International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
According to GreatFire.org, archive.is has been blocked in China since March 2016, archive.li since September 2017, archive.fo since July 2018. On July 21, 2015, the operators blocked access to the service from all Finnish IP addresses, stating on Twitter that they did this in order to avoid escalating a dispute they had with the Finnish government. In Russia, only HTTP access is possible. CloudFlare's 220.127.116.11 does not resolve archive.is domains. Archive.is records only text and images, excluding video, xml and other non-static content. It keeps track of the history of snapshots saved, returning to the user a request for confirmation before adding a new snapshot of an saved Internet address; the research toolbar enables advanced keywords operators. A couple of quotation marks address the search to an exact sequence of keywords present in the title or in the body of the webpage, whereas the insite operator restricts it to a specific Internet domain. Once a web page is archived, it cannot be deleted directly by any Internet user.
Nevertherless, archive.is controls or deletes web pages saved some days before, without any policy or right of discussion and appeal. While saving a dynamic list, archive.is searchbox shows only a result that links the previous and the following section of the list. The other web pages saved are filtered, sometimes may be found by one of their occurrences. Digital preservation Internet Archive Link rot Perma.cc Wayback Machine Web archiving WebCite WP:Link rot Official website "Offline blog"
Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq
The Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq is an Iraqi Shia Islamist Iraqi political party. It was established in Iran in 1982 by Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim and its political support comes from Iraq's Shia Muslim community. Prior to his assassination in August 2003, SCIRI was led by Ayatollah Mohammed Baqir al-Hakim. After Abdul Aziz al-Hakim's death in 2009 his son Ammar al-Hakim became the group's new leader. In light of its gains in the three 2005 elections and government appointments, the Supreme Iraqi Islamic Council became one of Iraq's most powerful political parties and was the largest party in the Iraqi Council of Representatives until the 2010 Iraqi elections, where it lost support due to Nuri Al-Maliki's political party rise. ISCI's militia wing was the Badr Brigade, where the party used it during the Iraq Civil War of 2006–2007. After the civil war, Badr Brigade turned into a political force of itself and left ISCI, although the two continue to be part of a coalition in Iraq's parliament. After the departure of Badr Brigade, ISCI created.
Supreme Council of the Islamic Revolution of Iraq was founded in Iran in 1982 during the Iran–Iraq War after the leading Islamist insurgent group, Islamic Dawa Party, was weakened by an Iraqi government crackdown following Dawa's unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. SCIRI was the umbrella body for two Iran-based Shia Islamist groups and the Islamic Action Organisation led by Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi. Another of SCIRI's founders was Ayatollah Hadi al-Modarresi, the leader the Islamic Front for the Liberation of Bahrain; the Iranian Islamic revolutionary government arranged for the formation of SCIRI, based in exile in Tehran and under the leadership of Mohammad-Baqir al-Hakim. Hakim, living in exile in Iran, was the son of Ayatollah Mohsen-Hakim and a member of one of the leading Shia clerical families in Iraq. "He declared the primary aim of the council to be the overthrow of the Ba'ath and the establishment of an Islamic government in Iraq. Iranian officials referred to Hakim as the leader of Iraq's future Islamic state..."However, there are crucial ideological differences between SCIRI and al-Dawa.
SCIRI supports the ideologies of Iran's Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini that Islamic Government must be controlled by the ulema. Al-Dawa, on the other hand, follows the position of Iraq's late Ayatollah Mohammad Baqir al-Sadr, al-Dawa co-founder, that government should be controlled by the ummah. Despite this ideological disagreement, several of SCIRI's factions came from al-Dawa before the 2003 invasion of Iraq; this historical intersection is significant because al-Dawa was viewed as a terrorist group during the Iran–Iraq War. In February 2007, journalists reported that Jamal Jaafar Muhammed, elected to the Iraqi parliament in 2005 as part of the SCIRI/Badr faction of the United Iraqi Alliance, was sentenced to death in Kuwait for planning the al-Dawa bombings of the French and American embassies in that country in 1983. With the fall of Saddam Hussein after the invasion of Iraq, SCIRI rose to prominence in Iraq, working with the other Shia parties, it gained popularity among Shiite Iraqis by providing social services and humanitarian aid, following the pattern of Islamic organizations in other countries such as Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood.
