A happening is a performance, event, or situation meant to be considered art as performance art. The term was first used by Allan Kaprow during the 1950s to describe a range of art-related event or multiple events. Happenings occur anywhere and are multi-disciplinary, with a nonlinear narrative and the active participation of the audience. Key elements of happenings are planned but artists sometimes retain room for improvisation; this new media art aspect to happenings eliminates the boundary between its viewer. In the late 1960s due to the depiction in films of hippie culture, the term was used much less to mean any gathering of interest from a pool hall meetup or a jamming of a few young people to a beer blast or fancy formal party. Allan Kaprow first coined the term "happening" in the spring of 1959 at an art picnic at George Segal's farm to describe the art pieces that were going on; the first appearance in print was in Kaprow's famous "Legacy of Jackson Pollock" essay, published in 1958 but written in 1956.
"Happening" appeared in print in one issue of the Rutgers University undergraduate literary magazine, Anthologist. The form was imitated and the term was adopted by artists across the U. S. Germany, Japan. Jack Kerouac referred to Kaprow as "The Happenings man", an ad showing a woman floating in outer space declared, "I dreamt I was in a happening in my Maidenform brassiere". Happenings are difficult to describe, in part because each one is unique and different from one another. One definition comes from Wardrip-Fruin and Montfort in The New Media Reader, "The term'Happening' has been used to describe many performances and events, organized by Allan Kaprow and others during the 1950s and 1960s, including a number of theatrical productions that were traditionally scripted and invited only limited audience interaction." Another definition is, "a purposefully composed form of theatre in which diverse alogical elements, including nonmatrixed performing, are organized in a compartmented structure".
However, Canadian theatre critic and playwright Gary Botting, who himself had "constructed" several happenings, wrote in 1972: "Happenings abandoned the matrix of story and plot for the complex matrix of incident and event."Kaprow was a student of John Cage, who had experimented with "musical happenings" at Black Mountain College as early as 1952. Kaprow combined the visual arts with discordant music. "His happenings incorporated the use of huge constructions or sculptures similar to those suggested by Artaud," wrote Botting, who compared them to the "impermanent art" of Dada. "A happening explores negative space in the same way. It is a form of symbolism: actions concerned with'now' or fantasies derived from life, or organized structures of events appealing to archetypal symbolic associations." A "Happening" of the same performance will have different outcomes because each performance depends on the action of the audience. In New York City "Happenings" became quite popular though many had neither seen nor experienced them.
Happenings can be a form of participatory new media art, emphasizing an interaction between the performer and the audience. In his Water, Robert Whitman had the performers drench each other with coloured water. "One girl squirmed between wet inner tubes struggling through a large silver vulva." Claes Oldenburg, best known for his innovative sculptures, used a vacant house, his own store, the parking lot of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in Los Angeles for Injun, World's Fair II and AUT OBO DYS. The idea was to break down the fourth wall between spectator. For some happenings, everyone present is included in the making of the art and the form of the art depends on audience engagement, for they are a key factor in where the performers' spontaneity leads. Happenings had no set rules, only vague guidelines that the performers follow based on surrounding props. Unlike other forms of art, Happenings that allow chance to enter are ever-changing; when chance determines the path the performance will follow, there is no room for failure.
As Kaprow wrote in his essay, "'Happenings' in the New York Scene", "Visitors to a Happening are now and not sure what has taken place, when it has ended when things have gone'wrong'. For when something goes'wrong', something far more'right,' more revelatory, has many times emerged". Kaprow's piece 18 Happenings in 6 Parts is cited as the first happening, although that distinction is sometimes given to a 1952 performance of Theater Piece No. 1 at Black Mountain College by John Cage, one of Kaprow's teachers in the mid-1950s. Cage stood reading from a ladder, Charles Olson read from another ladder, Robert Rauschenberg showed some of his paintings and played wax cylinders of Édith Piaf on an Edison horn recorder, David Tudor performed on a prepared piano and Merce Cunningham danced. All these things took place among the audience rather than on a stage. Happenings flourished in New York City in early 1960s. Key contributors to the form included Carolee Schneemann, Red Grooms, Robert Whitman, Jim Dine Car Crash, Claes Oldenburg, Robert Delford Brown, Lucas Samaras, Robert Rauschenberg.
Some of their work is documented in Michael Kirby's book Happenings. Kaprow claimed that "some of us will become famous, we will have proven once again that the only success occurred when there was a lack of it". In 1963 Wolf Vostell made the Happening TV-Burying at the Yam Festival in coproduction with the Smolin Gallery and in 1964 the Happening Y
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans and society, the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole; the primary purposes of basic research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, social, marketing, practitioner research, technological, etc. The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning'search'; the earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Research has been defined in a number of different ways, while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition, embraced by all who engage in it. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man and society, the use of this knowledge to devise new applications."Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue".
It consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "studious inquiry or examination; this material is of a primary source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline. In experimental work, it involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject, e.g. in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher.
The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and established by means of peer review. Graduate students are required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a systematic way of harnessing curiosity; this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world. It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics.
Humanities scholars do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues and details that surround it. Context is always important, context can be social, political, cultural, or ethnic. An example of research in the humanities is historical research, embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, to write histories in the form of accounts of the past. Other studies aim to examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without looking for reasons or motivations to explain these; these studies may be qualitative or quantitative, can use a variety of approaches, such as queer theory or feminist theory. Artistic research seen as'practice-based research', can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself, it is the debatable body of thought which offers an alternative t
Joseph Kosuth, an American conceptual artist, lives in New York and London, after having resided in various cities in Europe, including Ghent and Rome. Born in Toledo, Kosuth had an American mother and a Hungarian father. Joseph Kosuth attended the Toledo Museum School of Design from 1955 to 1962 and studied under the Belgian painter Line Bloom Draper. In 1963 Kosuth enrolled at the Cleveland Institute of Art on a scholarship, he traveled throughout Europe and North Africa. He moved to New York in 1965 and attended the School of Visual Arts there until 1967. From 1971 he studied anthropology and philosophy with Stanley Diamond and Bob Scholte at the New School for Social Research, New York. At the School of Visual Arts he made a significant impact while technically a student, influencing fellow students as well as more traditional teachers there at the time such as Mel Bochner; as Kosuth's reputation grew, he was removed from the student body and given a position as a teacher, by Silas Rhodes the founder and President of the school, in 1967.
This caused a near revolt of the faculty, as he had been a disruptive presence in the opinion of many of the instructors, several who had unhappily faced his questioning of basic presumptions. His elevation to a teacher was a result of Kosuth's outside activities, which included the founding of the Museum of Normal Art along with proselytizing and organizing artists in a direction, identified as the conceptual art movement. Through his art and organizing, he emphasized his interest in the dialectical process of idea formation in relation to language and context, he introduced the notion that art, as he put it, "was not a question of forms and colors but one of the production of meaning." His writing began a re-reading of modernism, initiating a major re-evaluation of the importance of Marcel Duchamp and signaling the shift into what we now identify, in art, as post-modernism. His analysis had a major impact on his practice as an artist and, soon after, on that of others. During this period he maintained his academic interests.
His position on the Faculty, Department of Fine Art, The School of Visual Arts, New York City continued until 1985. He since been Professor at the Hochschule für Bildende Künste, Hamburg, 1988–90, he is Professor at the Kunstakademie Munich and at the Istituto Universitario di Architettura, Faculty of Design and Art, in Venice. He has been invited as a visiting professor and guest lecturer at various universities and institutions for nearly thirty years, some of which include: Yale University. Kosuth continued his work, writing and exhibition organizing and became acknowledged as one of the pioneers of Conceptual art and installation art, his activity has explored the production and role of language and meaning within art. Kosuth's nearly thirty-five year inquiry into the relation of language to art has taken the form of installations, museum exhibitions, public commissions and publications throughout Europe, the Americas and the Far East, including five Documenta and four Venice Biennale, his earliest work, the Protoinvestigations, were done when he was only twenty years old and as they are considered among the first works of the Conceptual art movement they are included in collections such as The Museum of Modern Art, The Guggenheim, The Whitney, Centre Pompidou, The Tate Gallery, The Reina Sophia, among many others, constitute a youthful record in most of these major collections.
Joseph Kosuth's career includes over 170 one-person exhibitions in museums and galleries around the world, twenty-two of them by the time he was twenty-five years old. In 1989 Kosuth, along with Peter Pakesch, founded The Foundation for the Arts as part of The Sigmund Freud Museum, Vienna, he is the President of the foundation. The foundation was established on the 50th anniversary of Sigmund Freud's death, is a society of artists engaged, through contributions by members, in forming a collection of contemporary art in honor of and in relevance to Sigmund Freud; the foundation's exhibition space is in the former offices of Anna Freud at the Sigmund Freud Museum, Vienna. Kosuth belongs to a broadly international generation of conceptual artists that began to emerge in the mid-1960s, stripping art of personal emotion, reducing it to nearly pure information or idea and playing down the art object. Along with Lawrence Weiner, On Kawara, Hanne Darboven and others, Kosuth gives special prominence to language.
