Seth E. Lover was a designer of amplifiers and musical instrument electronics and effects, he is most famous for developing the Gibson humbucker or hum-cancelling electric stringed instrument pickup, most used on the electric guitar. Seth Lover began working with electronics as a child, continued working with them during and after his first service with the US Army in the 1930s, he worked in an electronics shop in Kalamazoo, repairing radios and building amplifiers. In the 1940s he worked for Gibson Guitars before joining the service a second time during World War II. During the rest of the 1940s and 1950s, his career fluctuated between working for Gibson and the US Navy, he developed the humbucking pickup for Gibson in 1955, designed the first fuzztone distortion device, called the Varitone, in 1961. He stayed with Gibson until 1967. Lover died on January 1997 at the age of 87 after a brief illness, he was survived by his wife, his two sons, his three grandchildren. Lover's most famous humbucker design was the P.
A. F. Designed while working for Gibson in 1955; this pickup was utilized in a range of Gibson guitars, most notably the Les Paul model. Before Lover, electric guitarists were forced to cope with the 60-cycle hum received by single coil pickups, it was in the mid-'50s, while working as an amplifier designer at Gibson Guitars, that Lover figured out how to wire two coils electrically out of phase and with reversed magnetic polarities. The effect was to cancel the hum before it reached the amp and the result was the birth of the humbucking pickup. Lover applied for the patent on the humbucking pickup in 1955 and it was granted in 1959. During this five-year period, Gibson adhered a "Patent Applied For" sticker to the underside of their humbucker pickups; these "P. A. F." Pickups are among the most collectable and desirable pickups today, fetching upwards of $1,000 each among vintage guitar collectors. While working under Ted McCarty at Gibson, Lover was involved in guitar design, he liked to tell how he helped contribute to the design of the famous "Flying V."
Lover said that he thought up the design as a way to lean the guitar against a wall without it tipping over. Lover worked for Gibson from 1952 to 1967 as a design engineer. Another of his designs, known as the Fender Wide Range humbucking pickup, was used in the three Telecaster models produced by Fender in the 1960-1970s; the Wide Range pickup was used in the Fender Starcaster. In 1967, he transferred to Fender Musical Instruments where he worked until 1975 as a project engineer. In addition to his two Gibson patents, he authored three more at Fender—two for loudspeaker cabinets and one for an electric piano pickup, he retired to the Southern California town of Garden Grove. Seymour W. Duncan, a guitar pickup designer and manufacturer, considered Lover his "humbucker mentor." The two were associated for nearly 20 years. In 1994, Duncan and Lover jointly produced the Seth Lover Model pickup, a re-creation of the "Patent Applied For" humbucker. After numerous full-page ads, NAMM Show appearances, magazine interviews, Lover became a minor celebrity at age 84.
During his final years, Lover was a regular member of the Seymour Duncan NAMM-team
Daniel Milliken was a sailor in the U. S. Navy during the American Civil War, he received the Medal of Honor for his actions during the Second Battle of Fort Fisher on January 15, 1865. Milliken volunteered for service in the U. S. Navy and was assigned to the Union ironclad USS New Ironsides, his enlistment is credited to the state of New York. On January 15, 1865, the North Carolina Confederate stronghold of Fort Fisher was taken by a combined Union storming party of sailors and soldiers under the command of Admiral David Dixon Porter and General Alfred Terry; the President of the United States of America, in the name of Congress, takes pleasure in presenting the Medal of Honor to Quarter Gunner Daniel Milliken, United States Navy, for extraordinary heroism in action while serving on board the U. S. S. New Ironsides during action in several attacks on Fort Fisher, North Carolina, 24 and 25 December 1864, 13,14 and 15 January 1865; the ship steamed in and took the lead in the Ironclad division close inshore and opened its starboard battery in a barrage of well directed fire to cause several fires and explosions and dismount several guns during the first two days of fighting.
