Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period. "Burgundy" has referred to numerous political entities, including kingdoms and duchies spanning territory from the Mediterranean to the Low Countries. Since January 2016, the name Burgundy has referred to a specific part of the French administrative region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, an entity comprising four departments: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, Nièvre; the first recorded inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were Celts, who were incorporated in the Roman Empire as Gallo-Romans. During the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people, who may have originated in Bornholm, settled in the western Alps, they founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, the Franks. Under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries.
The region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy. The Duchy of Burgundy is the better-known of the two becoming the French province of Burgundy, while the County of Burgundy became the French province of Franche-Comté meaning free county. Burgundy's modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy and the county. During the Middle Ages, Burgundy was home to some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, including those of Cluny, Cîteaux, Vézelay. Cluny, founded in 910, exerted a strong influence in Europe for centuries; the first Cistercian abbey was founded in 1098 in Cîteaux. Over the next century, hundreds of Cistercian abbeys were founded throughout Europe, in a large part due to the charisma and influence of Bernard of Clairvaux; the Abbey of Fontenay, a UNESCO World Heritage site, is today the best-preserved Cistercian abbey in Burgundy.
The Abbey of Vezelay a UNESCO site, is still a starting point for pilgrimages to Santiago de Compostela. Cluny was totally destroyed during the French Revolution. During the Hundred Years' War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, Philip the Bold; the duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally. In 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province; however the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs. With the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s; the modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy. The region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne.
Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces: Burgundy: Côte-d'Or, Saône-et-Loire, southern half of Yonne. This corresponds to the old duchy of Burgundy. However, the old county of Burgundy is not included inside the Burgundy region, but it makes up the Franche-Comté region. A small part of the duchy of Burgundy is now inside the Champagne-Ardenne region. Nivernais: now the department of Nièvre; the northern half of Yonne is a territory, not part of Burgundy, was a frontier between Champagne, Île-de-France, Orléanais, being part of each of these provinces at different times in history. The climate of this region is oceanic, with a continental influence; the regional council of Burgundy was the legislative assembly of the region, located in the capital city Dijon at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille until its merger to form the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Burgundy is one of France's main wine producing areas, it is well known for both its red and white wines made from Pinot noir and Chardonnay grapes although other grape varieties can be found, including Gamay, Pinot blanc, Sauvignon blanc.
The region is divided into the Côte-d'Or, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, Beaujolais, the Côte Chalonnaise and Mâcon. The reputation and quality of the top wines, together with the fact that they are produced in small quantities, has led to high demand and high prices, with some Burgundies ranking among the most expensive wines in the world. With regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes coq au vin, beef bourguignon, époisses de Bourgogne cheese. Tourist sites of Burgundy include the Rock of Solutré, the Tournus cathedral, Brancion, the castles of Cormatin and Couches, the palace of the dukes of Burgundy in Dijon, the Pézanin Arboretum, Vézelay Abbey. Earlier, the southeastern part of Burgundy was industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries and crystal works in Le Creusot; these industries declined in the second half of the twentieth century, Le Creusot has tried to reinvent itself as a tourist town. Lecomte, Bernard.
Burgundy, What a Story!. ISBN 978-2-902650-02-6. Davies, Norman. "Ch.3: Burgundia: Five, Six or Seven Kingdoms (c. 411-1
A herbarium is a collection of preserved plant specimens and associated data used for scientific study.. The specimens may be whole plants or plant parts; the specimens in a herbarium are used as reference material in describing plant taxa. The same term is used in mycology to describe an equivalent collection of preserved fungi, otherwise known as a fungarium. A xylarium is a herbarium specialising in specimens of wood; the term hortorium has been applied to a herbarium specialising in preserving material of horticultural origin. The oldest traditions of making herbarium collection or Hortus sicci have been traced to Italy. Luca Ghini and his students created herbaria of which the oldest extant one is that of Gherardo Cibo from around 1532. While most of the early herbaria were prepared with sheets bound into books, Carolus Linnaeus came up with the idea of maintaining them on free sheets that allowed their easy re-ordering within cabinets. Commensurate with the need of wildlife conservation, it is desirable to include in a herbarium sheet as much of the plant as possible, or at least representative parts of them in the case of large specimens.
