Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine is a monoamine neurotransmitter. It has a popular image as a contributor to feelings of well-being and happiness, though its actual biological function is complex and multifaceted, modulating cognition, learning and numerous physiological processes such as vomiting and vasoconstriction. Biochemically, the indoleamine molecule derives from the amino acid tryptophan, via the hydroxylation of the 5 position on the ring, decarboxylation to produce serotonin. Serotonin is found in the enteric nervous system located in the gastrointestinal tract. However, it is produced in the central nervous system in the Raphe nuclei located in the brainstem. Additionally, serotonin is stored in blood platelets and is released during agitation and vasoconstriction, where it acts as an agonist to other platelets. 90% of the human body's total serotonin is located in the enterochromaffin cells in the GI tract, where it regulates intestinal movements. The serotonin is secreted luminally and basolaterally, which leads to increased serotonin uptake by circulating platelets and activation after stimulation, which gives increased stimulation of myenteric neurons and gastrointestinal motility.
The remainder is synthesized in serotonergic neurons of the CNS. These include the regulation of mood and sleep. Serotonin has some cognitive functions, including memory and learning. Several classes of antidepressants, such as the SSRIs and the SNRIs among others, interfere with the normal reabsorption of serotonin after it is done with the transmission of the signal, therefore augmenting the neurotransmitter levels in the synapses. Serotonin secreted from the enterochromaffin cells finds its way out of tissues into the blood. There, it is taken up by blood platelets, which store it; when the platelets bind to a clot, they release serotonin, where it can serve as a vasoconstrictor or a vasodilator while regulating hemostasis and blood clotting. In high concentrations, serotonin acts as a vasoconstrictor by contracting endothelial smooth muscle directly or by potentiating the effects of other vasoconstrictors; the vasoconstrictive property is seen in pathologic states affecting the endothelium – such as atherosclerosis or chronic hypertension.
In physiologic states, vasodilation occurs through the serotonin mediated release of nitric oxide from endothelial cells. Additionally, it inhibits the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerves. Serotonin is a growth factor for some types of cells, which may give it a role in wound healing. There are various serotonin receptors. Serotonin is metabolized to 5-HIAA, chiefly by the liver. Metabolism involves first oxidation by monoamine oxidase to the corresponding aldehyde. There follows oxidation by aldehyde dehydrogenase to the indole acetic-acid derivative; the latter is excreted by the kidneys. Besides mammals, serotonin is found in all bilateral animals including worms and insects, as well as in fungi and in plants. Serotonin's presence in insect venoms and plant spines serves to cause pain, a side-effect of serotonin injection. Serotonin is produced by pathogenic amoebae, its effect in the human gut is diarrhea, its widespread presence in many seeds and fruits may serve to stimulate the digestive tract into expelling the seeds.
Serotonin is present in plants as phytoserotonin. Serotonin mediates the animal's perceptions of resources. In plants serotonin synthesis seems to be associated with stress signals. In more complex animals, such as arthropods and vertebrates, resources can mean social dominance. In response to the perceived abundance or scarcity of resources, an animal's growth, reproduction or mood may be elevated or lowered; this may somewhat depend on. In humans, serotonin is a neurotransmitter used throughout the body having action of 14 variants of the serotonin receptor to have diverse effects on mood, sleep, temperature, eating behaviour, sexual behaviour and gastrointestinal motility. Serotonin is not administered clinically as a drug itself. However, drugs that selectively target specific serotonin receptor subtypes are used therapeutically for antidepressant effects, they are dependent on serotonin availability in the synapse. The 5-HT receptors, the receptors for serotonin, are located on the cell membrane of nerve cells and other cell types in animals, mediate the effects of serotonin as the endogenous ligand and of a broad range of pharmaceutical and hallucinogenic drugs.
