London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Kenzaburō Ōe is a Japanese writer and a major figure in contemporary Japanese literature. His novels, short stories and essays influenced by French and American literature and literary theory, deal with political and philosophical issues, including nuclear weapons, nuclear power, social non-conformism, existentialism. Ōe was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1994 for creating "an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today". Ōe was born in a village now in Uchiko, Ehime Prefecture on Shikoku. He was the third son of seven children. Ōe's grandmother taught him oral performance. His grandmother died in 1944, that year, Ōe's father died in the Pacific War. Ōe's mother became his primary educator, buying him books such as The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and The Wonderful Adventures of Nils, whose impact Ōe says "he will carry to the grave".Ōe remembers his elementary school teacher claiming that Emperor Hirohito was a living god, asking him every morning, "What would you do if the emperor commanded you to die?"
Ōe always replied, "I would die, sir. I would cut open my belly and die." At home in bed at night he would acknowledge his reluctance to feel ashamed. After the war, he realized he had been taught felt betrayed; this sense of betrayal appeared in his writing.Ōe attended high school in Matsuyama. At the age of 18, he made his first trip to Tokyo and in the following year began studying French Literature at Tokyo University under the direction of Professor Kazuo Watanabe, a specialist on François Rabelais. Oe began publishing stories in 1957, while still a student influenced by contemporary writing in France and the United States, he married in February 1960. His wife, was the daughter of film director Mansaku Itami and sister of film director Juzo Itami; the same year he met Mao Zedong on a trip to China. He went to Russia and Europe the following year, visiting Sartre in Paris. In 1961, Ōe's novellas Seventeen and The Death of a Political Youth were published by a Japanese literary magazine. Both were inspired by seventeen-year-old Yamaguchi Otoya, who assassinated the chairman of Japan's Socialist Party in 1960, killed himself in prison three weeks later.
Yamaguchi had admirers among the extreme right wing who were angered by The Death of a Political Youth and both Ōe and the magazine received death threats day and night for weeks. The magazine soon apologized to offended readers; the story translated.Ōe lives in Tokyo. He has three children. In 1994 Ōe was named to receive Japan's Order of Culture, he refused the latter. Ōe said, "I do not recognize any authority, any value, higher than democracy." Once again, he received threats. In 2005, two retired Japanese military officers sued Ōe for libel for his 1970 essay, Okinawa Notes, in which he had written that members of the Japanese military had coerced masses of Okinawan civilians into committing suicide during the Allied invasion of the island in 1945. In March 2008, the Osaka District Court dismissed all charges against Ōe. In this ruling, Judge Toshimasa Fukami stated, "The military was involved in the mass suicides". In a news conference following the trial, Ōe said, "The judge read my writing."Ōe has been involved with pacifist and anti-nuclear campaigns and has written books regarding the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Hibakusha.
Following the 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, he urged Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda to "halt plans to restart nuclear power plants and instead abandon nuclear energy". Ōe has said Japan has an "ethical responsibility" to abandon nuclear power in the aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear disaster, just as it renounced war under its postwar Constitution. He has called for "an immediate end to nuclear power generation and warned that Japan would suffer another nuclear catastrophe if it tries to resume nuclear power plant operations". In 2013, he organized a mass demonstration in Tokyo against nuclear power. Ōe has criticized moves to amend Article 9 of the Constitution, which forever renounces war. Ōe explained, shortly after learning that he had been awarded the Nobel Prize, "I am writing about the dignity of human beings."After his first student works set in his own university milieu, in the late 1950s he produced works such as Shiiku, about a black GI set upon by Japanese youth and Nip the Buds, Shoot the Kids, focusing on young children living in Arcadian transformations of Ōe's own rural Shikoku childhood.
