Ardèche is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of Southeastern France. It is named after the Ardèche River and had a population of 320,379 as of 2013, its largest cities are Aubenas, Guilherand-Granges, Tournon-sur-Rhône and Privas. The area has been inhabited by humans at least since the Upper Paleolithic, as attested by the famous cave paintings at Chauvet Pont d'Arc; the plateau of the Ardèche river has extensive standing stones, erected thousands of years ago. The river has the largest canyon in Europe and the caves that dot the cliffs—which go as high as 300 metres —are known for signs of prehistoric inhabitants; the Vivarais, as the Ardèche is still called, takes its name and coat-of-arms from Viviers, the capital of the Gaulish tribe of Helvii, part of Gallia Narbonensis, after the destruction of their previous capital at Alba-la-Romaine. Saint Andéol, a disciple of Polycarp, is supposed to have evangelized the Vivarais during the reign of Emperor Septimius Severus, was martyred in 208.
Legend tells of Andéol's burial by Amycia Eucheria Tullia. In 430, Auxonius transferred the see to Viviers as a result of the problems suffered at its previous site in Alba Augusta; the area of the Vivarais suffered in the 9th century with raids from Magyar and Saracen slavers operating from the coast of Provence resulting in an overall depopulation of the region. In the early 10th century, economic recovery saw the building of many Romanesque churches in the region including Ailhon, Saint Julien du Serre, Balazuc, Niègles and Rochecolombe; the medieval county of Viviers or Vivarais at this time was administratively a part of the Kingdom of Arles, formed in 933 with the fusion by Rudolph II of Burgundy of the realms of Provence and Burgundy and bequeathed by its last monarch Rudolph III of Burgundy to the Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II in 1032. Locally throughout this period, the Church played an important role. John II, Cardinal and Bishop of Viviers, accompanied Pope Urban II to the Council of Clermont.
It was held in fief by the Counts of Toulouse, who lost it to the French crown in 1229. In 1284, with the Cistercian Abbey of Marzan, Philip IV established Villeneuve de Berg, by the treaty of 10 July 1305 Philip IV of France obliged the bishops of Vivarais to admit the sovereignty of the Kings of France over all their temporal domain; the realm was ignored by the Emperors and was granted to France as part of the domain of the Dauphin, the future Charles VII of Valois in 1308. During this period, the Maillard family, as Counts of Tournon, were influential in the Ardèche. During the Hundred Years War, the area maintained its loyalty to the French crown, despite frequent attacks from the west; as a result of the reformation of John Calvin in Geneva, the Vivarais Ardèche was one of the areas which embraced Protestantism as a result of the missionary activity of 1534 by Jacques Valery. During the following Wars of Religion, the Ardèche was considered a strategically important location between Protestant Geneva and Catholic Languedoc.
The region had prospered with the introduction of tobacco growing from America, the agrarian experiments of Olivier de Serres, father of modern French agriculture. The influence of Protestant Lyon, the growth of the silk industry, thanks to the planting of mulberry trees, had given the burghers of the Vivarais towns a certain independence of thinking, with the support of powerful Protestant Huguenots, the Vivarais became a Protestant stronghold; as a result, it suffered many attacks and eight pitched battles between 1562 and 1595. In 1598, the Edict of Nantes put an end to these struggles. At that time, the Vivarais had over 75 Protestant churches and five fortified strongholds with permanent garrisons. However, the problems of the area were not over. In 1629, Paule de Chambaud, daughter of the Huguenot lord of Privas, chose instead to marry a Catholic, the Vicomte de l'Estrange, who supported the persecution of Protestants by Cardinal Richelieu. Privas, with a majority of the population Protestant, refused to submit, as a centre of the revolt of the Benjamin de Rohan, duc de Soubise, was burned to the ground by the forces of Louis XIII, sent to support the Vicomte de l'Estrange.
