A music download is the digital transfer of music via the Internet into a device capable of decoding and playing it, such as a home computer, MP3 player or smartphone. This term encompasses both legal downloads and downloads of copyrighted material without permission or legal payment. According to a Nielsen report, downloadable music accounted for 55.9% of all music sales in the US in 2012. By the beginning of 2011, Apple's iTunes Store alone made US$1.1 billion of revenue in the first quarter of its fiscal year. Paid downloads are sometimes encoded with Digital Rights Management that restricts copying the music or playing purchased songs on certain digital audio players, they are always compressed using a lossy codec, which reduces file size and bandwidth requirements. These music resources have been created as a response to expanding technology and needs of customers that wanted easy, quick access to music, their business models respond to the "download revolution" by making legal services attractive for users.
Legal music downloads have faced a number of challenges from artists, record labels and the Recording Industry Association of America. In July 2007, the Universal Music Group decided not to renew their long-term contracts with iTunes; this decision was based upon the issue of pricing of songs, as Universal wanted to be able to charge more or less depending on the artist, a shift away from iTunes' standard—at the time—99 cents per song pricing. Many industry leaders feel that this is only the first of many show-downs between Apple Inc. and the various record labels. According to research by the website TorrentFreak, 38% of Swedish artists support file share downloading and claim that it helps artists in early career stages; the Swedish rock group Lamont has profited from file sharing. The Recording Industry Association of America oversees about 85% of published music production and manufacturing in the United States, they work to protect musicians while supporting the First Amendment rights. Their stated goal is to support artists' creativity and help them not be cheated out of money by illegal downloading.
The Recording Industry Association of America launched its first lawsuits on 8 September 2003, against individuals who illegally downloaded music files from the Kazaa FastTrack network. Two years after it began, the campaign survived at least one major legal challenge; the RIAA said it filed 750 suits in February 2006 against individuals downloading music files without paying for them in hopes of putting an end to Internet music piracy. The RIAA hopes their campaign will force people to respect the copyrights of music labels and minimize the number of illegal downloads; the Official Charts Company began to incorporate downloads in the UK Singles Chart on 17 April 2005, at which time Radio 1 stopped broadcasting the separate download chart, although the chart is still compiled. This was on condition that the song must have a physical media release at the same time. Music downloads have been measured by the Official Charts Company since 2004 and included in the main UK Singles Chart from 2005.
The most downloaded song in the UK is "Happy" by Pharrell Williams with over 1.8 million downloads. In November 2005, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States was held by Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl", which sold over one million downloads, making it the first song to achieve platinum download status; as of July 2012, the record for the best-selling downloaded single in the United States on the iTunes Store is held by The Black Eyed Peas's "I Gotta Feeling", which has sold over 8 million downloads. Soon after his death in 2009, Michael Jackson became the first artist to sell over one million songs downloaded via the Internet in one week. However, Adele marks the most downloads sold by a single song in a week, with "Hello" selling 1.12 million copies in November 2015. Eminem's seventh studio album, became the first album to sell one million digital copies. Beyoncé's self-titled fifth studio album became the fastest-selling album within 24 hours in iTunes history after its release in December 2013.
Within 24 hours of availability, the album sold 430,000 digital copies. Adele's third studio album 25 became the fastest-selling album in a week iTunes history after it was released on 20 November 2015, it sold 1.64 million digital copies in its first week. In 2006, the Recording Industry Association of Japan began issuing certifications for digitally released music in Japan, compiling data from the early 2000s onwards; the best-selling song is Fukushima-based vocal group Greeeen's song "Kiseki", certified for being downloaded four million times between 2008 and 2015, followed by R&B singer Thelma Aoyama's "Soba ni Iru ne" featuring rapper SoulJa, certified for three million downloads between 2008 and 2014. Greeeen's song "Ai Uta" ranks as the third highest certified song, with 2.5 million downloads tracked between 2007 and 2009. Two more songs have sold more than two million paid downloads: Ayaka's "Mikazuki" and Kobukuro's "Tsubomi"; the most successful ringtone in Japan is Moldovan-Romanian band O-Zone's "Dragostea din tei", known locally as "Koi no Maiahi", certified as having four million units sold.
