The English people are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn, their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, the majority of people living there are British citizens; the English descend from two main historical population groups – the earlier Celtic Britons and the Germanic tribes who settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans: the Angles, Saxons and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become the Kingdom of England by the early 10th century, in response to the invasion and minor settlement of Danes beginning in the late 9th century; this was followed by the Norman Conquest and limited settlement of Anglo-Normans in England in the latter 11th century. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain.
Over the years, English customs and identity have become closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth; the English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire; the concept of an'English nation' has become popular after the devolution process in Scotland and Northern Ireland resulted in the four nations having semi-independent political and legal systems. Although England itself has no devolved government, the 1990s witnessed a rise in English self-consciousness; this is linked to the expressions of national self-awareness of the other British nations of Wales and Scotland – which take their most solid form in the new devolved political arrangements within the United Kingdom – and the waning of a shared British national identity with the growing distance between the end of the British Empire and the present.
Many recent immigrants to England have assumed a British identity, while others have developed dual or mixed identities. Use of the word "English" to describe Britons from ethnic minorities in England is complicated by most non-white people in England identifying as British rather than English. In their 2004 Annual Population Survey, the Office for National Statistics compared the ethnic identities of British people with their perceived national identity, they found that while 58% of white people in England described their nationality as "English", the vast majority of non-white people called themselves "British". It is unclear. In the 2001 UK census, respondents were invited to state their ethnicity, but while there were tick boxes for'Irish' and for'Scottish', there were none for'English', or'Welsh', who were subsumed into the general heading'White British'. Following complaints about this, the 2011 census was changed to "allow respondents to record their English, Scottish, Northern Irish, Irish or other identity."
Another complication in defining the English is a common tendency for the words "English" and "British" to be used interchangeably outside the UK. In his study of English identity, Krishan Kumar describes a common slip of the tongue in which people say "English, I mean British", he notes that this slip is made only by the English themselves and by foreigners: "Non-English members of the United Kingdom say'British' when they mean'English'". Kumar suggests that although this blurring is a sign of England's dominant position with the UK, it is "problematic for the English when it comes to conceiving of their national identity, it tells of the difficulty that most English people have of distinguishing themselves, in a collective way, from the other inhabitants of the British Isles". In 1965, the historian A. J. P. Taylor wrote, "When the Oxford History of England was launched a generation ago, "England" was still an all-embracing word, it meant indiscriminately Wales. Foreigners indeed continue to do so.
Bonar Law, by origin a Scotch Canadian, was not ashamed to describe himself as "Prime Minister of England" Now terms have become more rigorous. The use of "England" except for a geographic area brings protests from the Scotch."However, although Taylor believed this blurring effect was dying out, in his book The Isles, Norman Davies lists numerous examples in history books of "British" still being used to mean "English" and vice versa. In December 2010, Matthew Parris in The Spectator, analysing the use of "English" over "British", argued that English identity, rather than growing, had existed all along but has been unmasked from behind a veneer of Britishness. David Reich's laboratory found that 90% of Britain's Neolithic gene pool was overturned by a population from North Continental Europe characterized by the Bell Beaker culture around 1200BC who carried a large amount of Yamnaya ancestry from the Pontic-Caspian Steppe, including the R1b Haplogroup; this population lacked genetic affinity to other Bell Beaker populations, such as the Iberian Bell Beakers, but appeared to be an offshoot of the Corded Ware single grave people
James Fordyce, DD, was a Scottish Presbyterian minister and poet. He is best known for his collection of sermons published in 1766 as Sermons for Young Women, popularly known as Fordyce's Sermons, he was the third son of George Fordyce of Broadford and Provost of Aberdeen. David Fordyce was his elder brother, Alexander Fordyce and Sir William Fordyce were his younger brothers, George Fordyce, M. D. was his nephew. After the Aberdeen High School Fordyce went to Marischal College, where he was educated for the ministry. On 23 February 1743 he was licensed by the Aberdeen presbytery. In September 1744 he was presented by the Crown to the second charge at Forfarshire, his admission was delayed. His position was not comfortable, he did not get on with his colleague. In 1753 he took his degree of M. A. at Marischal College, in the same year he received a presentation to Alloa, Clackmannanshire. The parishioners wanted another man. Here he was on better terms with his congregation, acquired a reputation as a preacher.