As a result, one-fifth of the Protestant population of the Vivarais emigrated. The Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, which outlawed Protestantism, resulted in the peasant family of Marie and Pierre Durand leading a revolt against royal authority; this led to the Camisard revolt of the Ardèche prophets. Louis XIV responded by dispatching Dragoons, who brutalised the population by "dragonnades", destroying a number of communities; the brutality of those years was enormous and peace was only restored in 1715. As a result of brutality on both sides, a further 50,000 Archèche Protestants left France, many fleeing to Switzerland, whilst others were forced into abjuration. In the following century, despite the growth of the community of Annonay, an increasing polarisation between the upper nobility families such as Rohan Soubise, Vogue, Count of Aubenas, possessing huge financial fortunes, the lesser nobility, the village clergy and the bourgeoisie of the Vivarais paralleled developments elsewhere in France.
Despite this, the sons of a local Annonay paper-maker and Jacques Etienne Montgolfier ascended in the first hot air balloon over the town on 4 June 1783. The firm of Canson Mongolfier continues making paper to this day and on the anniversary every year on the first weekend in June a large
Andance is a French commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Andançois or Andançoises Andance is located 5 km south of Saint-Rambert-d'Albon, 15 km east of Annonay, 20 km north of Tournon-sur-Rhone, it can be accessed by the D86 road from Champagne in the north passing through the village continuing south through the commune to Sarras. The D86B passes from the village over the Rhone to Andancette on the east bank; the D82 road comes from Saint-Etienne-de-Valoux in the north-east to the village. There are the small D370 road from Talencieux in the west to the village via a tortuous route and the D370B from Talencieux to the south of the commune; the commune has the Rhone as its entire eastern border with the Ruisseau de L'Ecoutay, the Ruisseau du Creux, the Ruisseau de Cueil, numerous other streams flowing through the commune to the Rhone. The Conce river forms the southern border of the commune and flows into the Rhone.
List of Successive Mayors The population of the commune is old. The proportion of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national rate while being less than the departmental rate; as with the national and departmental distribution, the female population of the commune is higher than the male population. The rate is of the same order of magnitude as the national rate; the distribution of the population of the commune was, in 2009, 50 % of women. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Andance and Ardèche Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the Sarrazinière Roman Ruins at Châtelet are registered as an historical monument Andance bridge was built in 1827 with iron wires and a central pier. The Andance bridge is the oldest suspension bridge still used today in France, it was built by Marc Seguin the brilliant inventor from Annonay. Destroyed during the Second World War on 30 August 1944, it was rebuilt and reopened in 1946 underwent further changes The Church of Our Lady of Andance is registered as an historical monument A Calvary of Three Saints.
The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: A Painting: Saint Philomena Martyred A Painting: Saint Romain A Painting: Pope Pius IX remitting indulgences to the Andance Priest for the Saint-Barrel Chapel A Painting: Crusaders bringing relics to the chapel An Altar Cross A Processional Cross 2 Prints with frames: Stations of the Cross A Reliquary A Statue: Saint Barulas A Statue: Black Madonna A Passion Cross: Cross of Bargemen Andance is mentioned in the poem by Louis Aragon, The conscript of a hundred villages, written as an act of clandestine intellectual resistance in 1943 during the Second World War. Communes of the Ardèche department Andance on the National Geographic Institute website Andance official website Andance on Lion1906 Andance on Google Maps Andance on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Andance on the 1750 Cassini Map Andance on the INSEE website INSEE
Beaumont is a commune in the Ardèche department in southern France. Communes of the Ardèche department INSEE
Albon-d'Ardèche is a commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Albonnais or Albonnaises Albon-d'Ardèche is located some 25 km west of Livron-sur-Drome and about 30 km east of Langogne; the commune is traversed by the D102 coming east from Mézilhac through the village and continuing east to Saint-Sauveur-de-Montagut. The D211 traverses the commune in the south running east from the D122 to Saint-Pierreville. Grand Feouzet in the south of the commune is accessed from this road via country roads. There is a considerable amount of forest in a little farming; the Glueyre river passes through the commune from west to east fed by a number of streams in the commune. The river passes through the village and continues east to join the Eyrieux river at Saint-Sauveur-de-Montagut; the Communes of Albon d'Ardèche and Marcols-les-Eaux formed the village of Marcol until 1912. List of Successive Mayors of Albon d'Ardèche The population of the town is old.