Taken under fire as she steamed into position on 13 January, the New Ironsides fought all day and took on ammunition at night despite severe weather conditions. When the enemy came out of his bombproofs to defend the fort against the storming party, the ship's battery disabled nearly every gun on the fort facing the shore before the "cease fire" orders were given by the flagship. General Orders: War Department, General Orders No. 59 Action Date: December 24–25, 1864 & January 13–15, 1865 Service: Navy Rank: Quarter Gunner Division: U. S. S. New Ironsides List of Medal of Honor recipients List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: M–P List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Second Battle of Fort Fisher Deeds of valor: How America's heroes won the medal of honor. 1902. Pp. 73–86. Retrieved June 20, 2010. "Daniel Milliken". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved June 19, 2010. "Daniel Milliken". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved June 19, 2010
Pauline Donalda, was a Canadian operatic soprano. Donalda was born Pauline Lightstone in Montreal, the daughter of Jewish parents who changed their surname from Lichtenstein to Lightstone after immigrating from Russia and Poland, she studied with Clara Lichtenstein at part of McGill University. In 1902, went to the Conservatoire de Paris on a grant from Donald Smith, Lord Strathcona, the patron of RVC. There, she studied voice with Edmond Duvernoy, she adopted the stage name Donalda in honour of her patron. With the help of composer Jules Massenet, Donalda made her debut in 1904 in Nice, singing the title role in his opera Manon; the following year, she debuted in London. Donalda was the first to sing the roles of Concepción in Maurice Ravel's L'heure espagnole and Ah-joe in Franco Leoni's L'Oracolo at Covent Garden. In November 1906, she returned to Montreal to sing in a recital at the Montreal Arena with her new husband, baritone Paul Seveilhac; the following month, she began a season with Oscar Hammerstein's new Manhattan Opera House.
She returned to Europe in 1907, singing principally in Paris. Donalda was in Canada, she chose to remain in the country, singing in concerts and music halls, with occasional appearances in New York and Boston. In Montreal, she organized the Donalda Sunday Afternoon Concerts, donating the proceeds to war charities, she returned to Paris in 1917, married her second husband, Mischa Léon, there the following year. In 1922, Donalda opened a teaching studio in Paris where she taught many students over the next few years, she opened a studio there. Her students in Montreal included Robert Savoie, she founded the Opera Guild of Montreal in 1942, serving as president and artistic director until 1969. In 1967, she was made an Officer of the Order of Canada "for her contribution to the arts opera, as a singer and founder of the Opera Guild in Montreal." "DONALDA, PAULINE, 1882–1970". Retrieved November 21, 2005; the Virtual Gramophone's Pauline Lightstone Donalda biography portrait
MacQueen's bustard is a large bird in the bustard family. It is native to the desert and steppe regions of Asia, east from the Sinai Peninsula extending across Kazakhstan east to Mongolia. In the 19th century, vagrants were found as far west of their range as Great Britain. Populations have decreased by 20 to 50% between 1984 and 2004 due to hunting and changes in land-use. MacQueen's bustard is a partial latitudinal migrant. Both species are the only members of the genus Chlamydotis. MacQueen's bustard used to be regarded as a subspecies of the houbara bustard and known as the "Asian houbara", it is the unofficial provincial bird of Pakistan. Otis macqueenii was proposed by John Edward Gray in 1834 for a bustard from India drawn by Thomas Hardwicke, it was long regarded a subspecies of the African houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata. It was classified as a distinct species in 2003; the genus name Chlamydotis is from Ancient Greek khlamus, a horseman's cloak with weights sewn into the corners, otis, bustard.
MacQueen's bustard is much paler. The feathers on the top of the head include some long and curved feathers which are white or black with white bases. In the houbara, these crest feathers are all white and the difference is evident during the display of the male; the lack of intermediate forms in the region where the ranges of MacQueen's bustard and houbara bustard meet, presumed to be in the Nile valley, differences in morphology and display behaviour led to their being elevated to full species. The houbara bustard now refers only to the North African population, included as the nominate subspecies C. undulata undulata and a small population on the Canary Islands. Estimates based on the divergence of mitochondrial DNA sequence suggest that the species separated from the common ancestors of C. u. undulata and C. u. fuertaventurae nearly 430,000 years ago. This divergence may have begun 900,000 years ago, at a time of extreme aridity; the wide dispersal abilities of MacQueen's bustard ensure that their genes are more well mixed unlike the geographically structured genetic patterns shown by the African houbara.