To preserve their form and colour, plants collected in the field are arranged and spread flat between thin sheets, known as'flimsies', dried in a plant press, between blotters or absorbent paper. During the drying process the specimens are retained within their flimsies at all times to minimise damage, only the thicker, absorbent drying sheets are replaced. For some plants it may prove helpful to allow the fresh specimen to wilt before being arranged for the press. An opportunity to check and further lay out the specimen to best reveal the required features of the plant occurs when the damp absorbent sheets are changed during the drying/pressing process; the specimens, which are mounted on sheets of stiff white paper, are labelled with all essential data, such as date and place found, description of the plant and special habitat conditions. The sheet is placed in a protective case; as a precaution against insect attack, the pressed plant is frozen or poisoned, the case disinfected. Certain groups of plants are soft, bulky, or otherwise not amenable to drying and mounting on sheets.
For these plants, other methods of preparation and storage may be used. For example, conifer cones and palm fronds may be stored in labelled boxes. Representative flowers or fruits may be pickled in formaldehyde to preserve their three-dimensional structure. Small specimens, such as mosses and lichens, are air-dried and packaged in small paper envelopes. No matter the method of preservation, detailed information on where and when the plant was collected, habitat and the name of the collector is included; the value of a herbarium is much enhanced by the possession of “types”, that is, the original specimens on which the study of a species was founded. Thus the herbarium at the British Museum, rich in the earlier collections made in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, contains the types of many species founded by the earlier workers in botany, it is rich in types of Australian plants from the collections of Sir Joseph Banks and Robert Brown, contains in addition many valuable modern collections.
Most herbaria utilize a standard system of organizing their specimens into herbarium cases. Specimen sheets are stacked in groups by the species to which they belong and placed into a large lightweight folder, labelled on the bottom edge. Groups of species folders are placed together into larger, heavier folders by genus; the genus folders are sorted by taxonomic family according to the standard system selected for use by the herbarium and placed into pigeonholes in herbarium cabinets. Locating a specimen filed in the herbarium requires knowing the nomenclature and classification used by the herbarium, it requires familiarity with possible name changes that have occurred since the specimen was collected, since the specimen may be filed under an older name. Modern herbaria maintain electronic databases of their collections. Many herbaria have initiatives to digitize specimens to produce a virtual herbarium; these records and images are made publicly accessible via the Internet. Herbarium collections can have great significance and value to science, have a large number of uses.
Herbaria are essential for the study of plant taxonomy, the study of geographic distributions, the stabilizing of nomenclature. Linnaeus's herbarium now belongs to the Linnean Society in England. Specimens housed in herbaria may identify the flora of an area. A large collection from a single area is used in writing a field guide or manual to aid in the identification of plants that grow there. With more specimens available, the author of the guide will better understand the variability of form in the plants and the natural distribution over which the plants grow. Herbaria preserve a historical record of change in vegetation over time. In some cases, plants may become extinct altogether. In such cases, specimens preserved in a herbarium can represent the only record of the plant's original distribution. Environmental scientists make use of such data to track changes in human impact. Herbaria have proven useful as source
Sarracenia is a genus comprising 8 to 11 species of North American pitcher plants called trumpet pitchers. The genus belongs to the family Sarraceniaceae, which contain the allied genera Darlingtonia and Heliamphora. Sarracenia is a genus of carnivorous plants indigenous to the eastern seaboard of the United States, the Great Lakes area and southeastern Canada, with most species occurring only in the south-east United States; the plant's leaves have evolved into a pitcher shape in order to trap insects. The plant attracts its insect prey with secretions from extrafloral nectaries on the lip of the pitcher leaves, as well as a combination of the leaves' color and scent. Slippery footing at the pitcher's rim, causes insects to fall inside, where they die and are digested by the plant with proteases and other enzymes. Sarracenia are herbaceous perennial plants that grow from a subterranean rhizome, with many tubular pitcher-shaped leaves radiating out from the growing point, turning upwards with their trap openings facing the center of the crown.
The trap is a vertical tube with a'hood' extending over its entrance. The hood itself produces nectar too, but in lesser quantities; the inside of the pitcher tube, depending on the species, can be divided into three to five distinguishable zones: zone 1 is the operculum, zone 2 is the peristome and rest of the trap entrance, while zones 3 and 4 and 5 are further divisions of the actual tube. Each of these zones has a specific function, with corresponding morphophysiological characteristics. Zone 1: Operculum. In most species the operculum covers at least part of the pitcher opening, preventing rain from excessively filling the pitcher, which would result in the loss of prey and dilute the digestive fluid; the operculum serves to guide prey to the pitcher opening, using a combination of color and downward-pointing hairs to lead insects toward the trap entrance. Some species S. minor and S. psittacina, have opercula that hang low over the pitcher entrance. These are studded with chlorophyll-free patches, translucent "windows" which confuse prey into attempting to fly through the operculum, thereby causing them to cascade down the pitcher tube..