The rate of persons above the age of 60 years is higher than the national rate and departmental level. Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population; the distribution of the population of the municipality by age groups is, in 2008, as follows: 54.4% of men. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Albon d'Ardèche and Ardèche Department in 2008 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2008, INSEE. Results of the Census for Ardèche in 2008, INSEE.| Communes of the Ardèche department Albon-d'Ardèche official website Albon-d'Ardèche on the joint Inforoutes website Albon-d'Ardèche on the old National Geographic Institute website Albon-d'Ardèche on Lion1906 Albon-d'Ardèche on Google Maps Albon-d'Ardèche on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Albon on the 1750 Cassini Map Albon-d'Ardèche on the INSEE website INSEE
Ardoix is a commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ardoisiens or Ardoisiennes Adoix is located some 7 km west by north-west of Saint-Vallier and 14 km south-east of Annonay. Access to the commune is by the D221 road from Sarras in the east passing through the length of the commune and the village and continuing south-west to Saint-Romain-d'Ay. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Corme, Bruas and Chamas; the commune is a valley between two mountain ranges and apart from the slopes of the mountains is farmland. The Cance river forms a large part of the northern border of the commune as it flows east to the Rhone river. Many small tributaries of the Cance rise in the commune including the Ruisseau de la Goueille which forms the north-western border; the Ay river forms the southern border of the commune and flows east to the Rhone. In the gift of Quintenas made by Charlemagne to the Benedictine Abbey of Saint-Claude on 23 August 776, the Church of Saint-Didier d'Ardoix was mentioned.
Dependant on Saint Claude were the Chapel of Oriol, Saint-Alban-d'Ay, Saint-Jeure-d'Ay, Saint-Romain-d'Ay, the chapel of Our Lady of Ay. In 1557 Ardoix, as was Quintenas, were secularized and thereafter administered by the Diocese of Vienne; the old land of Ardoix towers. Oriol, Manoha, Léorat, le Pestrin Manoha was a fortified house and farm in medieval times, it is still a rural area today. The tower of Oriol is all. During the Hundred Years War it was sacked by soldiers. Taking advantage of the wars of religion, a criminal from Vernoux, took it and restored it to make it his lair. Farmers, frustrated by his robberies destroyed the castle to dislodge the bandit. List of Successive Mayors In 2009 the commune had 1,050 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year.
Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The population of the town is young. The ratio of persons above the age of 60 years is lower than the national average and the departmental average. Unlike national and departmental allocations, the male population of the town is greater than the female population. Percentage Distribution of Age Groups in Ardoix and Ardèche Department in 2009 Sources: Evolution and Structure of the population of the Commune in 2009, INSEE. Evolution and Structure of the population of the Department in 2009, INSEE; the Tower of Oriol The Chateau of Manoha The Chateau of Muñás The Oratory of Our Lady of Cormes The Church contains many items which are registered as historical objects: The Rostrum Balustrade A Baptismal font 2 Confessionals A Crucifix A Pulpit with supports A Stations of the Cross 4 Statues and Commemorative Plaques Decor of the Chapel of the Virgin Decor of the Chapel of the Sacred Heart Communes of the Ardèche department Ardoix official website Val d'Ay Tourism website Ardoix on the National Geographic Institute website Ardoix on Lion1906 Ardoix on Google Maps Ardoix on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Ardoix on the 1750 Cassini Map Ardoix on the INSEE website INSEE
Communes of the Ardèche department
The following is a list of the 335 communes of the Ardèche department of France. INSEE Ardèche communes
Balazuc is a French commune in the Ardèche department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of southern France. The village has been labelled a "Village of Character" by the Departmental Committee of Tourism, it is a member of Les Plus Beaux Villages de France Association. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Balazucaines. Balazuc is located some 16 km south of Aubenas just east of Uzer. Aubenas Aerodrome is just north of the commune. Access to the commune is by the D579 road from Vogüé in the north which passes through the commune east of the village and continues to Pradons in the south; the D294 goes west to the village. Apart from the village there are the hamlets of Servière, Translatour, Le Retourtier, Les Louanes in the commune; the commune is east with large areas of farmland in the centre. The Ardèche river flows through the commune and the village from north to south where it forms part of the southern border before continuing south to join the Rhône at Pont-Saint-Esprit. Numerous tributaries rise on both banks of the Ardèche and flow into the river including the Ruisseau de Mariou, the Ruisseau de Chadenas, the Ruisseau de Chastagnon, the Ruisseau de Tison, the Ruisseau des Costes.