This medium-sized bustard is about 65 cm long with a 140 cm wingspan. It is brown white below, with black stripes down the sides of the neck. In flight, the long wings show large areas of black and brown on the flight feathers and a white patch at the base of the primaries. From below the wing is white with a black trailing edge. Sexes are similar. Males and females are nearly identical in plumage but males are larger than females. A study of the morphometrics of MacQueen's bustards from Pakistan based on about 79 individuals of known sex showed that the males were 9 to 15% larger than females on most measurements; the use of discriminant analysis allowed correct identification of the sexes based on morphometrics in about 99% of the cases. MacQueen's bustard is silent except for the sounds that males make in their display. Like other bustards, they have a flamboyant display, raising the white feathers of the head and throat and withdrawing the head while walking around a chosen lek site. MacQueen's bustard occurs from the east of the Sinai Peninsula to the Caspian Sea and extending east to the Aral Sea in Mongolia.
Birds from the northern populations winter further south in Pakistan and in the dry arid zone of western India. Vagrants have been found as far west and north as Britain and as far south as northern Kerala. A bird was shot in 1847 at Lincolnshire, Yorkshire in 1898, another in Aberdeenshire in 1898 all in the month of October; the last of these vagrants visited Suffolk in November–December 1962. This species breeds in deserts and other arid sandy areas. A study of their habitat in Saudi Arabia found the species to be dependent on good vegetation cover and tended to be found in areas with dense growth of scrub vegetation Capparis spinosa. A study in the steppes of Iran found that nest sites were chosen in locations with high densities of insect prey which in turn were related to vegetation characteristics, their migrations have been tracked using satellite transmitters. Mongolian birds leave the wintering areas in Afghanistan and Pakistan from mid to late March and arrive in their breeding grounds after about two months of flying, taking a path that avoids the high mountains of the Himalayas.
They cover a total of 4,400 km with stopovers along the path. They spend about four months in their breeding territories before setting off again and reach their winter grounds from October to December; the male houbara displays with the neck upright and the feathers on the base of the neck erected. A few feathers on the head are erected while walking with one foot moved and placed just ahead of the other; this is followed by a more vigorous phase of running either in a line or in a circle around a few bushes while the neck is tucked back into an "S". The neck feathers cover the head; the feet are raised in a measured gait and the neck is swayed from side to side. A low sound of breathing may be heard but only at close. Males will call during display and if there are no potential mates, the display may be repeated; when a mate appears to be receptive, the male puffs up the black feathers on the sides of the neck so that it appears like a black collar or ruff and walks towards the female while twisting his body from side to side.
The Moser Gender Planning Framework is a tool for gender analysis in development planning. It was developed by Caroline Moser; the goal is to free women from subordination and allow them to achieve equality and empowerment. Moser developed the Framework for a Gender and Development approach to development planning in the 1980s while working at the Development Planning Unit of the University of London. Working with Caren Levy, she expanded it into a methodology for gender planning. Moser and Levy published A Theory and Method of Gender Planning – Meeting Women's Practical and Strategic Needs as a DPU working paper in 1986; the framework is based on Moser's concepts of gender roles and gender needs, her views on the ways policies should approach gender and development planning. The Moser framework follows the Gender and Development approach in emphasizing the importance of gender relations; as with the WID-based Harvard Analytical Framework, it includes collection of quantitative empirical facts.
Going further, it investigates the reasons and processes that lead to conventions of access and control. The Moser Framework includes gender roles identification, gender needs assessment, disaggregating control of resources and decision making within the household, planning for balancing the triple role, distinguishing between different aims in interventions and involving women and gender-aware organizations in planning; the framework acknowledges a political element to gender planning, assumes that the process will have to deal with conflicts. The framework rests on three basic concepts: the triple role of women and strategic gender needs and categories of WID/GAD policy approaches; the triple role consists of reproductive and community-managing activities. Practical needs are ones. Strategic needs are needs that, if met, transform the balance of power between women. Different categories of WID/GAD policy approach, which may or may not be appropriate, include welfare, anti-poverty and empowerment.
