26th United States Congress
The Twenty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D. C. from March 4, 1839, to March 4, 1841, during the third and fourth years of Martin Van Buren's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Democratic majority. 1839: The first state law permitting women to own property was passed in Jackson, Mississippi January 19, 1840: Captain Charles Wilkes circumnavigated Antarctica, claiming what becomes known as Wilkes Land for the United States. November 7, 1840: U. S. presidential election, 1840: William Henry Harrison defeated Martin Van Buren February 18, 1841: The first ongoing filibuster in the United States Senate began and lasted until March 11 President: Richard M. Johnson President pro tempore: William R. King Speaker: Robert M. T.
Hunter Elected on the 11th ballot This list is arranged by chamber by state. Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1844; the names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers. The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress. Replacements: 8 Democrats: 0-seat net loss Whigs: 0-seat net gain Deaths: 3 Resignations: 7 Interim appointments: 0 Total seats with changes: 11 Replacements: 15 Democrats: 2-seat net loss Whigs: 3-seat net gain Anti-Masonic: 1-seat net loss Deaths: 6 Resignations: 10 Contested election: 0 Total seats with changes: 17 Lists of committees and their party leaders.
Agriculture Audit and Control the Contingent Expenses of the Senate Bank Note Circulation Bankruptcy Claims Commerce Debts of the States Distributing Public Revenue Among the States District of Columbia Finance Fishing Bounties and Allowances Florida and Its Admission to the Union Foreign Relations Indian Affairs Judiciary Manufactures Mileage of Members of Congress Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents and the Patent Office Pensions Post Office and Post Roads Private Land Claims Public Buildings and Grounds Public Lands Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Tariff Regulation Washington City Charter Whole Accounts Agriculture Claims Commerce District of Columbia Elections Expenditures in the Navy Department Expenditures in the Post Office Department Expenditures in the State Department Expenditures in the Treasury Department Expenditures in the War Department Expenditures on Public Buildings Foreign Affairs Indian Affairs Invalid Pensions Manufactures Mileage Military Affairs Militia Naval Affairs Patents Post Office and Post Roads Public Buildings and Grounds Public Expenditures Public Lands Revisal and Unfinished Business Revolutionary Claims Roads and Canals Rules Standards of Official Conduct Territories Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Librarian of Congress: John Silva Meehan Chaplain: George G. Cookman Secretary: Asbury Dickens Sergeant at Arms: Stephen Haight Chaplain: Joshua Bates, elected February 4, 1840 Thomas W. Braxton, elected December 7, 1840 Clerk: Hugh A. Garland Doorkeeper: Joseph Follansbee Postmaster: William J. McCormick Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Roderick Dorsey List of Members of the United States House of Representatives in the 26th Congress by seniority List of United States congressional districts List of United States Senators in the 26th Congress by seniority United States elections, 1838 United States Senate elections, 1838 and 1839 United States House of Representatives elections, 1838 United States elections, 1840 United States presidential election, 1840 United States Senate elections, 1840 and 1841 United States House of Representatives elections, 1840 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists Watterston, George. Congressional Directory for the 26th Congress, 1st Session
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
New York gubernatorial elections
There have been 90 gubernatorial elections in the state of New York since 1777. The next one will be held on November 3, 2022; the term was three years long and began on July 1, the election being held in the last week of April or May 1. In 1817, following the resignation of Daniel D. Tompkins after serving only eight months of his term, there was a new election, since the 1777 Constitution did not give the Lt. Gov. the right to succeed to the governor's office, DeWitt Clinton was elected for a whole three-year-term. The New York State Constitutional Convention of 1821 reduced the term to two years – beginning on January 1 and ending on December 31 – and moved the election to the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. Due to this measure, DeWitt Clinton's own second term was cut short by half a year. Beginning with the election in 1876, the term was increased to three years again, beginning with the election in 1894 reduced to two years, since the election in 1938 has its present duration of four years.