For millennia Balazuc has been the site of a ford on the Ardèche river, a Gallic stronghold. The name Balazuc comes from the name Baladunum of bal meaning "rock" and "dunum" or "fortified height" in Gallic Balazuc has the remains of Neanderthal men who hunted ibex there over 50,000 years ago at the beginning of the last ice age. Farmers arrived in the Neolithic period around 3000 BC. to raise goats and sheep, cultivate the bottom of the depressions, place their dead in mass graves in stone coffins. In the Late Bronze Age, around 750 BC. the ford below the village was used. The Gauls, for whom there is no trace, gave it its name: Baladunum; the Gallo-Romans cultivated the Plain des Salles where the great Roman road passed between the Rhône and Nîmes. An early Christian sarcophagus has been found. In the Middle Ages the village had a church and a castle from the 11th to 13th centuries in an enclosure which dates them; the castle was built in the 12th century and enlarged in the 13th century with a square keep.
The ramparts, noble houses, fortified houses are well preserved. The village underwent an evolution of houses across the centuries but retained its originality and the medieval character of the village with its narrow streets and its "callades". Pons de Balazuc, the son of Gérard de Balazuc, was one of the first known lords, he went on the first crusade and was killed just before the capture of Jerusalem in 1099 at the Siege of Arqa near Tripoli. List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the commune had 341 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger communes that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 A Chateau is registered as an historical monument; the picturesque Medieval Village from the 11th and 13th centuries A copy of the Balazuc sarcophagus, an early Christian sarcophagus from the end of the 4th or early 5th century found in the hamlet of Salles, visible under the Town Hall A Fortified House from the 13th century The Viel Audon village cooperative The Romanesque Church of Saint Madeleine. is registered as an historical monument.
The windows of the Church are by the painter Jacques Yankel. The Church contains many items that are registered as historical objects: 2 Processional Crosses A Statue: Virgin Mary A Painting: Crucifixion The Dome of an old Tabernacle in the gallery A Statue: Virgin and child A Painting: Rosary A Statue: Virgin and child A Funeral chapel in ruins from the 13th century The Church of Saint Mary Magdelene from the late 19th century The Barasses climbing site The Ardèche Valley and the Gras de Chauzon are classified as a Zone naturelle d'intérêt écologique, faunistique et floristique; the middle Ardèche Valley and its tributaries are classified as a Natura 2000 site of Community importance The Roche-Haute Association since 1982 has organised concerts and exhibitions of paintings in the Romanesque church including paintings by: Guillaume Beaugé, Jacques Dromart, Erik Levesque. Guilhem de Balaun, Castellan of Balazuc and Occitan troubadour in the 13th century. John M. Merriman, Professor of French History and Geography at Yale University, has written a book on the History of Balazuc: The Stones of Balazuc.
Aimé Bocquet, pre-historian, in 2011 published a synthetic history of the village since ancient times focusing on life in the Middle Ages based on a tax document dated 1464: Balazuc, medieval village of Vivarais. Communes of the Ardèche department Balazuc on Lion1906 Balazuc on Google Maps Balazuc on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Balazuc on the 1750 Cassini Map Balazuc on the INSEE website INSEE