Zone 2: Peristome and trap entrance. This zone is composed of the peristome, which produces copious amounts of nectar, luring insect prey to land or crawl onto the perilous footing surrounding the pitcher trap; this zone includes the waxy upper portion of the pitcher tube. Footing on this zone is treacherous, as the waxy deposits on surface of this zone cause unwary insects to lose their footing and tumble into the pitcher depths. Zone 3: Located below Zone 2, this zone features a leaf surface with non-existent footing, as well as a coating of ultra-fine, downward pointing hairs. Insects that have made it this far lose any chance of escape, it is studded with digestive glands, which secrete digestive enzymes into the digestive fluid. Zone 4: This is the final zone in most species, it is filled with digestive fluids, absorbs nutrients released from the insects by the work of the digestive enzymes and bacteria in the pitcher fluid. Along with more digestive glands, this zone features a thick coating of coarse downward pointing hairs, which makes escape from the digestive fluids impossible.
Zone 5: This zone, located below Zone 4 and found only in S. purpurea, is smooth, lacks glands, does not serve as an absorptive zone. Its function is unknown. All Sarracenia trap insects and other prey without the use of moving parts, their traps are static and are based on a combination of lures and inescapability – the entrances to the traps are one-way by virtue of the adapted features listed above. Most species use a combination of scent, waxy deposits and gravity to topple insect prey into their pitcher. Once inside, the insect finds the footing slippery with a waxy surface covering the walls of the pitcher. Further down the tube, downward-pointing hairs make retreat impossible, in the lowest region of the tube, a pool of liquid containing digestive enzymes and wetting agents drowns the prey and begins digestion; the exoskeletons are not digested, over the course of the summer fill up the pitcher tube. Only S. purpurea contains significant amounts of rainwater in its tubular pitchers. It is a myth.
In fact, the hoods of the other species help to keep out rain water in addition to keeping flying prey from escaping. S. psittacina, the parrot pitcher, uses a lobster-pot style trap that will admit prey but not allow it to find its way out. Coniine, a toxic alkaloid present in poison hemlock, was first detected in the nectar of S. flava. and has since been detected in 7 other species of Sarracenia. While it was demonstrated that concentrated extracts from S. flava could paralyze ants, it has not been demonstrated that coniine has narcotic effects on insects at the concentrations present in pitchers of S. flava. Other authors hypothesize that coniine may function as an attractant for insects, or may function both as an attractant and a narcotic. Flowers are produced early in spring, with or ahead of the f
A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection, cultivation and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. It may contain specialist plant collections such as cacti and other succulent plants, herb gardens, plants from particular parts of the world, so on. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, other entertainment. Botanical gardens are run by universities or other scientific research organizations, have associated herbaria and research programmes in plant taxonomy or some other aspect of botanical science. In principle, their role is to maintain documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education, although this will depend on the resources available and the special interests pursued at each particular garden; the origin of modern botanical gardens is traced to the appointment of professors of botany to the medical faculties of universities in 16th century Renaissance Italy, which entailed the curation of a medicinal garden.
However, the objectives and audience of today’s botanic gardens more resembles that of the grandiose gardens of antiquity and the educational garden of Theophrastus in the Lyceum of ancient Athens. The early concern with medicinal plants changed in the 17th century to an interest in the new plant imports from explorations outside Europe as botany established its independence from medicine. In the 18th century, systems of nomenclature and classification were devised by botanists working in the herbaria and universities associated with the gardens, these systems being displayed in the gardens as educational "order beds". With the rapid rise of European imperialism in the late 18th century, botanic gardens were established in the tropics, economic botany became a focus with the hub at the Royal Botanic Gardens, near London. Over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. Nowadays, most botanical gardens display.