His art strives to explore the nature of art rather than producing what is traditionally called "art". Kosuth's works are self-referential, he remarked in 1969: "The'value' of particular artists after Duchamp can be weighed according to how much they questioned the nature of art."Kosuth's works reference Sigmund Freud's psycho-analysis and Ludwig Wittgenstein's philosophy of language. His first conceptual work Leaning Glass
Hans Ulrich Obrist is an art curator and historian of art. He is artistic director at the Serpentine London. Obrist is the author of an extensive ongoing project of interviews, he is co-editor of the Cahiers d'art revue. Obrist was born in Switzerland; when he was 23, he organized an exhibition of contemporary art in his kitchen. In 1993, he founded the Museum Robert Walser and began to run the Migrateurs program at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris where he served as an iphonex curator for contemporary art. In 1996, he co-curated Manifesta 1, the first edition of the roving European biennial of contemporary art. In the November 2009 issue of ArtReview magazine, Obrist was ranked number one in the publication's annual list of the art world's one-hundred most powerful people and that same year he was made an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. Obrist first gained art world attention in 1991, when as a student in Politics and Economics in St. Gallen, Switzerland, he mounted an exhibition in the kitchen of his apartment entitled "The Kitchen Show" It featured work by Christian Boltanski and Peter Fischli & David Weiss.
Obrist is an advocate and archivist for artists, has said "I do think artists are the most important people on the planet, if what I do is a utility and helps them that makes me happy. I want to be helpful." Obrist is known for his lively emphasis on inclusion in all cultural activities. While maintaining official curatorial positions, he is the co-founder of the Brutally Early Club, a discussion group open to all that meets at Starbucks in London, New York and Paris at 6:30 a.m. and is a contributing editor of 032c magazine and Paradis Magazine, among others. Hans Ulrich Obrist has lectured internationally at academic and art institutions including European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, University of East Anglia, Southbank Centre, Institute of Historical Research, Architectural Association, he works in London. Obrist's interest in interviews was first triggered by two long conversations that he read when he was a student. One was between Pierre Cabanne and Marcel Duchamp, the other between David Sylvester and Francis Bacon.
"These books somehow brought me to art," he has said. "They were like oxygen, were the first time that the idea of an interview with an artist as a medium became of interest to me. They sparked my interest in the idea of sustained conversations—of interviews recorded over a period of time over the course of many years; this fascinating archive is referred to by Obrist as “an endless conversation”. He began publishing these interviews in Artforum in 1996 and in 2003 eleven of these interviews were released as Interviews Volume 1. Volume 2 was published in Summer 2010. With the release, a total of 69 artists, writers, film-makers, philosophers and performers share their unique experiences and frank insights; the longer interviews in Obrist's archive are being published singly in ongoing series of books entitled "The Conversation Series". Thus far, 28 books have been published, each containing a lengthy interview with cultural figures including John Baldessari, Zaha Hadid, Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster, Yoko Ono, Robert Crumb and Rem Koolhaas.
A number of Obrist's interviews have appeared in the Berlin culture magazine 032c, including those with artists Elaine Sturtevant and Richard Hamilton, historian Eric Hobsbawm, structural engineer Cecil Balmond of Arup. On 8 May 2015, Obrist interviewed artist and poet Jimmie Durham in Venice, on the social live video broadcasting platform Periscope, using an iPhone. Periscope staff had designated the video as "FEATURED", thus it was made available to a much wider audience than Obrist's followers. Unless this interview is published elsewhere, it will be lost as of 9 May 2015, as the platform does not store videos for longer than 24 hours. On an irregular schedule, Obrist has subsequently interviewed various other artists in depth on Periscope. Obrist has an abiding fascination with the history of curatorial practice. In his early 20s he began to research the topic. "At a certain moment, when I started doing my own shows, I felt it would be interesting to know what is the history of my profession.
I realized that there was no book, kind of a shock." He has since helped to rectify this gap with exhibitions on curating and a book entitled A Brief History of Curating. This volume, part of Obrist's Interviews project compiles interviews from some of the leading curators of the 20th century. While the history of exhibitions has started, in this last decade, to be examined more in depth, what remains unexplored are the ties that interconnected manifestations have created among curators and artists. For this reason, Obrist's conversations go beyond stressing the remarkable achievements of a few individuals... Obrist's collected volume pieces together "a patchwork of fragments," underlining a network of relationships within the art. In keeping with his desire to explore the world of art and view it as an open system, Obrist has long advocated a participatory model for his activities. One early project, 1997's "do it", is an ongoing exhibition that consists of instructions set out by artists for anyone to follow.
