A hoax is a falsehood deliberately fabricated to masquerade as the truth. It is distinguishable from errors in observation or judgment, urban legends and April Fools' Day events that are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes. Zhang Yingyu's The Book of Swindles, published during the late Ming dynasty, is said to be China's first collection of stories about fraud, swindles and other forms of deception. Although practical jokes have existed for thousands of years, one of the earliest recorded hoaxes in Western history was the drummer of Tedworth in 1661; the communication of hoaxes can be accomplished in any manner that a fictional story can be communicated: in person, via word of mouth, via words printed on paper, so on. As the technology of communication has advanced, the speed at which hoaxes spread has advanced: a rumor about a ghostly drummer, spread by word of mouth, will impact a small area at first grow gradually. However, hoaxes could be spread via chain letters, which became easier as the cost of mailing a letter dropped.
The invention of the printing press in the 15th century brought down the cost of a mass-produced books and pamphlets, the rotary printing press of the 19th century reduced the price further. During the 20th century, the hoax found a mass market in the form of supermarket tabloids, by the 21st century there were fake news websites which spread hoaxes via social networking websites; the English philologist Robert Nares says that the word hoax was coined in the late 18th century as a contraction of the verb hocus, which means "to cheat," "to impose upon" or "to befuddle with drugged liquor." Hocus is a shortening of the magic incantation hocus pocus, whose origin is disputed. Robert Nares defined the word hoax as meaning "to cheat," dating from Thomas Ady's 1656 book A candle in the dark, or a treatise on the nature of witches and witchcraft; the term hoax is used in reference to urban legends and rumors, but the folklorist Jan Harold Brunvand argues that most of them lack evidence of deliberate creations of falsehood and are passed along in good faith by believers or as jokes, so the term should be used for only those with a probable conscious attempt to deceive.
As for the related terms practical joke and prank, Brunvand states that although there are instances where they overlap, hoax tends to indicate "relatively complex and large-scale fabrications" and includes deceptions that go beyond the playful and "cause material loss or harm to the victim."According to Professor Lynda Walsh of the University of Nevada, some hoaxes—such as the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814, labeled as a hoax by contemporary commentators—are financial in nature, successful hoaxers—such as P. T. Barnum, whose Fiji mermaid contributed to his wealth—often acquire monetary gain or fame through their fabrications, so the distinction between hoax and fraud is not clear. Alex Boese, the creator of the Museum of Hoaxes, states that the only distinction between them is the reaction of the public, because a fraud can be classified as a hoax when its method of acquiring financial gain creates a broad public impact or captures the imagination of the masses. One of the earliest recorded media hoaxes is a fake almanac published by Jonathan Swift under the pseudonym of Isaac Bickerstaff in 1708.
Swift predicted the death of John Partridge, one of the leading astrologers in England at that time, in the almanac and issued an elegy on the day Partridge was supposed to have died. Partridge's reputation was damaged as a result and his astrological almanac was not published for the next six years, it is possible to perpetrate a hoax by making only true statements using unfamiliar wording or context, such as in the Dihydrogen monoxide hoax. Political hoaxes are sometimes motivated by the desire to ridicule or besmirch opposing politicians or political institutions before elections. A hoax differs from a magic trick or from fiction in that the audience is unaware of being deceived, whereas in watching a magician perform an illusion the audience expects to be tricked. A hoax is intended as a practical joke or to cause embarrassment, or to provoke social or political change by raising people's awareness of something, it can emerge from a marketing or advertising purpose. For example, to market a romantic comedy movie, a director staged a phony "incident" during a supposed wedding, which showed a bride and preacher getting knocked into a pool by a clumsy fall from a best man.