The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so broadly similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, it covers in some detail the many functions and activities associated with botanical gardens: A botanical garden is a controlled and staffed institution for the maintenance of a living collection of plants under scientific management for purposes of education and research, together with such libraries, herbaria and museums as are essential to its particular undertakings. Each botanical garden develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, the terms of its charter, it may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum, other departments. It maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, publication is one of its major modes of expression; this broad outline is expanded: The botanic garden may be an independent institution, a governmental operation, or affiliated to a college or university.
If a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands, it is not a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, nor is it an experiment station or yet a park with labels on the plants. The essential element is the intention of the enterprise, the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. A contemporary botanic garden is a protected natural urban green area, where a managing organization creates landscaped gardens and holds documented collections of living plants and/or preserved plant accessions containing functional units of heredity of actual or potential value for purposes such as scientific research, public display, sustainable use and recreational activities, production of marketable plant-based products and services for improvement of human well-being; the "New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening" points out that among the various kinds of organisations now known as botanical gardens are many public gardens with little scientific activity, it cites a more abbreviated definition, published by the World Wildlife Fund and IUCN when launching the ’’Botanic Gardens Conservation Strategy’’ in 1989: "A botanic garden is a garden containing scientifically ordered and maintained collections of plants documented and labelled, open to the public for the purposes of recreation and research."
This has been further reduced by Botanic Gardens Conservation International to the following definition which "encompasses the spirit of a true botanic garden": "A botanic garden is an institution holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation and education." Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe, 2
A palm house is a greenhouse, specialised for the growing of palms and other tropical and subtropical plants. Palm houses were built as status symbols in Victorian Britain. Several examples of these ornate glass and iron structures can still be found in major parks such as Liverpool's Sefton Park and Stanley Park. One of the earliest examples of a palm house is located in the Belfast Botanic Gardens. Designed by Charles Lanyon, the building was completed in 1840, it was constructed by iron-maker Richard Turner, who would also build the Palm House at Kew. The latter, designed by Decimus Burton and Nicole Burton, was the first large-scale structural use of wrought iron and was built between 1844 and 1848. Palmenhaus Schönbrunn
An epiphyte is an organism that grows on the surface of a plant and derives its moisture and nutrients from the air, water or from debris accumulating around it. Epiphytes take part in nutrient cycles and add to both the diversity and biomass of the ecosystem in which they occur, like any other organism, they are an important source of food for many species. The older parts of a plant will have more epiphytes growing on them. Epiphytes differ from parasites in that epiphytes grow on other plants for physical support and do not negatively affect the host. An epiphytic organism, not a plant is sometimes called an epibiont. Epiphytes are found in the temperate zone or in the tropics. Epiphyte species make good houseplants due to their minimal soil requirements. Epiphytes provide a rich and diverse habitat for other organisms including animals, fungi and myxomycetes. Epiphyte is one of the subdivisions of the Raunkiær system; the term epiphytic derives from the Greek epi- and phyton. Epiphytic plants are sometimes called "air plants".
However, there are many aquatic species of algae. The best-known epiphytic plants include mosses and bromeliads such as Spanish moss, but epiphytes may be found in every major group of the plant kingdom. 89% of terrestrial epiphyte species are flowering plants. The second largest group are the leptosporangiate ferns, with about 2800 species. In fact, about one third of all ferns are epiphytes; the third largest group is clubmosses, with 190 species, followed by a handful of species in each of the spikemosses, other ferns and cycads. The first important monograph on epiphytic plant ecology was written by A. F. W. Schimper. Assemblages of large epiphytes occur most abundantly in moist tropical forests, but mosses and lichens occur as epiphytes in all biomes. In Europe there are no dedicated epiphytic plants using roots, but rich assemblages of mosses and lichens grow on trees in damp areas, the common polypody fern grows epiphytically along branches. Grass, small bushes or small trees may grow in suspended soils up trees.
Epiphytes however, can be categorized into holo-epiphytes or hemi-epiphytes. A holo-epiphyte is a plant that spends its whole life cycle without contact with the ground and a hemi-epiphyte is a plant that spends only half of its life without the ground before the roots can reach or make contact with the ground. Orchids are a common example of holo-epiphytes and Strangler Figs are an example of hemi-epiphytes. Epiphytes are not connected to the soil, must get nutrients from other sources, such as fog, dew and mist, or from nutrients being released from the ground rooted plants by decomposition or leaching, dinitrogen fixation. Epiphytic plants attached to their hosts high in the canopy have an advantage over herbs restricted to the ground where there is less light and herbivores may be more active. Epiphytic plants are important to certain animals that may live in their water reservoirs, such as some types of frogs and arthropods. Epiphytes can have a significant effect on the microenvironment of their host, of ecosystems where they are abundant, as they hold water in the canopy and decrease water input to the soil.