He published several sermons. The University of Glasgow made him a Doctor of Divinity. With several members of his family established in London, in 1760 he was chosen as colleague to Samuel Lawrence, D. D. minister of the presbyterian congregation in Monkwell Street. He demitted his charge at Alloa on 30 May, was released from it on 18 June 1760. Lawrence died on 1 October, Fordyce became sole pastor, he preached only on Sunday afternoons, the morning lecturer being Thomas Toller, Lawrence's son-in-law. Fordyce's delivery and gestures were studied, he drew crowds to Monkwell Street, his topics were didactic, but he satisfied cultured tastes, dealt with the ethics of actual life. David Garrick was impressed, he gave sympathetic account in Addresses to the Deity, 1785, of Johnson's religious character, speaking as an evangelical moderate. Fordyce's popularity lasted for about twelve years. Several causes contributed to its decline. In 1772 the banking failure of his brother Alexander involved the ruin of some adherents, the loss of many friends.
In 1775 the congregation was split by a quarrel between Fordyce and Toller, Fordyce had Toller dismissed on 28 February 1775. A large part of the congregation moved with Toller to an independent meeting-house in Silver Street. With a diminished congregation, under medical advice, Fordyce resigned his office at Christmas 1782, his charge at the ordination of his successor, James Lindsay, D. D. on 21 May 1783, was regarded. He retired to a country residence near Christchurch, where he was a neighbour of Lord Bute, who gave him the use of his library. On the death of his brother, Sir William Fordyce, he removed to Somerset, he was troubled with asthma, died of syncope on 1 October 1796 in his seventy-sixth year. He was buried in one of the parish churches of Bath, he married Henrietta Cummyng, who died at Bath on 10 January 1823, aged 89. There was no issue of the marriage. One of his nieces was Elizabeth Isabelle Spence, he published:'The Eloquence of the Pulpit,' &c. 1752.'The Temple of Virtue,' &c.
1757.'The Folly … of Unlawful Pleasures,' &c. 1760. Edinb. 1768.'Sermons to Young Women,' 1765, 2 vols. Often reprinted.'The Character and Conduct of the Female Sex,' 1776.'Addresses to Young Men,' 1777, 2 vols.'Addresses to the Deity,' 1785.'Poems,' 1786.'A Discourse on Pain,' 1791. A sermon on popery, reprinted 1779. Xi. 1. 6, 7. His book Sermons for Young Women was published in an American edition in 1796, by Thomas Hill, printers. James Fordyce at the Eighteenth-Century Poetry Archive Electric Scotland's biography of James Fordyce
A sermon is an oration or lecture by a preacher. Sermons address a scriptural, religious, or moral topic expounding on a type of belief, law, or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon include exposition and practical application; the act of delivering a sermon is known as preaching. In Christian churches, a sermon is delivered in a place of worship, either from an elevated architectural feature, known as a pulpit or an ambo, or from behind a lectern; the word sermon comes from a Middle English word, derived from Old French, which in turn originates from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". A sermonette is a short sermon; the Bible contains many speeches without interlocution, which some take to be sermons: Moses in Deuteronomy 1-33. In modern language, the word sermon is used in secular terms, pejoratively, to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great passion, by any person, to an uninterested audience. In Christianity, a sermon is identified as an address or discourse delivered to an assembly of Christians containing theological or moral instruction.
The sermon by Christian orators was based on the tradition of public lectures by classical orators. Although it is called a homily, the original distinction between a sermon and a homily was that a sermon was delivered by a clergyman while a homily was read from a printed copy by a layman. In the 20th century the distinction has become one of the sermon being to be longer, have more structure, contain more theological content. Homilies are considered to be a type of sermon narrative or biographical, see sermon types below; the word "sermon" is used to describe many famous moments in Christian history. The most famous example is the Sermon on the Mount by Jesus of Nazareth; this address was given around 30 AD, is recounted in the Gospel of Matthew as being delivered on a mount on the north end of the Sea of Galilee, near Capernaum. It is contained in some of the other gospel narratives. During the history of Christianity, several figures became known for their addresses that became regarded as sermons.
Examples in the early church include Peter, Stephen and John Chrysostom. These addresses were used to spread Christianity across Europe and Asia Minor, as such are not sermons in the modern sense, but evangelistic messages; the sermon has been an important part of Christian services since Early Christianity, remains prominent in both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Lay preachers sometimes figure in these traditions of worship, for example the Methodist local preachers, but in general preaching has been a function of the clergy; the Dominican Order is known as the Order of Preachers. The Franciscans are another important preaching order. In 1448 the church authorities seated at Angers prohibited open-air preaching in France. In most denominations, modern preaching is kept below forty minutes, but historic preachers of all denominations could at times speak for several hours, use techniques of rhetoric and theatre that are today somewhat out of fashion in mainline churches. During the Middle Ages, sermons inspired the beginnings of new religious institutes.