Except for the 5-HT3 receptor, a ligand-gated ion channel, all other 5-HT receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that activate an intracellular second messenger cascade. Serotonergic action is terminated via uptake of 5-HT from the synapse; this is accomplished through the specific monoamine transporter for 5-HT, SERT, on the presynaptic neuron. Various agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake, including cocaine, tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. A 2006 study conducted by the University of Washington suggested that a newly discovered monoamine transporter, known as PMAT, may account for "a significant percentage of 5-HT clearance". Contrasting with the high-affinity SERT, the PMAT has been identified as a low-affinity transporter, with
The Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS was a main office of the SS, established in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler to serve as a personal office coordinating various activities and projects subordinate to the Reichsführer-SS. In 1933, Karl Wolff came to the attention of Himmler who in June 1933, appointed Wolff his adjutant and made him chief of the office of his Personal Staff. Himmler appointed Wolff the SS Liaison Officer to Hitler; as Himmler's principle adjutant and close associate, Wolff's daily activities involved overseeing Himmler's schedule and serving as a liaison with other SS offices and agencies. The office conveyed the wishes/interests of the Reichsführer to all branches and subordinated units within the SS, it handled Himmler's personal correspondence and awarded decorations. Wolff managed Himmler's affairs with state agencies and personnel. Following the assassination of Reinhard Heydrich in 1942, Wolff fell out with Himmler and was replaced by Maximilian von Herff who served as its head until the end of the war.
Himmler established several special project teams under the authority of his personal office. This included the staff of the Wewelsburg castle as well as the Ahnenerbe; this team of experts was interested in the cultural history of the Aryan race. It conducted experiments and launched voyages with the intent of proving that prehistoric and mythological Nordic populations had once ruled the world; the exact role that Himmler's personal staff played in the Holocaust has been a subject of debate with Karl Wolff claiming that the personal staff were little more than desk bound paper pushers. However, given that most of Himmler's wishes and orders were distributed by his personal staff, Wolff would have been aware of significant events or could have access to the relevant information. Incriminating letters show. For example, as the liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto resulted in rail transport bottlenecks, Wolff telephoned deputy Reich Minister of Transport, Albert Ganzenmüller. In a letter dated 13 August 1942, Wolff thanked Ganzenmüller for his assistance.
I note with particular pleasure from your communication that a train with 5,000 members of the chosen people has been running daily for 14 days and that we are accordingly in a position to continue with this population movement at an accelerated pace. I have taken the initiative to seek out the offices involved, so that a smooth implementation of the named measures appears to be guaranteed. I thank you once again for the effort and at the same time wish to ask you to continue monitoring these things. With best wishes and Heil Hitler, yours sincerely W. Further, Wolff would have received copies of all letters from SS officers, his friends at that point included Odilo Globocnik, the organizer of "Operation Reinhard". Therefore, his denial of knowledge of Holocaust activities may be plausible only at the detailed level of atrocities by the Nazi regime. Hamilton, Charles. Leaders & Personalities of the Third Reich, Vol. 1. R. James Bender Publishing. ISBN 0-912138-27-0. Koehl, Robert; the SS: A History 1919–45.
Stroud: Tempus. ISBN 978-0-75242-559-7. Lilla, Joachim. Statisten in Uniform: Die Mitglieder des Reichstags 1933-1945. Ein biographisches Handbuch. Unter Einbeziehung der völkischen und nationalsozialistischen Reichstagsabgeordneten ab Mai 1924. Düsseldorf: Droste. ISBN 978-3-7700-5254-7. Weale, Adrian. Army of Evil: A History of the SS. New York. ISBN 978-0-451-23791-0
Sriram Rajagopal Ramaswamy FRS is a Professor at the Indian Institute of Science and was on leave as Director of the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences in Hyderabad. Ramaswamy completed high school at the Modern School, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi, moved to the University of Maryland where he was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics with high honours in 1977, he completed his PhD in theoretical physics at the University of Chicago, graduating in 1983. He completed postdoctoral research at the University of Pennsylvania. Ramaswamy is a theoretician whose research investigates nonequilibrium statistical physics, soft matter, condensed matter physics and biological physics, his research helped found the field of active matter, which studies the motility and related collective behaviour of objects that convert local energy input into autonomous motion. He is known for formulating the hydrodynamic equations governing the alignment, flow and statistical properties of suspensions of self-propelled creatures, on scales from a cell to the ocean.