Some non-vascular epiphytes such as lichens and mosses are well known for their ability to take up water rapidly. The epiphytes create a cooler and moister environment in the host plant canopy greatly reducing water loss by the host through transpiration; the ecology of epiphytes in marine environments differs from those in terrestrial ecosystems. Epiphytes in marine systems are species of algae, fungi, bryozoans, protozoa, crustaceans and any other sessile organism that grows on the surface of a plant seagrasses or algae. Settlement of epiphytic species is influenced by a number of factors including light, currents and trophic interactions. Algae are the most common group of epiphytes in marine systems. Photosynthetic epiphytes account for a large amount of the photosynthesis in systems in which they occur; this is between 20 and 60% of the total primary production of the ecosystem. They are a general group of organisms and are diverse, providing food for a great number of fauna. Snail and nudibranch species are two common grazers of epiphytes.
Epiphyte species composition and the amount of epiphytes can be indicative of changes in the environment. Recent increases in epiphyte abundance have been linked to excessive nitrogen put into the environment from farm runoff and storm water. High abundance of epiphytes are considered detrimental to the plants that they grow on causing damage or death in seagrasses; this is. Epiphytes in marine systems are known to grow with fast generation times. Epiphyllum - a genus of epiphytic cacti Parasitic plant Epilith, an organism that grows in a rock Epibiont, an organism that grows on another life form Epiphytic bacteria Epiphytic fungus Epiphytes on a Scot's Pine in Gorbie Glen, Scotland
Salvinia, a genus in the family Salviniaceae, is a floating fern named in honor of Anton Maria Salvini, a 17th-century Italian scientist. Watermoss is a common name for Salvinia; the genus was published in 1754 by Jean-François Séguier, in his description of the plants found round Verona, Plantae Veronenses Twelve species are recognized, at least three of which are believed to be hybrids, in part because their sporangia are found to be empty. Salvinia is related to the other water ferns, including the mosquito fern Azolla. Recent sources include both Azolla and Salvinia in Salviniaceae, although each genus was given its own family. Salvinia, like the other ferns in order Salviniales, are heterosporous, producing spores of differing sizes. However, leaf development in Salvinia is unique; the upper side of the floating leaf, which appears to face the stem axis, is morphologically abaxial. From a human point of view, when their growth is robust the plants pose a particular hindrance on lakes. For example, they choked off much of the water in Lake Bistineau near Doyline in Webster Parish and affected a second Webster Parish site, Caney Lakes Recreation Area.
Salvinia cucullata is one of just two fern species. Distribution is tropical, in North America, West Indies, Central America, South America and Africa, including Madagascar, South Borneo. Small, floating aquatics with creeping stems, bearing hairs on the leaf surface papillae but no true roots. Leaves are in trimerous whorls, with two leaves green, sessile or short-petioled, flat and floating, one leaf finely dissected, petiolate and pendent. Submerged leaves bearing sori, they bear sporocarps of two types, either megasporangia that are few in number, each with single megaspore, or many microsporangia, each with 64 microspores. Spores are of both globose, trilete. Megagametophytes and microgametophytes protruding through sporangium wall; the small, hairlike growths, known as trichomes or microgametical follicles, are not known to have any productive function, are a biological mystery. Giant salvinia is a introduced invasive weed in warm climates, it grows and forms dense mats over still waters. It is native to South America.
A tiny weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae, has been used to control giant salvinia. One proposed use takes advantage of the hydrophobic trichomes; this makes them candidates for mopping up oil spills, as they become saturated with oil in thirty seconds. S. molesta trichomes served as a model for a hydrophobic synthetic polycarbonate. The salvinia effect describes the stabilization of an air layer upon a submerged hydrophobic surface by hydrophilic pins; this physic-chemical phenomenon was discovered on the floating fern Salvinia molesta by the botanist Wilhelm Barthlott while working on the Lotus effect and was described in cooperation with the physicist Thomas Schimmel, fluid mechanist Alfred Leder and their colleagues in 2010. USDA Salvinia minima in Flora of North America S. molesta as pest