Pope Urban II began the First Crusade in November 1095 at the Council of Clermont, when he exhorted French knights to retake the Holy Land. The academic study of sermons, the analysis and classification of their preparation and delivery, is called homiletics. A controversial issue that aroused strong feelings in Early Modern Britain was whether sermons should be read from a prepared text, or extemporized from some notes. Many sermons have been written down and published. Many clergymen recycled large chunks of published sermons in their own preaching; such sermons include John Wesley's 53 Standard Sermons, John Chrysostom's Homily on the Resurrection and Gregory Nazianzus' homily "On the Theophany, or Birthday of Christ". The 80 sermons in German of the Dominican Johannes Tauler were read for centuries after his death. Martin Luther published his sermons on the Sunday lessons for the edification of readers; this tradition was continued by Chemnitz and Arndt and others into the following centuries—for example CH Spurgeon's stenographed sermons, The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit.
The widow of John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury received £2,500 for the manuscripts of his sermons, a larg
Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions. The roles and functions of clergy vary in different religious traditions but these involve presiding over specific rituals and teaching their religion's doctrines and practices; some of the terms used for individual clergy are clergyman and churchman. Less common terms are churchwoman and cleric. In Christianity the specific names and roles of clergy vary by denomination and there is a wide range of formal and informal clergy positions, including deacons, priests, preachers, pastors and the Pope. In Islam, a religious leader is known formally or informally as an imam, mufti, mullah or ayatollah. In Jewish tradition, a religious leader is a rabbi or hazzan; the word "Cleric" comes from the ecclesiastical Latin Clericus, for those belonging to the priestly class. In turn, the source of the Latin word is from the Ecclesiastical Greek Clericus, meaning appertaining to an inheritance, in reference to the fact that the Levitical priests of the Old Testament had no inheritance except the Lord.
"Clergy" is from two Old French words, clergié and clergie, which refer to those with learning and derive from Medieval Latin clericatus, from Late Latin clericus. "Clerk", which used to mean one ordained to the ministry derives from clericus. In the Middle Ages and writing were exclusively the domain of the priestly class, this is the reason for the close relationship of these words. Within Christianity in Eastern Christianity and in Western Roman Catholicism, the term cleric refers to any individual, ordained, including deacons and bishops. In Latin Roman Catholicism, the tonsure was a prerequisite for receiving any of the minor orders or major orders before the tonsure, minor orders, the subdiaconate were abolished following the Second Vatican Council. Now, the clerical state is tied to reception of the diaconate. Minor Orders are still given in the Eastern Catholic Churches, those who receive those orders are'minor clerics.'The use of the word "Cleric" is appropriate for Eastern Orthodox minor clergy who are tonsured in order not to trivialize orders such as those of Reader in the Eastern Church, or for those who are tonsured yet have no minor or major orders.
It is in this sense that the word entered the Arabic language, most in Lebanon from the French, as kleriki meaning "seminarian." This is all in keeping with Eastern Orthodox concepts of clergy, which still include those who have not yet received, or do not plan to receive, the diaconate. A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who have special religious authority or function; the term priest is derived from the Greek presbyter, but is used in the sense of sacerdos in particular, i.e. for clergy performing ritual within the sphere of the sacred or numinous communicating with the gods on behalf of the community. Buddhist clergy are collectively referred to as the Sangha, consist of various orders of male and female monks; this diversity of monastic orders and styles was one community founded by Gautama Buddha during the 5th century BC living under a common set of rules. According to scriptural records, these celibate monks and nuns in the time of the Buddha lived an austere life of meditation, living as wandering beggars for nine months out of the year and remaining in retreat during the rainy season.
However, as Buddhism spread geographically over time - encountering different cultures, responding to new social and physical environments - this single form of Buddhist monasticism diversified. The interaction between Buddhism and Tibetan Bon led to a uniquely Tibetan Buddhism, within which various sects, based upon certain teacher-student lineages arose; the interaction between Indian Buddhist monks and Chinese Confucian and Taoist monks from c200-c900AD produced the distinctive Ch'an Buddhism. Ch'an, like the Tibetan style, further diversified into various sects based upon the transmission style of certain teachers, as well as in response to particular political developments such as the An Lushan Rebellion and the Buddhist persecutions of Emperor Wuzong. In these ways, manual labour was introduced to a practice where monks survived on alms; this adaptation of form and roles of Buddhist monastic practice continued after the transmission to Japan. For example, monks took on administrative functions for the Emperor in particular secular communities, thereby creating Buddhist'priests'.