Although the candidates for Lieutenant Governor have always run on tickets with the governor's candidates, until the election of 1950 they were elected on separate ballots, so on several occasions the governor and his lieutenant were elected of opposing tickets. In only 15 of the total 89 elections the incumbent was defeated; the elected candidates are shown in bold face in the tables below. Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1938; the term is four years. Note: 4,985,932 ballots were cast in this election. Out of them, 250,696 were declared void or missing. Note: This election has the highest number of votes received by any Governor of NY to date. Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1894; the term was two years. Note: This was the last time the running mate of the elected governor was defeated, Democrat Smith having Republican Lowman as lieutenant for the duration of this term. Notes: List of candidates, in NYT on September 13, 1920 List of candidates, in NYT on October 27, 1920 Notes: This was the first time women voted for governor of New York, Alfred E. Smith was the first governor elected with more than 1 million votes.
Election result in NYT on December 31, 1918 Note: William Sulzer had been elected governor as a Democrat at the previous election, but was impeached. Martin Glynn had been succeeded to the governorship upon Sulzer's impeachment. Note: election result, in NYT on December 16, 1910 Note: The majority faction of the Democratic Party were known as "Silver Democrats", the "National Democrats" were the "Gold Democrats". Notes: Wheeler was nominated by the "Democratic Reform Association of Brooklyn" who were opposed to the regular Democrats led by Hugh McLaughlin. Election result in NYT on December 15, 1894 Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1846, amended in 1874; the term was three years. The tickets: in NYT on November 3, 1879 The tickets: in NYT on November 2, 1876 The Greenback convention: in NYT on September 27, 1876 Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1846; the term was two years. The tickets: in NYT on October 30, 1870 Note: John T. Hoffman was a Democrat, Robert H. Pruyn a Republican.
The "Conservative Union" ticket was nominated by the Democrats in an attempt to attract Republicans Democrats who had joined the Republican Union and remained Republicans after the Civil War, to return to the Democratic Party. Note: Horatio Seymour was the candidate of the Democratic Party that wanted to end the war. James Wadsworth was a Republican, Lyman Tremain a pre-war Democrat, nominated by the Republican Union in which the Republican Party was joined by the War Democrats who supported Lincoln and the Union; the total of ballots cast were more than 70,000 less than in the previous election because the soldiers in the field were not allowed to vote. Note: William Kelly was the candidate of the majority faction of the Democratic Party which supported Stephen A. Douglas for President. James T. Brady was a member of Tammany Hall, nominated by the minority faction of the Democratic Party which supported John C. Breckinridge for President. Notes: Result: Official State Canvass in NYT on December 21, 1854.
Myron H. Clark won this election with the lowest percentage in NY Gov. elections, nominated by the Whigs, endorsed by the Anti-Nebraska Party, the Anti-Rent Party, the "Free Democrats", the supporters of Temperance. The "Soft" or "Soft-shell" candidate was the choice of the majority faction of the Democratic Party; the American Party was called "Know Nothing" in contemporaneous newspapers. The "National Democracy" were called "Hard-shells" by contemporaneous newspapers. Liberty Party convention in NYT on September 29, 1854 Note: At the first judicial election under the Constitution of 1846, Addison Gardiner was elected in June 1847 to the Court of Appeals, to take office on July 1, 1847. To fill the vacancy, on September 27, a special election was scheduled by the State Legislature to be held at the annual state election. Result Manual of the Corporation of the City of New York Gubernatorial elections under the State Constitution of 1821; the term was two years. Until 1840, elections were held during three days beginning on the first Monday in November.