SCIRI is alleged to receive money and weapons from Iran, is accused of being a proxy for Iranian interests. The party leaders have toned down many of the party's public positions and committed it to democracy and peaceful cooperation. SCIRI's power base is in the Shia-majority southern Iraq; the council's armed wing, the Badr Organization has had an estimated strength of between 4,000 and 10,000 men. Its Baghdad offices are based in a house that belonged to Ba'athist Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz, its leader, Ayatollah al-Hakim, was killed in a car bomb attack in the Iraqi city of Najaf on August 29, 2003. The car bomb exploded as the ayatollah was leaving a religious shrine in the city, just after Friday prayers, killing more than 85. According to Kurdish Intelligence officials, Yassin Jarad Abu Musab al-Zarqawi's father-in-law, carried out the car bombing. In the Shia Islamist–dominated government in post-invasion Iraq, SCIRI controlled the Interior Ministry; the Iraqi Interior Minister, Bayan Jabr, was a former leader of SCIRI's Badr Brigade militia.
In 2006 the United Nations human rights chief in Iraq, John Pace, said that every month hundreds of Iraqis were being tortured to death or executed by the Interior Ministry under SCIRI's control. According to a 2006 report by the Independent newspaper:'Mr Pace said the Ministry of the Interior was "acting as a rogue element within the government", it is controlled by the Supreme Council for Islamic Revolution in Iraq. Another is the Mehdi Army of the young cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, part of the Shia coalition seeking to form a government after winning the mid-December election. Many of the 110,000 policemen and police commandos under the ministry's control are suspected of being former members of the Badr Brigade. Not only counter-insurgency units such as the Wolf Brigade, the Scorpions and the Tigers, but the commandos and the highway patrol p
Clifford Lynch is the director of the Coalition for Networked Information, where he has been since 1997. He is an adjunct professor at Berkeley's School of Information. Prior to joining CNI, Lynch spent 18 years at the University of California Office of the President, the last 10 as Director of Library Automation, he is both a past president and recipient of the 2008 Award of Merit of the American Society for Information, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the National Information Standards Organization. Lynch lectures extensively issues pertaining to digital libraries, information policy, emerging interoperability standards. In 2011 he was appointed co-chair of the National Academies Board on Research Information, he was elected as an ACM Fellow in 2017. Lynch holds a B. A in Mathematics and Computer Science from Columbia College, a M. S. in Computer Science from the Columbia University School of Engineering, a Ph. D. in Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley.
Clifford Lynch, Stewardship in the "Age of Algorithms", First Monday, Volume 22, Number 12. Clifford A. Lynch, "Big data: How do your data grow?" Nature, vol. 455, no. 7209. Clifford A. Lynch, "Digital Libraries, Learning Communities, Open Education," Opening Up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, Open Knowledge, Toru Iiyoshi, M. S. Vijay Kumar. Clifford A. Lynch, "Imagining a University Press System to Support Scholarship in the Digital Age." Journal of Electronic Publishing. November 2012. Clifford A. Lynch and Joan K. Lippincott, "Institutional Repository Deployment in the United States as of Early 2005," D-Lib Magazine, 11:9. Clifford A. Lynch, "The Impact of Digital Scholarship on Research Libraries," The Journal of Library Administration 49:3, pp. 227–244. Clifford A. Lynch, "Open Computation: Beyond Human-Reader-Centric Views of Scholarly Literatures," Open Access: Key Strategic and Economic Aspects, Neil Jacobs, 185-193. Clifford A. Lynch, "Searching the Internet," Scientific American 276:3, pp. 52–56
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is an application protocol for distributed, hypermedia information systems. HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web, where hypertext documents include hyperlinks to other resources that the user can access, for example by a mouse click or by tapping the screen in a web browser. HTTP was developed to facilitate the World Wide Web. Development of HTTP was initiated by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN in 1989. Development of HTTP standards was coordinated by the Internet Engineering Task Force and the World Wide Web Consortium, culminating in the publication of a series of Requests for Comments; the first definition of HTTP/1.1, the version of HTTP in common use, occurred in RFC 2068 in 1997, although this was made obsolete by RFC 2616 in 1999 and again by the RFC 7230 family of RFCs in 2014. A version, the successor HTTP/2, was standardized in 2015, is now supported by major web servers and browsers over Transport Layer Security using Application-Layer Protocol Negotiation extension where TLS 1.2 or newer is required.
HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client–server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server; the client submits an HTTP request message to the server. The server, which provides resources such as HTML files and other content, or performs other functions on behalf of the client, returns a response message to the client; the response contains completion status information about the request and may contain requested content in its message body. A web browser is an example of a user agent. Other types of user agent include the indexing software used by search providers, voice browsers, mobile apps, other software that accesses, consumes, or displays web content. HTTP is designed to permit intermediate network elements to improve or enable communications between clients and servers. High-traffic websites benefit from web cache servers that deliver content on behalf of upstream servers to improve response time.
Web browsers cache accessed web resources and reuse them, when possible, to reduce network traffic. HTTP proxy servers at private network boundaries can facilitate communication for clients without a globally routable address, by relaying messages with external servers. HTTP is an application layer protocol designed within the framework of the Internet protocol suite, its definition presumes an underlying and reliable transport layer protocol, Transmission Control Protocol is used. However, HTTP can be adapted to use unreliable protocols such as the User Datagram Protocol, for example in HTTPU and Simple Service Discovery Protocol. HTTP resources are identified and located on the network by Uniform Resource Locators, using the Uniform Resource Identifiers schemes http and https. URIs and hyperlinks in HTML documents form interlinked hypertext documents. HTTP/1.1 is a revision of the original HTTP. In HTTP/1.0 a separate connection to the same server is made for every resource request. HTTP/1.1 can reuse a connection multiple times to download images, stylesheets, etc after the page has been delivered.
HTTP/1.1 communications therefore experience less latency as the establishment of TCP connections presents considerable overhead. The term hypertext was coined by Ted Nelson in 1965 in the Xanadu Project, in turn inspired by Vannevar Bush's 1930s vision of the microfilm-based information retrieval and management "memex" system described in his 1945 essay "As We May Think". Tim Berners-Lee and his team at CERN are credited with inventing the original HTTP, along with HTML and the associated technology for a web server and a text-based web browser. Berners-Lee first proposed the "WorldWideWeb" project in 1989—now known as the World Wide Web; the first version of the protocol had only one method, namely GET, which would request a page from a server. The response from the server was always an HTML page; the first documented version of HTTP was HTTP V0.9. Dave Raggett led the HTTP Working Group in 1995 and wanted to expand the protocol with extended operations, extended negotiation, richer meta-information, tied with a security protocol which became more efficient by adding additional methods and header fields.
RFC 1945 introduced and recognized HTTP V1.0 in 1996. The HTTP WG planned to publish new standards in December 1995 and the support for pre-standard HTTP/1.1 based on the developing RFC 2068 was adopted by the major browser developers in early 1996. By March that year, pre-standard HTTP/1.1 was supported in Arena, Netscape 2.0, Netscape Navigator Gold 2.01, Mosaic 2.7, Lynx 2.5, in Internet Explorer 2.0. End-user adoption of the new browsers was rapid. In March 1996, one web hosting company reported that over 40% of browsers in use on the Internet were HTTP 1.1 compliant. That same web hosting company reported that by June 1996, 65% of all browsers accessing their servers were HTTP/1.1 compliant. The HTTP/1.1 standard as defined in RFC 2068 was released in January 1997. Improvements and updates to the HTTP/1.1 standard were released under RFC 2616 in June 1999. In 2007, the HTTPbis Working Group was formed, in part, to revise and clarify the HTTP/1.1 specification. In June 2014, the WG released an updated six-part specification obsoleting RFC 2616: RFC 7230, HTTP/1.1: Message Syntax and Routing RFC 7231, HTTP/1.1: Semantics and Content RFC 7232, HTTP/1.1: Conditional Requests RFC 7233, HTTP/1.1: Range Requests RFC 7234, HTTP/1.1: Caching RFC 7235, HTTP/1