In his introduction to the project, Obrist notes that "do it stems from an open exhibition model, exhibition in progress. Individual instructions can open empty spaces for occupation and invoke possibilities for the interpretations and rephrasing of artwor
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The New York Observer
The New York Observer was a weekly newspaper printed from 1987 to 2016, when it ceased print publication and became the online-only newspaper Observer. The media site focuses on culture, real estate, media and the entertainment and publishing industries; as of January 2017, the editorial team is led by managing editor Merin Curotto, has featured other writers and editors including Rex Reed, Will Bredderman, Drew Grant, Brady Dale, John Bonazzo, Vinnie Mancuso, James Jorden. The Observer was first published in New York City on September 22, 1987, as a weekly newspaper by Arthur L. Carter, a former investment banker; the New York Observer had been the name of an earlier weekly religious paper founded by Sidney E. Morse in 1823. In July 2006, the paper was purchased by the American real estate figure Jared Kushner 25 years old; the paper began its life as a broadsheet, was printed in tabloid format every Wednesday, has an online format. It is headquartered at 1 Whitehall Street in Manhattan. Previous writers for the publication include Kara Bloomgarden–Smoke, Kim Velsey, Matthew Kassel, Jillian Jorgensen, Joe Conason, Doree Shafrir, Hilton Kramer, Andrew Sarris, Richard Brookhiser, Michael Tomasky, Azi Paybarah, Ross Barkan, John Heilpern, Robert Gottlieb, Foster Kamer, Nicholas von Hoffman, Simon Doonan, Anne Roiphe, Terry Golway, Ron Rosenbaum, John R. Schindler, Michael M. Thomas, Robert Sam Anson, Philip Weiss and Steve Kornacki.
The paper was best known for publishing Candace Bushnell's column on Manhattan's social life on which the television series Sex and the City was based. It was visually distinctive because of its salmon‑colored pages and sketch illustrations. Henry Rollins once described it as "the curiously pink newspaper"; the paper switched to white‑colored paper in 2014. The fourth and longest-serving editor for the newspaper, Peter Kaplan, left the newspaper on July 1, 2009. Interim editor Tom McGeveran was replaced by Kyle Pope in 2009. Elizabeth Spiers served as editor followed by interim editor Aaron Gell. In January 2013, publisher Jared Kushner named Ken Kurson, a political consultant and author, as the Observer's next editor. Publication of the weekly print edition ended with the November 9, 2016. Issue. Observer Media, the publication's parent company, has continued to publish content on an online site under the masthead "Observer"; the discontinuation of the print Observer came the day after Kushner's father-in-law, Donald Trump, won the 2016 presidential election.
Kushner transferred his ownership of Observer Media's remaining online assets into a family trust, through which his brother-in-law Joseph Meyer took over his former role as publisher. James Karklins, the former Global Chief Marketing Officer at Newsweek Media Group was announced as the new president of Observer on January 8, 2018, his role will be to help Observer grow, by diversifying its revenue streams. The publisher and original owner, Arthur Carter, has had other publishing interests, including the Litchfield County Times. At one time, he was a part‑owner in The East Hampton Star. Carter received a B. A. in French literature from Brown University and an M. B. A. in finance from the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth College. He spent 25 years in investment banking until 1981, when he founded the Litchfield County Times in New Milford, Connecticut, he owned it for twenty years until selling to Journal Register Company also selling his 50‑percent interest in The East Hampton Star in 2003. He has been an adjunct professor of philosophy and journalism at New York University and is a trustee.
In July 2006, Jared Kushner, a 25‑year‑old law student and son of a wealthy New Jersey developer, Charles Kushner, purchased the paper for just under $10 million. In April 2007 Bob Sommer became president of Observer Media Group, subsequently served on the Observer Media Group Board of Directors. In January 2017, Jared Kushner announced he would sell his stake to a Kushner family trust, when he became a senior advisor to President Donald Trump. Kushner's brother-in-law, Joseph Meyer, the CEO of Observer Media Group since 2013, replaced him as publisher. In 2016, the New York Observer became notable for being one of only a handful of newspapers to endorse United States presidential candidate Donald Trump in the Republican Party presidential primaries; the newspaper's owner and publisher, Jared Kushner, is Donald Trump's son-in-law and was an advisor to the Trump presidential campaign. The Observer did not repeat its endorsement after Donald Trump became the Republican nominee for President. Official website "The New York Observer collected news and commentary".
The New York Times