He identified these child figures as belonging to the'child god' archetype of Jung and Kerényi, characterised by abandonment, hermaphrodism and association with beginning and end. The first two characteristics are present in these early stories, while the latter two features come to the fore in the'idiot boy' stories which appeared after the birth of Hikari. Between 1958 and 1961 Ōe published a series of works incorporating sexual metaphors for the occupation of Japan, he summarised the common theme of these stories as "the relationship of a foreigner as the big power, a Japanese, more or less placed in a humiliating position, sandwiched between the two, the third party ". In each of these works, the Japanese X is inactive, failing to take the initiative to resolve the situation an
As a physical object, a book is a stack of rectangular pages oriented with one edge tied, sewn, or otherwise fixed together and bound to the flexible spine of a protective cover of heavier inflexible material. The technical term for this physical arrangement is codex. In the history of hand-held physical supports for extended written compositions or records, the codex replaces its immediate predecessor, the scroll. A single sheet in a codex is a leaf, each side of a leaf is a page; as an intellectual object, a book is prototypically a composition of such great length that it takes a considerable investment of time to compose and a still considerable, though not so extensive, investment of time to read. This sense of book has an unrestricted sense. In the restricted sense, a book is a self-sufficient section or part of a longer composition, a usage that reflects the fact that, in antiquity, long works had to be written on several scrolls, each scroll had to be identified by the book it contained.
So, for instance, each part of Aristotle's Physics is called a book, as of course the Bible encompasses many different books. In the unrestricted sense, a book is the compositional whole of which such sections, whether called books or chapters or parts, are parts; the intellectual content in a physical book need not be a composition, nor be called a book. Books can consist only of drawings, engravings, or photographs, or such things as crossword puzzles or cut-out dolls. In a physical book the pages can be left blank or can feature an abstract set of lines as support for on-going entries, i.e. an account book, an appointment book, a log book, an autograph book, a notebook, a diary or day book, or a sketch book. Some physical books are made with pages thick and sturdy enough to support other physical objects, like a scrapbook or photograph album. Books may be distributed in electronic form as other formats. Although in ordinary academic parlance a monograph is understood to be a specialist academic work, rather than a reference work on a single scholarly subject, in library and information science monograph denotes more broadly any non-serial publication complete in one volume or a finite number of volumes, in contrast to serial publications like a magazine, journal, or newspaper.
An avid reader or collector of books or a book lover is a bibliophile or colloquially, "bookworm". A shop where books are bought and sold is a bookstore. Books are sold elsewhere. Books can be borrowed from libraries. Google has estimated that as of 2010 130,000,000 distinct titles had been published. In some wealthier nations, the sale of printed books has decreased because of the use of e-books, though sales of e-books declined in the first half of 2015; the word book comes from Old English "bōc", which in turn comes from the Germanic root "*bōk-", cognate to "beech". In Slavic languages "буква" is cognate with "beech". In Russian and in Serbian and Macedonian, the word "букварь" or "буквар" refers to a primary school textbook that helps young children master the techniques of reading and writing, it is thus conjectured. The Latin word codex, meaning a book in the modern sense meant "block of wood"; when writing systems were created in ancient civilizations, a variety of objects, such as stone, tree bark, metal sheets, bones, were used for writing.
A tablet is a physically robust writing medium, suitable for casual transport and writing. Clay tablets were flattened and dry pieces of clay that could be carried, impressed with a stylus, they were used as a writing medium for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age. Wax tablets were pieces of wood covered in a thick enough coating of wax to record the impressions of a stylus, they were the normal writing material in schools, in accounting, for taking notes. They had the advantage of being reusable: the wax could be melted, reformed into a blank; the custom of binding several wax tablets together is a possible precursor of modern bound books. The etymology of the word codex suggests that it may have developed from wooden wax tablets. Scrolls can be made from papyrus, a thick paper-like material made by weaving the stems of the papyrus plant pounding the woven sheet with a hammer-like tool until it is flattened. Papyrus was used for writing in Ancient Egypt as early as the First Dynasty, although the first evidence is from the account books of King Nefertiti Kakai of the Fifth Dynasty.