In Japan, only two albums have received digital certifications by the RIAJ. The first was Songs for Japan, a charity compilation album raising profits for the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, certified gold for 100,000 downloa
George Clinton and His Gangsters of Love
George Clinton and His Gangsters of Love is a cover album by funk music pioneer George Clinton. The album includes guest appearances from the Red Hot Chili Peppers, Sly Stone, El DeBarge, System of a Down bassist Shavo Odadjian, Carlos Santana, RZA, Kim Manning and gospel singer Kim Burrell; the disc was released on September 16, 2008. Some suggest the title of the album may be Radio Friendly, that "George Clinton and Some Gangsters of Love" may be credited as the artist for the album; the album has been referred to as Any Percentage of You Is As Good as the Whole Pie, although that may refer to another P-Funk album to be released later. It features the last song recorded by the Red Hot Chili Peppers with guitarist John Frusciante. "Ain't That Peculiar" "Never Gonna Give You Up" "Mathematics of Love" "Let the Good Times Roll" "Pledging My Love" "Gypsy Woman" "It's All in the Game" "Heart Trouble" "Our Day Will Come" "Sway" "A Thousand Miles Away" "Heaven" "As In" "Stillness in Motion" "Fever" George Clinton and His Gangsters of Love at Discogs
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Collaboration is the process of two or more people or organizations working together to complete a task or achieve a goal. Collaboration is similar to cooperation. Most collaboration requires leadership, although the form of leadership can be social within a decentralized and egalitarian group. Teams that work collaboratively access greater resources and rewards when facing competition for finite resources. Structured methods of collaboration encourage introspection of communication; such methods aim to increase the success of teams. Collaboration is present in opposing goals exhibiting the notion of adversarial collaboration, though this is not a common use of the term. In its applied sense," collaboration is a purposeful relationship in which all parties strategically choose to cooperate in order to accomplish a shared outcome." Trade is a form of collaboration between two societies. Trade continues because it benefits all of its participants. Prehistoric peoples bartered services with each other without a modern currency.
Peter Watson dates the history of long-distance commerce from circa 150,000 years ago. Trade exists because different communities have a comparative advantage in the production of tradable goods; the members of an intentional community hold a common social, political or spiritual vision. They share resources. Intentional communities include cohousing, residential land trusts, communes, kibbutzim and housing cooperatives. New members of an intentional community are selected by the community's existing membership, rather than by real estate agents or land owners. In Hutterite communities housing units are built and assigned to individual families, but belong to the colony with little personal property. Meals are taken by the entire colony in a common long room; the Oneida Community practiced Communalism and Mutual Criticism, where every member of the community was subject to criticism by committee or the community as a whole, during a general meeting. The goal was to eliminate bad character traits.
A Kibbutz is an Israeli collective community. The movement combines Zionism seeking a form of practical Labor Zionism. Choosing communal life, inspired by their own ideology, kibbutz members developed a communal mode of living; the kibbutzim lasted for several generations as utopian communities, although most became capitalist enterprises and regular towns. Collaboration in indigenous communities in the Americas involves the entire community working toward a common goal in a horizontal structure with flexible leadership. Children in some indigenous American communities collaborate with the adults. Children can be contributors in the process of meeting objectives by taking on tasks that suit their skills. Indigenous learning techniques comprise Learning by Pitching In. For example, a study of Mayan fathers and children with traditional Indigenous ways of learning worked together in collaboration more when building a 3D model puzzle than Mayan fathers with western schooling. Chillihuani people of the Andes value work and create work parties in which members of each household in the community participate.