A resulting video clip of Chloe and Keith's Wedding was uploaded to YouTube and was viewed by over 30 million people and the couple was interviewed by numerous talk shows. Viewers were deluded into thinking that it was an authentic clip of a real accident at a real wedding. Governments sometimes spread false information to facilitate their objectives, such as going to war; these come under the heading of black propaganda. There is a mixture of outright hoax and suppression and management of information to give the desired impression. In wartime and times of international tension rumors abound, some of which may be deliberate hoaxes. Examples of politics-related hoaxes: Belgium is a country with a Flemish-speaking region and a French-speaking region. In 2006 French-speaking television channel RTBF interrupted programming with a spoof report claiming that the country had split in two and the royal family had fled. On Saturday 13 March 2010 the Imedi television station in Georgia broadcast a f
Bret Michael Sychak, professionally known as Bret Michaels, is an American singer-songwriter and musician. He gained fame as the lead singer of the glam metal band Poison who have sold over 40 million records worldwide and 15 million records in the United States alone; the band has charted 10 singles to the Top 40 of the Billboard Hot 100, including six Top 10 singles and a number-one single, "Every Rose Has Its Thorn". Besides his career as lead singer, he has several solo albums to his credit, including the soundtrack album to the movie A Letter from Death Row in which Michaels starred and directed in 1998, a Poison-style rock album, Songs of Life, in 2003. Michaels has appeared in several movies and TV shows, including as a judge on the talent show Nashville Star which led to his country influenced rock album Freedom of Sound in 2005, he starred in the hit VH1 reality show Rock of Love with Bret Michaels and its sequels, which inspired his successful solo album Rock My World. He was the winning contestant on NBC's reality show Celebrity Apprentice 3 and featured in his own reality docu-series Bret Michaels: Life As I Know It, which inspired his highest charting album as a solo artist, Custom Built, reaching No. 1 on Billboard's Hard Rock list.
He is known for hosting on the Travel Channel. In 2006, Hit Parader ranked Michaels at #40 on their list of greatest Heavy metal singers of all-time. Michaels was born Bret Michael Sychak on March 15, 1963, to Wally and Marjorie Sychak, north of Pittsburgh in the city of Butler and grew up in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania, he attended Mechanicsburg Area Senior High School. He has two sisters and Nicole, he claims that his parents had intended for him to have the middle name "Maverick", after the title character in the popular James Garner TV Western series Maverick. He is of Carpatho-Rusyn, English and Swiss descent. Bret's great-uncle Nick Sychak fought at Omaha Beach in the Invasion of Normandy and was killed in action in France in 1944. At the age of 6, Michaels fell ill, during a three-week stay in the hospital, he was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. Michaels began playing the guitar as a teenager, forming a band with drummer Rikki Rockett, bass player Bobby Dall and guitarist David Besselman.
Shortly thereafter, Besselman left the band due to creative differences and in 1983 the band hired Matt Smith to form a new band named Paris in Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania. In early 1984 the band tired of playing the Pennsylvania bar circuit, changed their name to Poison and moved west to Los Angeles to seek fame in the Sunset Boulevard scene; that same year, Michaels met 16-year-old Tracy Lewis, who would become both his girlfriend and the muse for one of his most memorable songs. Matt Smith tired of the band's struggle to find fame and returned home, he was replaced by C. C. DeVille, who would become both Michaels' friend and a source of conflict. Local publicity about the band led to a record deal with Enigma Records, their first album, Look What the Cat Dragged In, it did not see great success until 1987, when Michaels convinced the band to film a video for their song, "Talk Dirty to Me". The album went platinum, the band became famous. In March of that year, Poison headlined a show at Madison Square Garden.
Michaels took his insulin injection before the show but was so nervous about performing that he neglected to eat. Several songs into Poison's set, Michaels collapsed onstage; when subsequent media reports alleged that Michaels collapsed due to a drug overdose, Michaels publicly announced that he was a diabetic.1987 saw the dissolution of his relationship with Lewis, who felt that fame had changed him. Though Michaels contends that Lewis was unfaithful to him, Lewis insists that it was Michaels, unfaithful. Michaels was inspired by the breakup to write "Every Rose Has Its Thorn", explaining that the rose represented his fame and success, whereas the loss of his relationship represented the thorn; the song was released as a power ballad single in December 1988, is regarded as "the ultimate'80s anthem about heartbreak". Throughout the 1980s and early 1990s, Poison became one of the biggest glam metal bands in the world, recording their second album, the multi-platinum selling Open Up and Say...
Ahh!, their third album, the multi-platinum selling Flesh & Blood. However, their lives were characterized by the escalating tension between Michaels and DeVille that derived from their mutual drug use, which came to a head during their 1990/91 "Flesh and Blood" world tour. Cited is the spectacle of DeVille's behavior during the 1991 MTV Video Music Awards. After getting into a fistfight with Michaels, DeVille left the band, descended further into addiction. Poison went on with new guitarist Richie Kotzen recording the Gold album Native Tongue and with guitarist Blues Saraceno recording the album Crack a Smile... and More!. In the mid-1990s, after a night of partying, Michaels came close to dying when he crashed his Ferrari into a telephone pole, he incurred serious injury, including a disfigured nose and lost teeth. In 1999, reunited with original guitarist C. C. Deville, Poison went on a successful greatest hits reunion tour. In the next decade, Bret Michaels would split his time between a successful solo career.