Papyrus sheets were glued together to form a scroll. Tree bark such as lime and other materials were used. According to Herodotus, the Phoenicians brought writing and papyrus to Greece around the 10th or 9th century BC; the Greek word for papyrus as writing material and book come from the Phoenician port town Byblos, through which papyrus was exported to Greece. From Greek we derive the word tome, which meant a slice or piece and from there began to denote "a roll of papyrus". Tomus was used by the Latins with the same meaning as volumen. Whether made from papyrus, parchment, or paper, scrolls were the dominant form of book in the Hellenistic, Chinese and Macedonian culture
Elfriede Jelinek is an Austrian playwright and novelist. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2004 for her "musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that, with extraordinary linguistic zeal, reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power". Elfriede Jelinek was born on 20 October 1946 in Mürzzuschlag, Austria, the daughter of Olga Ilona, a personnel director, Friedrich Jelinek, she was raised in Vienna by Czech Jewish father. Her father was a chemist, who managed to avoid persecution during the Second World War by working in strategically important industrial production. However, many of his relatives became victims of the Holocaust, her mother, with whom she had a strained relationship, was from a prosperous Vienna family. As a child, Elfriede attended a Roman Catholic convent school in Vienna, her mother planned a career for her as a musical "wunderkind". She was instructed in piano, guitar, violin and recorder from an early age, she went on to study at the Vienna Conservatory, where she graduated with an organist diploma.
She studied art theater at the University of Vienna. However, she had to discontinue her studies due to an anxiety disorder, which resulted in self-isolation at her parents' house for a year. During this time, she began serious literary work as a form of therapy. After a year, she began to feel comfortable leaving the house with her mother, she began writing poetry at a young age. She made her literary debut with Lisas Schatten in 1967, received her first literary prize in 1969. During the 1960s, she became active politically, read a great deal, "spent an enormous amount of time watching television", she married Gottfried Hüngsberg on 12 June 1974. Despite the author's own differentiation from Austria, Jelinek's writing is rooted in the tradition of Austrian literature, showing the influence of Austrian writers such as Ingeborg Bachmann, Marlen Haushofer, Robert Musil. Jelinek's political positions, in particular her feminist stance and her Communist Party affiliations, are of vital importance to any assessment of her work.
They are a part of the reason for the controversy directed at Jelinek and her work. Editor Friederike Eigler states that Jelinek has three major and inter-related "targets" in her writing: capitalist consumer society and its commodification of all human beings and relationships, the remnants of Austria's fascist past in public and private life, the systematic exploitation and oppression of women in a capitalist-patriarchal society. Jelinek was a member of Austria's Communist Party from 1974 to 1991, she became a household name during the 1990s due to her vociferous clash with Jörg Haider's Freedom Party. Following the 1999 National Council elections, the subsequent formation of a coalition cabinet consisting of the Freedom Party and the Austrian People's Party, Jelinek became one of the new cabinet's most vocal critics. Many foreign governments moved swiftly to ostracize Austria's administration, citing the Freedom Party's alleged nationalism and authoritarianism; the cabinet construed the sanctions against it as directed against Austria as such, attempted to prod the nation into a national rallying behind the coalition parties.
This provoked a temporary heating of the political climate severe enough for dissidents such as Jelinek to be accused of treason by coalition supporters. Jelinek petitioned for the release of Jack Unterweger, imprisoned for the murder of a prostitute, and, regarded by intellectuals and politicians as an example of successful rehabilitation. Unterweger was found guilty of murdering nine more women within two years of his release, committed suicide after his arrest. Jelinek's output has included radio plays, theatre texts, polemical essays, novels, screenplays, musical compositions and ballets, film and video art. Jelinek's work is multi-faceted, controversial, it has been condemned by leading literary critics. In the wake of the Fritzl case, for example, she was accused of "executing'hysterical' portraits of Austrian perversity", her political activism has encountered divergent and heated reactions. Despite the controversy surrounding her work, Jelinek has won many distinguished awards. Female sexuality, sexual abuse, the battle of the sexes in general are prominent topics in her work.