Key predictions—that macroscopically aligned flocks of swimming bacteria are impossible, that the addition of swimmers to a fluid can make the viscosity arbitrarily small—have been confirmed in recent experiments. His insight into nonliving imitations of self-propulsion has led to design principles for chemotactic colloids, the first experiments observing giant number fluctuations in flocks, the creation of flocks with a tiny minority of motile constituents. Among the awards he has received for his research are the Shanti Swarup Bhatnagar Prize for Science and Technology in 2000 and the Infosys Prize in 2011, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2016. He was awarded one of the H K Firodia awards for 2016
Alyona Vladimirovna Torganova is a singer, ex-member of Russian girls band Reflex. Alyona was born on May 14, 1980 in Kurchatov, Kazakhstan SSR, he has sister. She graduated from Moscow State Art and Cultural University, a specialist in show business and management. In parallel with her studies she was engaged in choreography, she danced in Moscow clubs. Choreographer, backing vocalist and dancer of the Reflex since 2002. In 2013, the blades of scenic winds cut Torganova phalanx of the finger. In the Moscow clinic Alyona sewn a severed finger. March 25, 2016 announced the departure of the group. Alyona entered the hundred of the most beautiful girls in Russia according to MAXIM. with Reflex 2002 — Go Crazy 2002 — I Will Always Wait for You 2002 — This is Love 2003 — Non Stop 2005 — Lyrics. I Love. 2005 — Pulse 2006 — Harem 2008 — Blondes 126 2014 — Memories 2015 — Adult Girls Alyona Torganova on IMDb Alyona Torganova on Instagram Playlist: группа Reflex
"Dare to Be Stupid" is an original song by "Weird Al" Yankovic. It is a musical pastiche of the band Devo. Lyrically, the song encourages the listener to be stupid in various ways. In an interview on VH1's Behind the Music, Devo's Mark Mothersbaugh stated in reaction to the song that: "I was in shock, it was the most beautiful thing I had heard. He sort of re-sculpted that song into something else and... I hate him for it, basically."The song was featured in The Transformers: The Movie. It was released as a double a-side along with "The Touch" by Stan Bush. "The Touch" by Stan Bush – 3:54 "Dare to Be Stupid" – 3:23 The music video is, according to Yankovic a "style parody" of Devo's works:Yankovic and his band wear the yellow radiation suits from Devo's cover of The Rolling Stones' " Satisfaction" video throughout. Many of the performance segments of the video are modeled on the "Satisfaction" music video, including the man having a fit on a wallpapered wall and floor; this is a parody of dancer Craig Allen Rothwell, nicknamed "Spazz Attack,", featured in Devo's video with his signature flip onto his back.
Segments of the video are reminiscent of several of Devo's other videos: "Devo Corporate Anthem" – In one scene, the band is standing in the same pose as Devo. "Jocko Homo" – In another segment, the band wears nylon stockings over their heads. "Beautiful World" – There are several scenes of black-and-white stock footage, directed by Al in front of an Interocitor. In addition, "tell me, what did I say?" resembles the line from this song, the aforementioned costume resembles the one worn on stage by Mark Mothersbaugh when Devo performed the song live during their tour for Oh, No! It's Devo in 1982. "Time Out for Fun" – The scenes where they come together and sing the main chorus is similar to where Devo comes together in the music video for this song and sings their main chorus. "Come Back Jonee" – In one scene, the elderly men dressed up in cowboy suits are reminiscent of the elderly men bowling in the "Come Back Jonee" video. "The Day My Baby Gave Me a Surprize" – In this part the group passes in front of simple computer graphics on a blue screen while playing their instruments.
