' calls during his matches; this behavior was in s
The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a knock-out format, it is described by the organisers as the "World Cup of Tennis", the winners are referred to as the World Champion team. The competition began in 1900 as a challenge between the United States. By 2016, 135 nations entered teams into the competition; the most successful countries over the history of the tournament are the United States and Australia. The present champions are Croatia, who beat France to win their second title in 2018; the women's equivalent of the Davis Cup is the Fed Cup. Australia, the Czech Republic, the United States are the only countries to have held both Davis Cup and Fed Cup titles in the same year; the Hopman Cup, a third competition for mixed teams, carries less prestige, but is a popular curtain raiser to the tennis season. Only the Czechs have won all three competitions in one calendar year, doing so in 2012.
The idea for a tournament pitting the best British and Americans in competition against one another was first conceived by James Dwight, the first president of the U. S. National Lawn Tennis Association when it formed in 1881. Desperate to assess the development of American players against the renowned British champions, he worked tirelessly to engage British officials in a properly sanctioned match, but failed to do so, he tried to entice top international talent to the U. S. and sanctioned semi-official tours of the top American players to Great Britain. Diplomatic relations between Great Britain and the United Stated on the tennis front had strengthened such that, by the mid 1890s, reciprocal tours were staged annually between players of the two nations, an ensuing friendship between American William Larned and Irishman Harold Mahony spurred efforts to formalize an official team competition between the two nations. International competitions had been staged for some time before the first Davis Cup match in 1900.
From 1892, England and Ireland had been competing in an annual national-team-based competition, similar to what would become the standard Davis Cup format, mixing single and doubles matches, in 1895 England played against France in a national team competition. During Larned's tour of the British Isles in 1896, where he competed in several tournaments including the Wimbledon Championships, he was a spectator for the annual England vs. Ireland match, he returned to exclaim that Britain had agreed to send a group of three to the US the following summer, which would represent the first British lawn tennis "team" to compete in the U. S. Coincidentally, some weeks before Larned left for his British tour, the idea for an international competition was discussed between leading figures in American lawn tennis - one of whom was tennis journalist E. P. Fischer - at a tournament in Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ontario. Dwight F. Davis was in attendance at this tournament, was thought to have got wind of the idea as it was discussed in the tournament's popular magazine, Davis's name was mentioned as someone who might'do something for the game … put up some big prize, or cup'.
Larned and Fischer met on several occasions that summer and discussed the idea of an international match to be held in Chicago the following summer, pitting six of the best British players against six of the best Americans, in a mixture of singles and doubles matches. This was discussed in two articles in the Chicago Tribune, but did not come to fruition; the following summer, Great Britain - though not under the official auspices of the Lawn Tennis Association - sent three of its best players to compete in several US tournaments. Their relative poor performances convinced Dwight and other leading officials and figures in American lawn tennis that the time was right for a properly sanctioned international competition; this was to be staged in Newcastle in July 1898, but the event never took place as the Americans could not field a sufficiently strong team. A reciprocal tour to the U. S. in 1899 amounted to just a single British player travelling overseas, as many of the players were involved in overseas armed conflicts.
It was at this juncture, in the summer of 1899, that four members of the Harvard University tennis team - Dwight Davis included - travelled across the States to challenge the best west-coast talent, upon his return, it occurred to Davis that if teams representing regions could arouse such great feelings why wouldn't a tennis event that pitted national teams in competition be just as successful. He approached James Dwight with the idea, tentatively agreed, he ordered an appropriate sterling silver punchbowl trophy from Shreve, Crump & Low, purchasing it from his own funds for about $1,000, they in turn commissioned a classically styled design from William B. Durgin's of Concord, New Hampshire, crafted by the Englishman Rowland Rhodes. Beyond donating a trophy for the competition, Davis's involvement in the incipient development of the tournament that came to bear his name was negligible, yet a persistent myth has emerged that Davis devised both the idea for an international tennis competition and its format of mixing singles and doubles matches.
Research has shown this to be a myth, similar in its exaggeration of a single individual's efforts within a complex long-term development to the myths of William Webb Ellis and Abner Doubleday, who have both been wrongly credited with inventing rugby and baseball, respectively. Davis nevertheles