Texts such as Wir sind Lockvögel, Baby!, Die Liebhaberinnen and Die Klavierspielerin showcase the brutality and power play inherent in human relations in a style that is, at times formal and controlled. According to Jelinek and aggression are the principal driving forces of relationships. Ein Sportstück explores the darker side of competitive sports, her provocative novel Lust contains graphic description of sexuality and abuse. It received poor reviews by many critics, but others, who noted the power of the cold descriptions of moral failures, considered it to have been misunderstood and undervalued by them. Her novel The Piano Teacher was the basis for the 2001 film of the same tit
David Peace is an English writer. Best known for his UK-set novels Red Riding Quartet, GB84, The Damned Utd, Red or Dead, Peace was named one of the Best of Young British Novelists by Granta in their 2003 list. David Peace grew up in Ossett, West Yorkshire, he was educated at Batley Grammar School, Wakefield College and Manchester Polytechnic, which he left in 1991 to go to Istanbul to teach English. He moved to Tokyo in 1994 and returned to the UK in 2009, he went back to Tokyo in 2011. He has lectured in the Department of Contemporary Literature at the University of Tokyo since his return to Tokyo in 2011; the Red-Riding Quartet comprises the novels Nineteen Seventy-Four, Nineteen Seventy-Seven, Nineteen Eighty and Nineteen Eighty-Three. The books deal with police corruption, are set against a backdrop of the Yorkshire Ripper murders between 1975 and 1980, they feature several recurring characters. Red Riding, a three-part TV adaptation of the series, aired on Channel 4 in the UK in 2009; the cast includes Andrew Garfield and Rebecca Hall.
Peace followed the quartet with GB84. This is a fictional portrayal of the year of the UK miners' strike, it describes the insidious workings of the British government and MI5, the coalfield battles, the struggle for influence in government and the dwindling powers of the National Union of Mineworkers. The book was awarded the James Tait Black Memorial Prize for literature in 2005, he followed GB84 with another fact-based fictional piece, The Damned Utd, based on Brian Clough's fateful 44-day spell in 1974 as manager of Leeds United Football Club. Entering the mind of the man who many regard as a football genius, Peace tells the story of a man characterised by a fear of failure and a hunger for success. Peace has described it as an "occult history of Leeds United". Former footballer and manager Johnny Giles threatened to sue Peace for The Damned Utd as to what he perceived were gross untruths in the book; as part of an out of court settlement, the publisher of The Damned Utd and Faber, agreed to remove from any future editions the references perceived by Giles as damaging and untrue.
Peace is a supporter of Huddersfield Town, a club who are a local rival of Leeds United, the team that Leeds United played in Clough's first and last games in charge of the club. The Damned Utd has been made into a film entitled The Damned United, with Michael Sheen playing Brian Clough. Peace's novel Red or Dead, about Bill Shankly and the rise of Liverpool Football Club, was published in August 2013 and was shortlisted for the Goldsmiths Prize that year. Tokyo Year Zero follows the investigations of a Tokyo detective in the aftermath of Japan's defeat in World War II, it is based on the true story of serial killer Yoshio Kodaira. It is the first of Peace's novels to be set outside of Yorkshire and forms the first part of a trio of books on the U. S. military occupation of Japan. The second book, published in August 2009, is called Occupied City, a Rashomon-like telling of the Hirasawa Sadamichi case in Tokyo in 1948; the final volume of the Tokyo trilogy will be published in 2020. As a separate stand alone novel, but set in Japan, Patient X, was published in 2018.
Subtitled The Case-Book of Ryūnosuke Akutagawa, it follows the life of author Akutagawa from his childhood to his suicide in 1927, including his witnessing of the Great Kantō earthquake that devastated most of Tokyo and much of the surrounding region in 1923. Peace's future plans include UKDK, about the changing face of UK politics, set around the fall of Harold Wilson and rise of Margaret Thatcher, titles including The Yorkshire Rippers and Nineteen Forty Seven, he has begun preparing a novel about Geoffrey Boycott and his relationship with Yorkshire County Cricket Club and England. He intends to stop writing novels after his twelfth novel but has joked he may publish a collection of his "very bad poetry". 1999 Nineteen Seventy-Four 2000 Nineteen Seventy-Seven 2001 Nineteen Eighty 2002 Nineteen Eighty-Three 2007 Tokyo Year Zero 2009 Occupied City 2004 GB84 2006 The Damned Utd 2013 Red or Dead 2018 Patient X: the Case-Book of Ryūnosuke Akutagawa Peace, David. "The Ripper". True Crimes; the New Yorker.
89: 74–75. 2003 Best of Young British Novelists 2005 James Tait Black Memorial Prize
Lionel Shriver is an American journalist and author who lives in the United Kingdom. She is best known for her novel We Need to Talk About Kevin, which won the Orange Prize for Fiction in 2005 and was adapted into the 2011 film of the same name, starring Tilda Swinton. Shriver was born Margaret Ann Shriver on May 18, 1957, in Gastonia, North Carolina, to a religious family. At age 15, she informally changed her name from Margaret Ann to Lionel because she did not like the name she had been given, as a tomboy felt that a conventionally male name fitted her better. Shriver was educated at Columbia University, she has lived in Nairobi and Belfast, lives in London. She has taught metalsmithing at Buck's Rock Performing and Creative Arts Camp in New Milford, Connecticut. Shriver had written seven novels and published six before writing We Need to Talk About Kevin, which she called her "make or break" novel due to the years of "professional disappointment" and "virtual obscurity" preceding it. In an interview in Bomb magazine, Shriver listed her novels' subject matter up to the publication of We Need to Talk About Kevin as "anthropology and first love, rock-and-roll drumming and immigration, the Northern Irish Troubles and epidemiology, inheritance and spousal competition and cults of personality".
Rather than writing traditionally sympathetic characters, Shriver prefers to create characters who are "hard to love."We Need to Talk About Kevin was awarded the 2005 Orange Prize. The novel is a close study of maternal ambivalence, the role it might have played in the title character's decision to murder nine people at his high school, it achieved success through word of mouth. She said this about We Need To Talk About Kevin becoming a success: I'm asked did something happen around the time I wrote Kevin. Did I have some revelation or transforming event? The truth is. There's nothing special about Kevin; the other books are good too. It just tripped over an issue, just ripe for exploration and by some miracle found its audience. In 2009, she donated the short story "Long Time, No See" to Oxfam's "Ox-Tales" project, four collections of UK stories written by 38 authors, her story was published in the Fire collection. Shriver's book So Much for That was released on March 2, 2010. In this novel, Shriver presents a biting criticism of the US health care system.
It was subsequently named a finalist for the National Book Award in fiction. Her work The New Republic was published in 2012, her 2013 book, Big Brother: A Novel, was inspired by the morbid obesity of one of her brothers. The Mandibles: A Family, 2029-2047, published in May 2016, is set in a near-future in which the United States is unable to repay its national debt and Mexico has built a wall on its northern border to keep out US citizens trying to escape with their savings. Members of the moneyed Mandible family must contend with disappointment and struggle to survive, after the inheritance they had been counting on had turned out to have turned to ash. A sister bemoans a shortage of olive oil, while another has to absorb strays into her cramped household, her oddball teenage son Willing, an economics autodidact, looks as if he can save the once august family from the streets. It was "not science fiction", Shriver told BBC Radio 4's Front Row on May 9, 2016, it is an "acid satire" in which "everything bad that could happen... has happened" according to the review in the Literary Review.
Shriver has written for The Wall Street Journal, the Financial Times, The New York Times, The Economist, contributed to the Radio Ulster program Talkback and many other publications. In July 2005, Shriver began writing a column for The Guardian, in which she has shared her opinions on maternal disposition within Western society, the pettiness of British government authorities, the importance of libraries, she writes for The Spectator. In online articles, she discusses in detail her love of books and plans to leave a legacy to the Belfast Education and Library Board, she expressed criticism of the American health system in an interview in May 2010 while at the Sydney Writers' Festival in Australia, in which she said she was "exasperated with the way that medical matters were run in my country" and considers that she is taking "my life in my hands. Most of all I take my bank account in my hands because if I take a wrong turn on my bike and get run over by a taxi, I could lose everything I have."