Again, in response to various historic attempts to suppress Buddhism, the practice of celibacy was relaxed and Japanese monks allowed to marry. This form was transmitted to Korea, during Japanese occupation, where celibate and non-celibate monks today exist in the same sects.. As these varied styles of Buddhist monasticism are transmitted to Western cultures, still more new forms are being created. In general, the Mahayana schools of Buddhism tend to be mo
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Pride and Prejudice
Pride and Prejudice is an 1813 romantic novel by Jane Austen. It charts the emotional development of the protagonist Elizabeth Bennet, who learns the error of making hasty judgments and comes to appreciate the difference between the superficial and the essential; the comedy of the writing lies in the depiction of manners, education and money during the Regency era in Britain. Mr. Bennet of the Longbourn estate has five daughters, but his property is inalienable intact entailed by a fee tail male, meaning that none of the girls can inherit it, his wife has no fortune, so it is imperative that at least one of the girls marry well to support the others upon his death. Jane Austen's opening line, "It is a truth universally acknowledged, that a single man in possession of a good fortune, must be in want of a wife", is a sentence filled with irony and playfulness; the novel revolves around the importance of marrying for love, not for money, despite the social pressures to make a good match. Pride and Prejudice has long fascinated readers appearing near the top of lists of "most-loved books" among literary scholars and the general public.
It has become one of the most popular novels in English literature, with over 20 million copies sold and paved the way for many archetypes that abound in modern literature. For more than a century and professional dramatic adaptations, print continuations and sequels and film and TV versions of Pride and Prejudice have portrayed the memorable characters and themes in the novel, to reach mass audiences; the 2005 film Pride & Prejudice, starring Keira Knightley and Matthew Macfadyen, is the most recent Hollywood adaptation of the book. The novel opens with Mrs. Bennet trying to persuade Mr. Bennet to visit Mr. Bingley, a rich bachelor who has arrived in the neighbourhood. After some verbal sparring with Mr. Bennet baiting his wife, she believes. A little while he does make the visit to Netherfield, Mr. Bingley's rented house, much to the delight of Mrs Bennet and her daughters; the visit is followed by an invitation to a ball at the local assembly rooms that the whole neighbourhood will attend.
At the ball, Mr. Bingley is open and cheerful, popular with all the guests and appears to be attracted to Miss Jane Bennet, with whom he dances twice, his friend Mr. Darcy is reputed to be twice as wealthy, he declines stating that she is not pretty enough to tempt him. She jokes about it with her sisters. Mr. Bingley's sister, Caroline invites Jane to visit; when Jane visits Miss Bingley, she is caught in a rain shower on the way and comes down with a bad cold. Elizabeth visits the ill Jane at Netherfield. There Darcy begins to be attracted to Elizabeth, while Miss Bingley becomes jealous, as she has desires on Darcy herself. Mr. Collins, a cousin of Mr. Bennet and heir to the Longbourn estate, visits the Bennet family, he is a obsequious clergyman who intends to marry one of the Bennet girls. When he learns that Jane may be engaged to Mr. Bingley, he decides to propose to Elizabeth, as the next in both age and beauty. Elizabeth and her family meet the dashing and charming George Wickham, who singles out Elizabeth and tells her how Mr. Darcy deprived him of a living promised to him by Mr. Darcy's late father.
Elizabeth's dislike of Mr. Darcy is confirmed. At a ball at Netherfield, Elizabeth dances with Mr. Darcy. Other than Jane and Elizabeth, several members of the Bennet family show a distinct lack of decorum. Mrs. Bennet hints loudly that she expects Jane and Bingley to become engaged, the younger Bennet sisters expose the family to ridicule. Mr. Collins proposes to Elizabeth, who rejects him, to the fury of her mother and the relief of her father. Shortly after, they receive news that the Bingleys are leaving for London with no plans to return. After his humiliating rejection by Elizabeth, Mr. Collins proposes to Charlotte Lucas, a sensible young woman and Elizabeth's friend. Charlotte is older and is grateful to receive a proposal that will guarantee her a comfortable home. Elizabeth is aghast at such pragmatism in matters of love. Heartbroken, Jane goes to visit her Uncle Gardiner at an unfashionable address in London. There, it becomes clear that Miss Bingley does not want to resume their friendship and Jane is upset, though composed.
In the spring, Elizabeth visits Mr. Collins in Kent. Elizabeth and her hosts are invited to Rosings Park, the imposing home of Lady Catherine de Bourgh, patroness of Mr. Collins and Mr. Darcy's wealthy aunt, she expects Mr. Darcy to marry her daughter. Mr. Darcy and his cousin, Colonel Fitzwilliam, are visiting at Rosings Park. Fitzwilliam tells Elizabeth. Elizabeth is horrified that Darcy has interfered. Mr. Darcy proposes to Elizabeth declaring his love for her, she rejects him angrily, stating that she could not love a man who has caused her sister such unhappiness and further accuses him of treating Mr. Wickham unjustly; the latter accusation angers Mr. Darcy and he accuses her family of lacking propriety and suggests he has been kinder to Bingley than to himself. Mr. Darcy gives Elizabeth a letter, explaining that Mr. Wickham had refused the living and was given money for it instead. Wickham proceeded when impoverished, asked for the living again. After being refused, he tried to elope with Darcy's 15-year-old sister, for her large dowry.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca