Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
Point Peninsula Complex
The Point Peninsula Complex was an indigenous culture located in Ontario and New York from 600 BCE to 700 CE. Point Peninsula ceramics were first introduced into Canada around 600 BCE spread south into parts of New England around 200 BCE; some time between 300 BCE and 1 CE, Point Peninsula pottery first appeared in Maine, "over the entire Maritime Peninsula." Little evidence exists to show that it was derived from the earlier, thicker pottery, known as Vinette I, Adena Thick, etc... Point Peninsula pottery represented a new kind of technology in North America and has been called Vinette II. Compared to existing ceramics that were thicker and less decorated, this new pottery has been characterized by "superior modeling of the clay with vessels being thinner, better fired and containing finer grit temper." Where this new pottery technology originated is not known for sure. The origin of this pottery is "somewhat of a problem." The people are thought to have been influenced by the Hopewell traditions of the Ohio River valley.
This influence seems to have ended about 250 CE, after which they no longer practiced burial ceremonialism. The Hopewell exchange system began in the Ohio and Illinois River valleys about 300 BCE; the culture is referred to more as a system of interaction among a variety of societies than as a single society or culture. Hopewell trading networks were quite extensive, with obsidian from the Yellowstone area, copper from Lake Superior, shells from the Gulf Coast. In some areas Point Peninsula people buried some of their dead in mortuary mounds. Interred with the dead were exotic grave goods, including copper and silver pan pipes, marine shell gorgets, exotic cherts; the exotic goods among the burials may provide evidence for inherited status differentiation among Point Peninsula groups. Pan pipes, which have been found in burial mounds from Florida to Minnesota, considered to be a diagnostic trait within the Hopewell inventory, appear in North America around 200 BCE disappear as do certain other Hopewell traits, around 400 CE.
Found in the United States, nine pan pipes curiously appear in the LeVesconte mound, a Point Peninsula site located in Campbellford, Ontario. Though the Hopewell interaction sphere is confined to the United States, much of the silver found in mound artifacts, such as pan pipes comes from Cobalt, far up the Ottawa River; the Point Peninsula people of the Middle Woodland period lived by hunting and gathering, supplemented by agriculture. Around 900 CE, Point Peninsula artifacts in New York were replaced by Owasco culture artifacts. However, a 2011 paper by archaeologist Dr. John P. Hart argues there was no definable Owasco culture. Archaeologists believe these indicated the presence of Clemson Island peoples' spreading northward and intermingling with the Point Peninsula complex through the years of 1300; the Owasco peoples practiced different pottery techniques and were more sedentary agriculturalists than the Point Peninsula people. They cultivated a variety of types of maize and beans, lived in larger villages of several hundred to a thousand people.
Warfare was prevalent. The people built fortified villages. Smaller bands and tribes formed into larger groups; the Owasco are thought to have developed into the several Iroquoian-speaking nations of Pennsylvania and New York. The Haudenosaunee or Iroquois Confederacy formed in an effort to avoid the continual warfare of years past; some important sites are the Rice Lake/Lower Trent River area, including the Serpent Mounds Park, Cameron's Point and LeVescounte Mounds in Prince Edward County. The Serpent Mounds Park at Rice Lake was occupied during the prehistoric Middle Woodland period; the burial mound was shaped like a giant snake. Lewiston Mound Hopewell tradition List of Hopewell sites Mound builder Effigy mound Earthwork Radiocarbon Dating the Middle to Late Woodland Transition and Earliest Maize in Southern Ontario, University of Toronto
Ontario Parks is the agency in Ontario, that protects significant natural and cultural resources in a system of parks and protected areas, sustainable and provides opportunities for inspiration and education. The Ontario Parks system covers over 78,000 square kilometres, about 10 percent of the province's surface area or the equivalent of an area equal to Nova Scotia, it falls under the mandate of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. The Ontario Parks system is used as the model for other parks systems in North America; this can be attributed to its delicate balance of recreation and conservation. Many parks in Ontario offer a Natural Heritage Education program; the Ontario Parks system began its long and rough history in 1893 with the creation of Algonquin Park designed to protect loggers' interests from settlement. The management and creation of provincial parks came under the Department of Lands and Forests in 1954 and led to a period of accelerated park creation: a ninefold increase in the number of parks over the next six years.
In the 1970s the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources' was formed. Ontario Parks does not have full agency status, but is a branch of the Natural Resource Management Division of the MNR; the history of Ontario's provincial parks stretches for over 100 years. Here are some of the milestones from the past century plus:1893 – Algonquin Park is created as a public park and forest reservation and game preserve, health resort and pleasure ground. 1894 – Rondeau becomes Ontario's second provincial park. 1913 – The Parks Act sets aside land not suitable for agriculture or settlement. 1954 – Ontario still has only 8 provincial parks: Algonquin, Long Point, Presqu'ile, Lake Superior and Sibley. A Division of Parks is created within the Department of Forests; this heralds a new and aggressive program to create more parks on the Great Lake and northern tourism highways. 1960 – There are now 72 provincial parks in Ontario, hosting over 5 million visitors annually. 1967 – Ontario introduces a new policy that divides parks into specific categories, or classes, with compatible sets of uses.
1970 – Polar Bear, Ontario's largest provincial park at 24,000 square kilometres, is created. 1978 – Ontario Provincial Parks: Planning and Management Policies are approved by Cabinet giving Ontario one of the world's leading parks planning systems. 1983 – The new land use planning system leads to the announcement of 155 new parks to be designated. 1985 – There are now 220 parks in Ontario encompassing over 5.5 millions hectares of land. 1993 – Ontario celebrates the centennial of the provincial parks system and Algonquin's 100th anniversary. 1996 – The provincial parks system adopts a new entrepreneurial operating model where revenue generated by parks can be reinvested in the parks system. This is symbolized by a new name, Ontario Parks, a new visual identity. 1996 – Ontario Parks partners with the Natural Conservancy of Canada to create Legacy 2000, a program to protect significant natural areas. Under this agreement more than 11,000 hectares are secured. 1999 – Ontario's Living Legacy is announced.
This land use strategy identifies 378 new protected areas, including 61 new parks and 45 parks additions. Ontario's Living Legacy will protect over 2.4 million hectares of land, including additions to the provincial parks system of over 900,000 hectares. 2001 – Ontario now has a total of 280 provincial parks encompassing 7.1 million hectares or 9 percent of the province's area. Over 9 million visitors annually enjoy Ontario Parks. 2007 – Introduction of new legislation: "Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves Act" with 329 provincial parks and 292 conservation reserves. 2018 - Ontario celebrates 125 years of the provincial parks system and Algonquin's 125th anniversary Ontario Parks system uses a classification system to divide the provincial parks into the following categories: Recreational Class Park "typically have good beaches, many campgrounds and lots of outdoor recreation opportunities. Most recreation parks provide services that may include toilets and showers, interpretive programmes, boat launch facilities, hiking trails and picnic tables."
Cultural Heritage Class Park "emphasize the protection of historical and cultural resources, in an outdoor setting." Natural Environment Class Park "protect the landscapes and special features of the natural region in which they are located, while providing ample opportunities for activities such as swimming and camping." Nature Reserve Class Park "are established to represent and protect the distinctive natural habitats and landforms of the province. These areas are protected for educational and research purposes. Due to the fragility of many of these natural features, only a few nature reserves are accessible to the public." Waterway Class Park "are river corridors that provide canoeists with high-quality recreation and historical river travel." Wilderness Class Park "are large areas left to nature where visitors may travel by canoe. Offering little if any facilities for visitors, these areas provide the solitude of an undisturbed, natural setting." As of 2008, Ontario Parks system manages 65 recreational class parks, six cultural heritage class parks, 80 natural environment class parks, 109 nature reserve class parks, 62 waterway class parks, 8 wilderness class parks.