She is a patron of UK population growth rate concern group Population Matters. She was interviewed on Newsnight on BBC Two the night of December 17, 2012, questioned about the issue of whether the United States should change gun control laws after the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting; as the 2016 keynote speaker at the Brisbane Writers' Festival, Shriver gave a controversial speech about cultural appropriation. Shriver had been criticized for her depiction of Latino and African-American characters in her book The Mandibles, described by one critic as racist and by another as politically misguided. In her Brisbane speech, Shriver contested these criticisms, arguing that accusations of racism and cultural appropriation were tantamount to censorship and that all writers ought to be entitled to write from any perspective, gender or background that they choose; the full text of her speech was published in the British newspaper The Guardian. In June 2018 she criticis
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information. It is the activity of making information available to the general public. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content provide media to deliver and display the content for the same; the word "publisher" can refer to the individual who leads a publishing company or an imprint or to a person who owns/heads a magazine. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works such as newspapers. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet, the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing, blogs, video game publishers, the like. Publishing includes the following stages of development: acquisition, copy editing, printing and distribution. Publication is important as a legal concept: As the process of giving formal notice to the world of a significant intention, for example, to marry or enter bankruptcy As the essential precondition of being able to claim defamation.
Self-publishing: The author has to meet the total expense to get the book published. The author should retain full rights known as vanity publishing. Publishing became possible with the invention of writing, became more practical upon the introduction of printing. Prior to printing, distributed works were copied manually, by scribes. Due to printing, publishing progressed hand-in-hand with the development of books; the Chinese inventor Bi Sheng made movable type of earthenware circa 1045, but there are no known surviving examples of his printing. Around 1450, in what is regarded as an independent invention, Johannes Gutenberg invented movable type in Europe, along with innovations in casting the type based on a matrix and hand mould; this invention made books less expensive to produce, more available. Early printed books, single sheets and images which were created before 1501 in Europe are known as incunables or incunabula. "A man born in 1453, the year of the fall of Constantinople, could look back from his fiftieth year on a lifetime in which about eight million books had been printed, more than all the scribes of Europe had produced since Constantine founded his city in A.
D. 330."Eventually, printing enabled other forms of publishing besides books. The history of modern newspaper publishing started in Germany in 1609, with publishing of magazines following in 1663. Publishing has been handled by publishers, with the history of self-publishing progressing until the advent of computers brought us electronic publishing, made evermore ubiquitous from the moment the world went online with the Internet; the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 soon propelled the website into a dominant medium of publishing, as websites are created by anyone with Internet access. The history of wikis started shortly thereafter, followed by the history of blogging. Commercial publishing progressed, as printed forms developed into online forms of publishing, distributing online books, online newspapers, online magazines. Since its start, the World Wide Web has been facilitating the technological convergence of commercial and self-published content, as well as the convergence of publishing and producing into online production through the development of multimedia content.
Book and magazine publishers spend a lot of commissioning copy. At a small press, it is possible to survive by relying on commissioned material, but as activity increases, the need for works may outstrip the publisher's established circle of writers. For works written independently of the publisher, writers first submit a query letter or proposal directly to a literary agent or to a publisher. Submissions sent directly to a publisher are referred to as unsolicited submissions, the majority come from unpublished authors. If the publisher accepts unsolicited manuscripts the manuscript is placed in the slush pile, which publisher's readers sift through to identify manuscripts of sufficient quality or revenue potential to be referred to acquisitions editors for review; the acquisitions editors send their choices to the editorial staff. The time and number of people involved in the process are dependent on the size of the publishing company, with larger companies having more degrees of assessment between unsolicited submission and publication.
Unsolicited submissions have a low rate of acceptance, with some sources estimating that publishers choose about three out of every ten thousand unsolicited manuscripts they receive. Many book publishers around the world maintain a strict "no unsolicited submissions" policy and will only accept submissions via a literary agent; this policy shifts the burden of assessing and developing writers out of the publisher and onto the literary agents. At these publishers, unsolicited manuscripts are thrown out, or sometimes returned, if the author has provided pre-paid postage. Established authors may be represented by a literary agent to market their work to publishers and n