Children from indigenous-heritage communities want to help around the house voluntarily. In the Mazahua Indigenous community of Mexico, school children show initiative and autonomy by contributing in their classroom, completing activities as a whole and correcting their teacher during lectures when a mistake is made. Fifth and sixth graders in the community work with the teacher installing a classroom window, they all work together without needing leadership, their movements are all in sync and flowing. It is not a process of instruction, but rather a hands-on experience in which students work together as a synchronous group with the teacher, switching roles and sharing tasks. In these communities, collaboration is emphasized, learners are trusted to take initiative. While one works, the other watches intently and all are allowed to attempt tasks with the more experienced stepping in to complete more complex parts, while others pay close attention. Ayn Rand said that one way people pursue their rational self-interest is by building strong relationships with other people.
According to Rand, participants in capitalism are connected through the voluntary division of labor in the free market, where value is exchanged always for value. Rand's theory of rational egoism claims that acting in one's self-interest entails looking out for others in order to protect the innocent from injustice, to aid friends and loved ones. Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics, computer science, economics that looks at situations where multiple players make decisions in an attempt to maximize their returns; the first documented discussion of game theory is in a letter written by James Waldegrave, 1st Earl Waldegrave in 1713. Antoine Augustin Cournot's Researches into the Mathematical Principles of the Theory of Wealth in 1838 provided the first general theory. In 1928 it became a recognized field. Von Neumann's work in game theory culminated in the 1944 book The Theory of Games and Economic Behavior by von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern; the term military-industrial complex refers to a close and symbiotic relationship among a nation's armed forces, its private industry, associated political interests.
System of a Down
System of a Down is an Armenian-American heavy metal band from Glendale, formed in 1994. The band consists of Serj Tankian, Daron Malakian, Shavo Odadjian, John Dolmayan; the band achieved commercial success with the release of five studio albums, three of which debuted at number one on the US Billboard 200. System of a Down has been nominated for four Grammy Awards, their song "B. Y. O. B." won a Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock Performance in 2006. The band went on hiatus in 2006 and reunited in 2010. System of a Down sold over 40 million records worldwide, their singles "Aerials" and "Hypnotize" have both reached number one on Billboard's Alternative Songs chart. Serj Tankian and Daron Malakian attended Rose and Alex Pilibos Armenian School as children, although due to their eight-year age difference they did not meet until 1992 while working on separate projects at the same recording studio, they formed a band named Soil with Tankian on vocals and keyboards, Malakian on vocals and guitar, Dave Hakopyan on bass and Domingo "Dingo" Laranio on drums.
The band hired Shavo Odadjian as manager, although he joined Soil as rhythm guitarist. In 1994, after only one live show at the Roxy and one jam session recording and Laranio left the band. After Soil split up, Tankian and Malakian formed a new band, System of a Down; the group took its name from a poem that Malakian had written titled "Victims of a Down". The word "victims" was changed to "system" because Odadjian believed that it would appeal to a much wider audience and because the group wanted their records to be alphabetically shelved closer to their musical heroes, Slayer. Odadjian switched from guitar to bass and passed on his managerial duties to Velvet Hammer Music and Management Group and its founder David "Beno" Benveniste; the band recruited drummer Ontronik "Andy" Khachaturian, an old school friend of Malakian's and Odadjian's who had played with Malakian in a band called Snowblind during their teens. In early 1995, System played as "Soil" at a nightclub in Los Angeles. Shortly after the event, System of a Down made what is known as Untitled 1995 Demo Tape, not commercially released but appeared on file sharing networks around the time of the band's success with Toxicity about six years later.
Demo Tape 2 was released in 1996. At the beginning of 1997, System of a Down recorded their final publicly released demo tape, Demo Tape 3. In mid-1997, drummer Khachaturian left the band because of a hand injury. Khachaturian was replaced by John Dolmayan; the band's first official release of a professionally recorded song was on a collection called Hye Enk, an Armenian Genocide recognition compilation, in 1997. Soon after playing at notable Hollywood clubs such as the Whisky-A-Go-Go and Viper Room the band caught famed producer Rick Rubin's attention who asked them to keep in touch with him. Showing great interest, the group recorded Demo Tape 4 near the end of 1997. Unlike the previous demo tapes, Demo Tape 4 was made only to be sent to record companies. Rubin signed the group onto his American/Columbia Records, System of a Down began to record in Rubin's studio with engineer Sylvia Massy, laying down tracks that would be released on their debut album. In 1997, the group won the Best Signed Band Award from the Rock City Awards.