Michaels recorded his first solo album in 1998 titled A Letter from Death Row, the soundtrack to the same-titled movie he directed and starred in. In 2000 Michaels released a country demos ep and released the album "Show Me Your Hits" which featured re-recorded Poison classics, the album featured Michaels performing Poison hits in a new way and featur
Seattle is a seaport city on the West Coast of the United States. It is the seat of Washington. With an estimated 730,000 residents as of 2018, Seattle is the largest city in both the state of Washington and the Pacific Northwest region of North America. According to U. S. Census data released in 2018, the Seattle metropolitan area’s population stands at 3.87 million, ranks as the 15th largest in the United States. In July 2013, it was the fastest-growing major city in the United States and remained in the Top 5 in May 2015 with an annual growth rate of 2.1%. In July 2016, Seattle was again the fastest-growing major U. S. city, with a 3.1% annual growth rate. Seattle is the northernmost large city in the United States; the city is situated on an isthmus between Puget Sound and Lake Washington, about 100 miles south of the Canada–United States border. A major gateway for trade with Asia, Seattle is the fourth-largest port in North America in terms of container handling as of 2015; the Seattle area was inhabited by Native Americans for at least 4,000 years before the first permanent European settlers.
Arthur A. Denny and his group of travelers, subsequently known as the Denny Party, arrived from Illinois via Portland, Oregon, on the schooner Exact at Alki Point on November 13, 1851; the settlement was moved to the eastern shore of Elliott Bay and named "Seattle" in 1852, in honor of Chief Si'ahl of the local Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. Today, Seattle has high populations of Native, Scandinavian and Asian Americans, as well as a thriving LGBT community that ranks 6th in the United States for population. Logging was Seattle's first major industry, but by the late 19th century, the city had become a commercial and shipbuilding center as a gateway to Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Growth after World War II was due to the local Boeing company, which established Seattle as a center for aircraft manufacturing; the Seattle area developed into a technology center from the 1980s onwards with companies like Microsoft becoming established in the region. Internet retailer Amazon was founded in Seattle in 1994, major airline Alaska Airlines is based in SeaTac, serving Seattle's international airport, Seattle–Tacoma International Airport.
The stream of new software and Internet companies led to an economic revival, which increased the city's population by 50,000 between 1990 and 2000. Owing to its increasing population in the 21st century and the state of Washington have some of the highest minimum wages in the country, at $15 per hour for smaller businesses and $16 for the city's largest employers. Seattle has a noteworthy musical history. From 1918 to 1951, nearly two dozen jazz nightclubs existed along Jackson Street, from the current Chinatown/International District to the Central District; the jazz scene nurtured the early careers of Ray Charles, Quincy Jones, Ernestine Anderson, others. Seattle is the birthplace of rock musician Jimi Hendrix, as well as the origin of the bands Nirvana, Pearl Jam, Alice in Chains, Foo Fighters and the alternative rock movement grunge. Archaeological excavations suggest that Native Americans have inhabited the Seattle area for at least 4,000 years. By the time the first European settlers arrived, the people occupied at least seventeen villages in the areas around Elliott Bay.
The first European to visit the Seattle area was George Vancouver, in May 1792 during his 1791–95 expedition to chart the Pacific Northwest. In 1851, a large party led by Luther Collins made a location on land at the mouth of the Duwamish River. Thirteen days members of the Collins Party on the way to their claim passed three scouts of the Denny Party. Members of the Denny Party claimed land on Alki Point on September 28, 1851; the rest of the Denny Party set sail from Portland and landed on Alki point during a rainstorm on November 13, 1851. After a difficult winter, most of the Denny Party relocated across Elliott Bay and claimed land a second time at the site of present-day Pioneer Square, naming this new settlement Duwamps. Charles Terry and John Low remained at the original landing location and reestablished their old land claim and called it "New York", but renamed "New York Alki" in April 1853, from a Chinook word meaning "by and by" or "someday". For the next few years, New York Alki and Duwamps competed for dominance, but in time Alki was abandoned and its residents moved across the bay to join the rest of the settlers.