Since 1841, until today, all regular elections have been held on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The elected candidate takes office on January 1 of the following calendar year. Re
A bar association is a professional association of lawyers. Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their jurisdiction. In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, the bar association comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates in particular, versus solicitors. Membership in bar associations may be mandatory or optional for practicing attorneys, depending on jurisdiction; the use of the term bar to mean "the whole body of lawyers, the legal profession" comes from English custom. In the early 16th century, a railing divided the hall in the Inns of Court, with students occupying the body of the hall and readers or benchers on the other side. Students who became lawyers crossed the symbolic physical barrier and were "admitted to the bar"; this was popularly assumed to mean the wooden railing marking off the area around the judge's seat in a courtroom, where prisoners stood for arraignment and where a barrister stood to plead. In modern courtrooms, a railing may still be in place to enclose the space, occupied by legal counsel as well as the criminal defendants and civil litigants who have business pending before the court.
In many Commonwealth jurisdictions, including in England and Wales, the "bar association" comprises lawyers who are qualified as barristers or advocates, while the "law society" comprises solicitors. These bodies are sometimes mutually exclusive, while in other jurisdictions, the "bar" may refer to the entire community of persons engaged in the practice of law. In Canada, one is called to the bar after undertaking a post-law-school training in a provincial law society program, undergoing an apprenticeship or taking articles. Legal communities are called provincial law societies, except for Nova Scotia, where it is called the Nova Scotia Barristers' Society, Quebec, where it is called the Barreau du Quebec; the Canadian Bar Association is a professional association of barristers and avocats that serves the roles of advocates for the profession, provides continuing legal education and member benefits. It does not play a part in the regulation of the profession, however. In India under the legal framework set established under the Advocates Act, 1961, a law graduate is required to be enrolled with the Bar Council of India.
The process of enrollment is delegated by the Bar Council of India to the state Bar Councils wherein each state has a Bar Council of its own. Once enrolled with a State Bar Council, the law graduate is recognized as an Advocate provisionally for a period of two years, within which they must clear the All India Bar Examination conducted by the Bar Council of India. Once the advocate clears the AIBE test, they are entitled to appear and practice before any court of law in India. There is no formal requirement for further membership of any Bar Association. However, Advocates do become members of various local or national bar associations for reasons of recognition and facilities which these associations offer; some well-known Bar Associations in India include the Supreme Court Bar Association, Delhi High Court Bar Association, Bombay Bar Association, Delhi Bar Association, National Bar Association of India, All India Bar Association, etc. In Pakistan, a person becomes a licensee of a Provincial Bar Council after fulfilling certain requirements.
He must have a valid law degree LL. B from a recognized university by the Pakistan Bar council, must offer certain undertakings, pay the Provincial Bar Council fees. Furthermore, he shall join any bar association as a member. Tehsil bar associations work under the umbrella of District Bar Association, District Bar Association under Provincial Bar councils, such as the Punjab Bar Council and Sindh Bar Council. To become an advocate, one must first complete six months pupillage with a practising advocate of High Court, whom they must assist on at least ten cases during a six-month pupillage. Membership in the bar is a privilege burdened with conditions. —Benjamin N. Cardozo, In re Rouss, 221 N. Y. 81, 84 In the United States, admission to the bar is permission granted by a particular court system to a lawyer to practice law in that system. This is to be distinguished from membership in a bar association. In the United States, some states require membership in the state bar association for all attorneys, while others do not.