In June 1998, System of a Down released System of a Down. They enjoyed moderate success as their first singles "Sugar" and "Spiders" became radio favorites and the music videos for both songs were aired on MTV. After the release of the album, the band toured extensively, opening for Slayer and Metallica before making their way to the second stage of Ozzfest. Following Ozzfest, they toured with Fear Factory and Incubus before headlining the Sno-Core Tour with Puya, Mr. Bungle, The Cat and Incubus providing support. In November 1998, System of a Down appeared on South Park's Chef Aid album, providing the music for the song "Will They Die 4 You?" Near the end of the song Tankian can be heard saying, "Why must we kill our own kind?" A line that would be used in the song "Boom!" Although System of a Down is credited on the album, South Park character Chef does not introduce them as he does every other artist featured on the record. System of a Down's former drummer, Ontronik Khachaturian reunited with the band at a show at The Troubadour in 1999, filling in on vocals for an ill Tankian.
In 2000, the band contributed their cover of the Black Sabbath song "Snowblind" to the Black Sabbath tribute album Nativity in Black 2. On September 3, 2001, System of a Down had planned on launching their second album at a free concert in Hollywood as a "thank you" to fans; the concert, to be held in a parking lot, was set up to accommodate 3,500 people. Because of the large excess number of fans, the performance was cancelled by police officers just before the group took the stage. No announcement was made. Fans waited for more than an hour for the group to appear, but when a banner hanging at the back of the stage that read "System of a Down" was removed by security, the audience rushed the stage, destroying all the band's touring gear and beg
Orca Symphony No. 1
Orca Symphony No. 1 is the fourth studio album by Armenian-American singer Serj Tankian. The album takes the form of a classical symphony. A professionally sampled studio version was released on November 30, 2012, while the live recorded version was released on June 25, 2013 through Serjical Strike Records. A sample of the first act of the album was released on Tankian's SoundCloud page on May 2012. Tankian achieved fame as part of the American rock band System of a Down. Although the band experimented with various sounds, it wasn't until the band went on hiatus in 2006 that Tankian began to launch his solo career and experiment further. Tankian's experimentation with classical composition began with Elect the Dead Symphony; the live album featured the Auckland Philharmonia Orchestra performing reworked versions of songs from Tankian's debut album Elect the Dead. His second album, Imperfect Harmonies, blended classical with traditional rock elements. Tankian described the album as "music that has sat in the vat and matured", referring to the album's influences from several genres.
Orca Symphony No. 1, however, is his first complete symphony. The album is structured into four acts that were composed using "non-traditional approaches to classical music." According to Tankian, "Orca is known as the killer whale, but is a dark dolphin, a symbolism for human dichotomy."
Daron Malakian and Scars on Broadway
Daron Malakian and Scars on Broadway is an American rock band, founded by System of a Down member Daron Malakian. The band's eponymous debut album was released on July 29, 2008. In late 2008, the band entered a hiatus, with Malakian citing a lack of enthusiasm and "his heart not being into touring", as the primary reasons for the band's cessation. Despite reforming with various line-up changes in 2010 and 2012, announcing a second album, the band ceased any further announcements by 2013. In April 2018 Malakian announced that the band will be releasing their second album titled Dictator on July 20, 2018. In December 2005, Malakian stated in an interview that he "could release ten solo records tomorrow." He revealed that he has "tons of material laying around", as well as his plans for the future: "After these albums, – – I'm gonna go off and do something on my own, just like Serj." Following System of a Down's hiatus in May 2006, Malakian announced his latest project — Scars on Broadway — a band which would include System of a Down drummer, John Dolmayan and himself.