The framework provides six tools. Tool 1 identifies gender roles: what women, men and girls do in various productive and community-managing activities. Tool 2 identifies the strategic needs of women. Tool 3 defines an control profile for resources and benefits of economic activity. Tool 4 examines the impact that a new project or program will have on the three roles. A change addressing one area may affect others in a negative sense. Tool 5 looks at how welfare, anti-poverty, efficiency or empowerment approaches will address practical or strategic needs; the approaches are not mutually exclusive. Tool 6 looks at way women and gender-aware organisations and individuals can be involved in the process. Although used, the framework has been subject to some criticism; the concept of gender roles may tend to obscure the concept of gender relationships. It may give a sense of a stable balance, acceptance of each person's normal activities and rights, when in fact there is ongoing negotiation and compromise.
The framework does not consider evolution of the socioeconomic structure over time. The framework only addresses gender inequality and does not consider other types of inequality such as caste, class or race. Naila Kabeer has argued that the triple role concept obscures the distinction between activity and outcome. For example, the outcome of child care could be achieved by the mother at home, by a communal creche or through paid private or state facilities; these are different in terms of their effect on women. Caroline O. N. Moser. Gender planning and development: theory and training. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-05621-7
Louise Martine Laurette Conring was a Danish superintendent, hospital inspector and nurse. Charged by Princess Louise to investigate the Deaconess Institutes in Germany and France with a view to creating one in Denmark, Conring was the first Danish woman to be trained in nursing heading the Deaconess Institute in Copenhagen from 1863. Born on 1 March 1824 at Rungsted in Hørsholm Municipality, Conring was the daughter of August Georg Carl Conring and his wife Hanne Christiane Braem, she was a fragile child who spent her childhood winters in bed at her parents' home in Rendsburg in Danish Schleswig, where her father was a customs official, the summers on her grandparents' farm at Rungsted, north of Copenhagen. Owing to her poor health, Conring went to school but was taught by her mother and other tutors at home, together with her sister. From the age of 13, she attended church becoming more religious after her mother died in 1839, she spent three pleasant years in Copenhagen in affluent circles where she was encouraged to take part in charitable work.
She joined child care associations. After spending a few years in Neustadt, she returned to Copenhagen where she was appointed inspector of the Børneplejeforening with responsibility for 400 children, she was the first woman in Denmark to be given such an appointment. The work was not easy and she called on assistance from various circles, one of which brought her into contact with Princess Louise. While in Neustadt, Conring had assisted the philanthropist Amalie Sieveking in her work with Hamburg's poor, she visited the Deaconess House in Kaiserswerth near Düsseldorf, established by Theodor Fliedner and his wife Friederike in 1836. She was attracted by the deaconess approach which allowed women to care for the sick while learning both theology and nursing skills. Following Fliender's example, deaconess mother houses were established in Norway and Sweden. In 1861, Princess Louise began to look for a Danish woman who could run a deaconess establishment in Denmark. On the recommendation of Nicolai Gottlieb Blædel, pastor of Garrison Church, she chose Conring who accepted the appointment after visiting the Deaconess Institute in Stockholm.
In March 1863, she became the first Danish deaconess, installed by Fliedner himself in Kaiserswerth. Under Conring's leadership, the first Deaconess Institute was opened in Frederiksberg's Smallegade on 26 May 1863. There were four sisters but the establishment grew accommodating 63 patients and 17 sisters over the first two years. In 1865, new premises were acquired and in 1873 today's Deaconess Institute building was opened. Conring adopted a strict, old-fashioned approach in running the institute, becoming difficult in handling male patients. Two of her male colleagues left in protest but she maintained the respect of her female colleagues and toned down her approach on Queen Louise's advice. Louise Conring died in the Frederiksberg district of Copenhagen on 1 April 1891. Succeeded by Sophie Zahrtmann, she left behind her a thriving institution which enjoyed a network of support throughout the country