Although bar associations existed as unincorporated voluntary associations, nearly all bar associations have since been organized as corporations. Furthermore, membership in some of them is no longer voluntary, why some of them have omitted the word "association" and call themselves the "state bar" to indicate that they are the incorporated body that constitutes the entire admitted legal profession of a state; some states require membership in the state's bar association to practice law there. Such an organization is called a mandatory, integrated, or unified bar, is a type of government-granted monopoly, they exist at present in a slight majority of U. S. states: Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Washington State, West Virginia and Wyoming. The District of Columbia, the U. S. Virgin Islands and the Northern Mariana Islands have unified bars; the mandatory status of the Puerto Rico Bar Associati
Seth M. Gates House
Seth M. Gates House is a historic home located at Warsaw in Wyoming County, New York, it is a two-story, wood frame dwelling built in 1824 and expanded in about 1843. It started as the expansion added two bays on the north end, it features a Federal style cornice. Its owner from about 1843 until his death was Seth M. Gates, who served in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1838 to 1842. From the time of his purchase, for the next 15 years the house was a station on the Underground Railroad, Gates concealing the fugitives in the cellar and attic. From 1893 to 1924, it was home to the Society of a local charitable organization. In 1924, it was sold to the local chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, who owned it until turning it over to the Warsaw Historical Society in 1977 for $1.00. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992. Seth M. Gates House - Warsaw, New York - Underground Railroad Sites on Waymarking.com Gates, Seth M. House - Warsaw, New York - History Museums on Waymarking.com Seth M. Gates House History - Warsaw Historical Society, NY Warsaw Historical Society
Alma mater is an allegorical Latin phrase for a university, school, or college that one attended. In US usage it can mean the school from which one graduated; the phrase is variously translated as "nourishing mother", "nursing mother", or "fostering mother", suggesting that a school provides intellectual nourishment to its students. Fine arts will depict educational institutions using a robed woman as a visual metaphor. Before its current usage, alma mater was an honorific title for various Latin mother goddesses Ceres or Cybele, in Catholicism for the Virgin Mary, it entered academic usage when the University of Bologna adopted the motto Alma Mater Studiorum, which describes its heritage as the oldest operating university in the Western world. It is related to alumnus, a term used for a university graduate that means a "nursling" or "one, nourished". Although alma was a common epithet for Ceres, Cybele and other mother goddesses, it was not used in conjunction with mater in classical Latin. In the Oxford Latin Dictionary, the phrase is attributed to Lucretius' De rerum natura, where it is used as an epithet to describe an earth goddess: After the fall of Rome, the term came into Christian liturgical usage in association with the Virgin Mary.
"Alma Redemptoris Mater" is a well-known 11th century antiphon devoted to Mary. The earliest documented use of the term to refer to a university in an English-speaking country is in 1600, when the University of Cambridge printer, John Legate, began using an emblem for the university's press; the device's first-known appearance is on the title-page of William Perkins' A Golden Chain, where the Latin phrase Alma Mater Cantabrigia is inscribed on a pedestal bearing a nude, lactating woman wearing a mural crown. In English etymological reference works, the first university-related usage is cited in 1710, when an academic mother figure is mentioned in a remembrance of Henry More by Richard Ward. Many historic European universities have adopted Alma Mater as part of the Latin translation of their official name; the University of Bologna Latin name, Alma Mater Studiorum, refers to its status as the oldest continuously operating university in the world. Other European universities, such as the Alma Mater Lipsiensis in Leipzig, Germany, or Alma Mater Jagiellonica, have used the expression in conjunction with geographical or foundational characteristics.
At least one, the Alma Mater Europaea in Salzburg, Austria, an international university founded by the European Academy of Sciences and Arts in 2010, uses the term as its official name. In the United States, the College of William & Mary in Williamsburg, has been called the "Alma Mater of the Nation" because of its ties to the country's founding. At Queen's University in Kingston and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, British Columbia, the main student government is known as the Alma Mater Society; the ancient Roman world had many statues of the Alma Mater, some still extant. Modern sculptures are found in prominent locations on several American university campuses. For example, in the United States: there is a well-known bronze statue of Alma Mater by Daniel Chester French situated on the steps of Columbia University's Low Library. An altarpiece mural in Yale University's Sterling Memorial Library, painted in 1932 by Eugene Savage, depicts the Alma Mater as a bearer of light and truth, standing in the midst of the personified arts and sciences.
Outside the United States, there is an Alma Mater sculpture on the steps of the monumental entrance to the Universidad de La Habana, in Havana, Cuba. The statue was cast in 1919 by Mario Korbel, with Feliciana Villalón Wilson as the inspiration for Alma Mater, it was installed in its current location in 1927, at the direction of architect Raul Otero. Media related to Alma mater at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of alma mater at Wiktionary Alma Mater Europaea website