Malakian stated "I haven't decided if I'm going to make it a revolving door of musicians or one solid band but it all revolves around my writing."After Malakian and Dolmayan experimented with different musicians, for a period of nine months in 2007 the band took form and forged its sound in intense rehearsals and recording sessions under Malakian’s direction, at his home studio and Sunset Sound. The band begin recording their debut album in September 2007; the band's website featured a countdown timer, counting down to 15:00 PST of March 28, 2008. Additionally, above the timer, in quotation marks was the phrase "They say it's all about to end." When the countdown ended, the song "They Say", was made available on the site and their Myspace account. Scars on Broadway played their first live show April 11, 2008 at the Whisky A Go Go in Los Angeles, CA, they played with Metallica at KFMA Day 2008 in Tucson, AZ. On January 22, 2008 Scars on Broadway were announced to be performing at the Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival on April 26, 2008.
They performed at the sixteenth annual KROQ Weenie Roast. On May 2, 2008, announced that their debut album, Scars on Broadway, would be released on the July 28, 2008. A week the band was signed to Interscope Records; the first single would be the aforementioned "They Say", which would receive radio airplay, be made available on Guitar Hero 5 and as a downloadable track on Rock Band. The music video for the track was released on June 27. In July, the band announced a headlining tour set for October 2008. Scars on Broadway was released on July 28, 2008 to favorable reviews and debuted at no 17. On the Billboard charts. A second single, "World Long Gone", was released on September 8, featured a music video directed by filmmaker Joel Schumacher. In late 2008, Malakian announced that the headlining tour to promote the album's release, which included an appearance on Jimmy Kimmel Live!, would be cancelled with no plans of rescheduling. Malakian cited personal reasons as the reason behind the cancellations.
Malakian cited burn out of touring as an additional factor behind the cancellations. Interviews with both Cifarelli and Dolmayan suggested; when asked in May 2009 if the band would record or perform again, drummer John Dolmayan stated: "I’m not sure, but I do miss it."In August 2009, Perez and Cifarelli as Scars on Broadway traveled to Iraq for a USO tour across the US army bases, without Malakian. Their setlist consisted of covers as well as a few Scars on Broadway songs. Perez stated on his Twitter that "the Scars tunes sound amazing but they're not the same without D..." On October 31, 2009, Malakian performed with Perez and System of a Down bassist Shavo Odadjian for Odadjian's Halloween party at Roxie Theater The group performed a System of a Down song, a Scars on Broadway song as well as an untitled song. On April 10, 2010, the band announced their return show. On May 2, Scars on Broadway played a sold out show at The Troubadour in West Hollywood; the band performed all of the songs off their first album, as well as a new song "Talkin' Shit."
They played a cover song "Forever My Queen" by the band Pentagram. System of a Down bassist Shavo Odadjian accompanied and played 3rd guitar for "Cute Machines" and "They Say." On July 29, 2010, a new song titled "Fucking" was released on Soundcloud, using a special feature where users had to share the song on social media to unlock the download. On August 20, 2010, Scars on Broadway, played a sold out show at the Avalon in Hollywood; the first 500 people in line at the concert received a free copy of the single on vinyl. A music video for "Fucking" was released in March 2011, using footage from the concert. In February 2012 a preview of a new song called. In August, Dolmayan announced his departure, but stated the album was still scheduled for release "in the next 3 to 4 months". In September 2012, an accompanying EP was announced to come out around the release of their second album as well; the band performed at the Epicenter Festival in Irvine, Ca. with new drummer Jules Pampena. However, Perez was not present, confirmed he had left the band as well.
Malakian talked about the upcoming album in November 2012, mentioning new songs "Dictator", "Till The End" and "Fuck N Kill". Malakian noted he will perform the entirety of the new album by himself. Despite plans for an untitled album to be out early 2013 mentioned at live s