For the list of all parks under administration by Ontario Parks, see: List of Ontario Parks List of Canadian provincial parks – for parks in other Canadian provinces. List of Ontario parks Parks Canada List of B
Boating is the leisurely activity of travelling by boat, or the recreational use of a boat whether powerboats, sailboats, or man-powered vessels, focused on the travel itself, as well as sports activities, such as fishing or waterskiing. It is a popular activity, there are millions of boaters worldwide. Recreational boats fall into several broad categories, additional subcategories. Broad categories include dinghies, paddlesports boats, daysailers and cruising and racing sailboats; the National Marine Manufacturers Association, the organization that establishes several of the standards that are used in the marine industry in the United States, defines 32 types of boats, demonstrating the diversity of boat types and their specialization. In addition to those standards all boats employ the same basic principles of hydrodynamics. Boating activities are as varied as the boats and boaters who participate, new ways of enjoying the water are being discovered. Broad categories include the following: Paddlesports include ears and oceangoing types covered-cockpit kayaks.
Canoes are popular on lakes and rivers due to efficiency on the water. They are easy to portage, or carry overland around obstructions like rapids, or just down to the water from a car or cabin. Kayaks can be found on calm inland waters, whitewater rivers, along the coasts in the oceans. Known for their maneuverability and seaworthiness, kayaks take many shapes depending on their desired use. Rowing craft are popular for fishing, as a tender to a larger vessel, or as a competitive sport. Rowing shells are long and narrow, are intended to convert as much of the rower's muscle power as possible into speed; the ratio of length of waterline to beam has much importance in marine mechanics and design.. Row boats or dinghies are oar powered, restricted to protected waters. Rowboats are heavy craft compared to other has Sailing can be either competitive, as in collegiate dinghy racing, or purely recreational as when sailing on a lake with family or friends. Small sailboats are made from fiberglass, will have wood, aluminum, or carbon-fiber spars, a sloop rig.
Racing dinghies and skiffs tend to be lighter, have more sail area, may use a trapeze to allow one or both crewmembers to suspend themselves over the water for additional stability. Daysailers tend to be wider across the beam and have greater accommodation space at the expense of speed. Cruising sailboats have more width, but performance climbs as they tend to be much longer with a starting over-all length of at least 25 feet re-balancing the dynamic ratio between length of waterline and beam width. Freshwater fishing boats account for 1/3 of all registered boats in the U. S. and most all other types of boats end up being used as fishing boats on occasion. The boating industry has developed freshwater fishing boat designs that are species-specific to allow anglers the greatest advantage when fishing for walleye, trout, etcetera, as well as generic fishing craft. Watersport Boats or skiboats are high-powered Go-Fast boats is designed for activities where a participant is towed behind the boat such as waterskiing and parasailing.
Variations on the ubiquitous waterski include wakeboards, water-skiing, inflatable towables, wake surfing. To some degree, the nature of these boating activities influences boat design. Waterski boats are intended to hold a precise course at an accurate speed with a flat wake for slalom skiing runs. Wakeboard boats run at slower speeds, have various methods including ballast and negative lift foils to force the stern in the water, thereby creating a large and "jumpable" wake. Saltwater fishing boats vary in length and are once again specialized for various species of fish. Flats boats, for example, are used in protected, shallow waters, have shallow draft. Sportfishing boats range from 25 to 80 feet or more, can be powered by large outboard engines or inboard diesels. Fishing boats in colder climates may have more space dedicated to cuddy cabins and wheelhouses, while boats in warmer climates are to be open. Cruising boats applies to both power and sailboats, refers to trips from local weekend passages to lengthy voyages, is a lifestyle.
While faster "express cruisers" can be used for multiple day trips, long voyages require a slower displacement boat with diesel power and greater stability and efficiency. Cruising sailboats range from 20 to 70 feet and more, have managed sailplans to allow small crews to sail them long distances; some cruising sailboats will have two masts to further reduce the size of individual sails and make it possible for a couple to handle larger boats. Diesel- powered Narrowboats are a popular mode of travel on the inland waterways of England. Racing and Regattas are common group activities in the sub-culture of boaters owning larger small
Rice Lake (Ontario)
Rice Lake is a lake located in Northumberland and Peterborough counties in south-eastern Ontario. The lake is located south of the city of Peterborough, the Kawartha Lakes and north of Cobourg, it is part of the Trent-Severn Waterway, which flows into the lake by the Otonabee and out via the Trent. The lake is 5 km wide, its maximum depth is 10m, with a surface water level at 187 m above sea level, raised to its present height by the Hastings Dam, built in the 19th century as part of the Trent-Severn canal system. Natives called it Pemadashdakota or "lake of the burning plains". A drumlin field is located northwest of the lake, the lake's islands are submerged drumlins. Rice Lake nearly bisects the Oak Ridges Moraine, with three wedges to the west, one wedge to the east which has terminus at the Trent River. A narrow corridor to the south of Rice Lake connects these wedges. Rice Lake is shallow and was named for the wild rice which grew in it and was harvested by native people of the area. Most of the extensive stands of wild rice found in here were wiped out when water levels were raised in the lake by the construction of the waterway.