"Freedom of Choice" – The use of stop-motion animation and computer graphics is reminiscent of this Devo video. The use of Roman togas comes from "Freedom of Choice," and at one point, a man must choose between a banana and an accordion - in Devo's original, it's a gun or a grenade. "Whip It" -- The guitarist is alone. There are cowboys in the "Whip it" video as well. "Love Without Anger" – The scene in which the lyrics "you can just give up the ship" is displayed in a screen, mimics the display of the lyrics "love without anger isn't love at all" in the Devo video. In addition, the scene of moving Mr. Potato Heads is reminiscent of a sequence in a Devo video shown at the start of live performances during their New Traditionalists tour and other subsequent tours, in which Mr. Potato Head figures emulate a concert crowd; the woman signing lyrics mirrors a portion of the same video. A General Boy lookalike makes an appearance with three other generals, all wearing orange traffic safety cones on their heads while standing around a battlefield map.
The man with a pipe and watching television with a chainsaw near the beginning of the video is a typical Devo-like image as well, juxtaposing violent, out of context or unexplained occurrences and objects with a 1950s-like "wholesome American" feel. This man is meant to be Head of the Church of the SubGenius; the video includes much bizarre imagery, for the most part, is irrelevant to the lyrics, such as Yankovic's face emerging from a screen filled with tiny baby figurines. The machine Yankovic controls during parts of the video is an interocitor from the film This Island Earth; the tune somewhat resembles that of "Deep Sleep", "Time Out For Fun" and "Big Mess" from Devo's Oh, No! It's Devo album. Al's line "Yes!" in a altered voice is reminiscent of the "Yes!" from "Explosions" on the same album. A descending synth line heard before some verses is similar to one used in "Deep Sleep." The recurring synth line heard throughout the song is similar to the opening synth line from "Time Out For Fun".
A descending three-note synth line heard at the end of some verses is reminiscent of one used in "Whip It". The swim goggles Yankovic wears over his eyes resembles those of Devo vocalist Mark Mothersbaugh's in the "Satisfaction", "The Day My Baby Gave Me A Surprise" and "Come Back Jonee" videos; the scenes in the video are taking place in a mans dream. The song is played in The Transformers: The Movie as the theme of the Junkions, a group of robots living on the planet of Junk. Like the song, the Junkion speech was littered with cultural and television references. In the TV series Transformers: Animated, Yankovic makes a guest appearance as a Transformer named Wreck-Gar. Near the e
Pema Khandu is an Indian politician and the Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh. Since assuming office of chief minister in July 2016, he and his government have twice changed their party affiliation, he had served as Minister of Tourism, Urban Development and Water Resources in Nabam Tuki's government. Khandu is the eldest son of former Chief Minister Dorjee Khandu, who died in a helicopter accident on 30 April 2011 on a constituency visit to Tawang, he is a graduate from Hindu College. Khandu is a Buddhist by religion. Post his father's death, Khandu was included in the state government as Cabinet Minister for Water Resource Development and Tourism, he won the bye election to his father's constituency uncontested Mukto on 30 June 2011 as an Indian National Congress candidate. Khandu became a secretary of the Arunachal Pradesh Congress Committee in 2005, the president of the Tawang District Congress Committee in 2010, he was elected Congress Legislature Party leader on 16 July 2016 replacing Nabam Tuki.
Khandu was re-elected unopposed from Mukto in the 2014 Arunachal Pradesh Legislative Assembly election. Khandu took the oath as the chief minister of Arunachal Pradesh on 17 July 2016 at the age of 37 years following a year long political crisis. On 16 September 2016, 43 MLAs from the ruling party, under the CM Pema Khandu, defected from Indian National Congress to People's Party of Arunachal, an ally of Bharatiya Janata Party. On 21 December 2016 in a high octane drama Khandu was suspended from the party by the party president and Takam Pario was named as the next Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh replacing Khandu after People's Party of Arunachal suspended Khandu along with 6 other MLAs. In December 2016, Khandu proved majority on the floor of the house with 33 of the People's Party of Arunachal’s 43 legislators joining the Bharatiya Janata Party as the BJP increased its strength to 45 with support of two independents as it had 11 MLAs already, he became second Chief Minister of Arunachal Pradesh of Bharatiya Janata Party in Arunachal Pradesh after 44 days Gegong Apang led government in 2003