The village of Bewdley sits on the west end of the lake and the town of Hastings sits on the east. Prehistoric burial mounds are found at Serpent Mounds Park on the north shore of the lake. Other places of interest include the Native Reserves of Hiawatha. Other communities include Roseneath, Gores Landing, Keene and Harwood; the Cobourg and Peterborough Railway was completed in 1854 and crossed Rice Lake from Harwood to Hiawatha on a 4 kilometres line of wooden trestles. However, the thick layers of ice that cover the lake in the winter damaged the bridge beyond repair and it was declared unsafe and closed within six years. Sections of the railway bed are still visible on the south side of the lake. In the late 19th century, both before and after the railway bridge, steamboats provided both passenger and goods services, which could navigate up the Otonabee River as far as Peterborough. After the bridge failed, the Cobourg railway continued to run to Harwood; as well as lumber, the railway found a new use bringing iron ore from the Marmora quarries further east.
These were brought by barge up the Trent and along Rice Lake, before being loaded on wagons and taken to the harbour at Cobourg. As Cobourg developed as a tourist town, the railway brought recreational fishermen up to Rice Lake. Rice Lake is now an attractive tourist area and is recognized for its recreational and sport fisheries. Rice Lake fish include panfish, walleye and bass. In addition in recreational fishing a number of annual fishing contests are held here. An annual charity poker run boat race starting from Bewdley is held the first Saturday after Labour Day, with proceeds going to the Children's Wish Foundation. Islands in the lake include: Coughlins Island, Cow Island, Black Island, Foley Island, Grasshopper Island, Grape Island, Harmony Island, Harris Island, Hickory Island, Long Island, Margaret Island, Muskrat Island, Paudaush Island, Rack Island, Scriver Island, Sheep Island, Spook Island, Sugar Island, Tic Island, White's Island. Fishing Rice Lake Ontario - Walleye, Smallmouth Bass, Largemouth Bass, Perch and Muskie Fishing on Rice Lake Walleye, Crappie, Perch and Muskie
Dunns Pond Mound
The Dunns Pond Mound is a historic Native American mound in northeastern Logan County, United States. Located near Huntsville, it lies along the southeastern corner of Indian Lake in Washington Township. In 1974, the mound was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a potential archeological site, with much of its significance deriving from its use as a burial site for as much as nine centuries. Other Native American earthworks are located in the vicinity. A 1914 study found fifteen mounds on the southeastern side of Indian Lake and characterized this "remarkable" group of mounds as the premier location of archeology in Logan County. Another four mounds in Washington Township, which were not included in the 1914 survey, are located on Lake Ridge Island, a short distance to the north of Dunns Pond; these mounds, the Lake Ridge Island Mounds, were listed on the Register on the same day as was the Dunns Pond Mound. It is believed that the Dunns Pond Mound was built by the prehistoric Hopewell peoples at some point between 300 BC and AD 600.
While twenty mounds have been recorded around southeastern Indian Lake in modern times, it is that many more once existed in the area. When the Miami River was dammed in 1860 to support canal traffic, Indian Lake became far larger than its natural boundaries. Farmland became. If villages or mounds existed northwest of the Dunns Pond Mound, they have been submerged. Long after the expansion of Indian Lake, the Dunns Pond Mound was little known. For many decades, it was surrounded by woodlands, the only human activity in the vicinity occurred along a bicycle and snowmobile path that passed over the mound. Excavation was attempted in the early 1940s, but was soon stopped without yielding any significant finds. However, the mound continued to receive attention from archeologists, in 1974 it was listed on the National Register because it was to yield information about the peoples of the past. While the mound was built as a charnel house for Hopewell death rites Late Woodland peoples used the mound as a burial site.
Interest in the mound by non-archeologists has increased in recent decades. In the first half of the twentieth century, local Boy Scouts proposed clearing the mound of brush as part of a conservation project, although objection by the owner prevented this project from being carried out. Increasing development around Indian Lake has included the creation of a small community around Dunns Pond, named Moundwood. Access to the mound itself is no longer possible. List of burial mounds in the United States Koleszar, Stephen C. An Archaeological Survey of Southwestern Ohio. Columbus: Ohio Historical Society, 1970
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but it took thousands of years for writing to be adopted, it was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or until the present. The end of prehistory therefore came at different dates in different places, the term is less used in discussing societies where prehistory ended recently. Sumer in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilization, ancient Egypt were the first civilizations to develop their own scripts and to keep historical records. Neighboring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Age; the three-age system of division of prehistory into the Stone Age, followed by the Bronze Age and Iron Age, remains in use for much of Eurasia and North Africa, but is not used in those parts of the world where the working of hard metals arrived abruptly with contact with Eurasian cultures, such as the Americas, Oceania and much of Sub-Saharan Africa.
These areas with some exceptions in Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas, did not develop complex writing systems before the arrival of Eurasians, their prehistory reaches into recent periods. The period when a culture is written about by others, but has not developed its own writing is known as the protohistory of the culture. By definition, there are no written records from human prehistory, so dating of prehistoric materials is crucial. Clear techniques for dating were not well-developed until the 19th century; this article is concerned with human prehistory, the time since behaviorally and anatomically modern humans first appeared until the beginning of recorded history. Earlier periods are called "prehistoric". Beginning The term "prehistory" can refer to the vast span of time since the beginning of the Universe or the Earth, but more it refers to the period since life appeared on Earth, or more to the time since human-like beings appeared. End The date marking the end of prehistory is defined as the advent of the contemporary written historical record.
The date varies from region to region depending on the date when relevant records become a useful academic resource. For example, in Egypt it is accepted that prehistory ended around 3200 BCE, whereas in New Guinea the end of the prehistoric era is set much more at around 1900 common era. In Europe the well-documented classical cultures of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome had neighbouring cultures, including the Celts and to a lesser extent the Etruscans, with little or no writing, historians must decide how much weight to give to the highly prejudiced accounts of these "prehistoric" cultures in Greek and Roman literature. Time periods In dividing up human prehistory in Eurasia, historians use the three-age system, whereas scholars of pre-human time periods use the well-defined geologic record and its internationally defined stratum base within the geologic time scale; the three-age system is the periodization of human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age The notion of "prehistory" began to surface during the Enlightenment in the work of antiquarians who used the word'primitive' to describe societies that existed before written records.
The first use of the word prehistory in English, occurred in the Foreign Quarterly Review in 1836. The use of the geologic time scale for pre-human time periods, of the three-age system for human prehistory, is a system that emerged during the late nineteenth century in the work of British and Scandinavian archeologists and anthropologists; the main source for prehistory is archaeology, but some scholars are beginning to make more use of evidence from the natural and social sciences. This view has been articulated by advocates of deep history; the primary researchers into human prehistory are archaeologists and physical anthropologists who use excavation and geographic surveys, other scientific analysis to reveal and interpret the nature and behavior of pre-literate and non-literate peoples. Human population geneticists and historical linguists are providing valuable insight for these questions. Cultural anthropologists help provide context for societal interactions, by which objects of human origin pass among people, allowing an analysis of any article that arises in a human prehistoric context.
Therefore, data about prehistory is provided by a wide variety of natural and social sciences, such as paleontology, archaeology, geology, comparative linguistics, molecular genetics and many others. Human prehistory differs from history not only in terms of its chronology but in the way it deals with the activities of archaeological cultures rather than named nations or individuals. Restricted to material processes and artifacts rather than written records, prehistory is anonymous; because of this, reference terms that prehistorians use, such as Neanderthal or Iron Age are modern labels with definitions sometimes subject to debate. The concept of a "Stone Age" is found useful in the archaeology of most of the world, though in the archaeology of the Americas it is called by different names and begins with a Lithic sta