David Swinson "Doc" Maynard, one of the founders of Duwamps, was the primary advocate to name the settlement after Chief Seattle of the Duwamish and Suquamish tribes. The name "Seattle" appears on official Washington Territory papers dated May 23, 1853, when the first plats for the village were filed. In 1855, nominal land settlements were established. On January 14, 1865, the Legislature of Territorial Washington incorporated the Town of Seattle with a board of trustees managing the city; the Town of Seattle was disincorporated on January 18, 1867, remained a mere precinct of King County until late 1869, when a new petition was filed and the city was re-incorporated December 2, 1869, with a mayor–council government. The corporate seal of the City of Seattle carries the date "1869" and a likeness of Chief Sealth in left profile. Seattle has a history of boom-and-bust cycles, like many other cities near areas of extensive natural and mineral resources. Seattle has risen several times economically gone into precipitous decline, but it has used those periods to rebuild solid infrastructure
Thomas Lee Bass is an American musician and founding member of Mötley Crüe. As well as being the band's long-term drummer, Lee founded rap-metal band Methods of Mayhem, has pursued solo musical projects. Lee was born Thomas Lee Bass on October 3, 1962, in Athens, Greece, to father David Lee Thomas Bass, an American U. S. Army sergeant, mother Vassilikki "Voula" Papadimitriou, a Miss Greece contestant for the 1960 Miss World event, his family moved to California a year. He received his first drum when he was four years old, his first drum kit when he was a teenager. Lee dropped out of high school to pursue a career in music, starting with the band Suite 19, he has a younger sister, Athena Lee, the drummer in his solo band KrunK and was married to James Kottak, the drummer for the rock band Scorpions. As a teenager, Lee listened to Van Halen, Cheap Trick, Kiss, AC/DC and Sweet, his main drumming influences were Tommy Aldridge, Alex Van Halen and Terry Bozzio. His first successful band Suite 19 played the Sunset Strip in Los Angeles during the late-1970s.
Around this time, he met Nikki Sixx. Casually, Sixx was forming a theatrical band that would specialise in anthemic heavy metal, was impressed by Lee's drumming. At this time, he changed his name to Tommy Lee and earned the nickname "T-bone" due to his 6′ 2½″ height and his lean physique. Shortly afterwards, guitarist Mick Mars joined the band. Tommy recommended a singer he had met during high school, Vince Neil, who soon joined the group, Mötley Crüe was formed. Mötley Crüe built a strong fanbase and they released their debut album Too Fast for Love in 1981, on their own independent label. Elektra Records decided to sign the band shortly thereafter, reissuing their debut in 1982; the band began a string of hit releases throughout the decade—1983's Shout at the Devil, 1985's Theatre of Pain, 1987's Girls, Girls, 1989's Dr. Feelgood—establishing the quartet as one of the biggest hard rock/metal bands of the 1980s. Lee used several memorable gimmicks during his drum solos at concerts, such as having his entire kit revolving and spinning, or having the entire kit float above the crowd while he continued to play.
He was legendary for mooning the crowd at nearly every show. The band was known for their decadent behavior both on and offstage consuming excessive amounts of drugs, such as cocaine, heroin and alcohol. In 2004, Lee reunited with the original Mötley Crüe line-up to release the double-disc anthology album entitled Red, White & Crüe, which went quadruple-platinum and launched a monumental reunion tour to support it, The Red, White & Crüe Tour 2005: Better Live Than Dead, the band's first tour in six years, they finished the year at #8 on the Top Concert Money Earners list. They grossed US$33 million according to Billboard Boxscore. Lee came back once with Motley Crüe to go on the Crüe's Greatest Hits tour in 1999. With the popularity of rap metal, Lee formed; the band toured in support of it. Although Lee distanced himself from Mötley Crüe after splitting, he agreed to take part in their 2001 autobiography, The Dirt. In addition to Mötley Crüe and Methods of Mayhem, Lee has made guest appearances on albums by other artists, such as Stuart Hamm, Nine Inch Nails and Rob Zombie.
He contributed a song, "Planet Boom" to the soundtrack of then-wife Pamela Anderson's 1996 movie, Barb Wire, produced an album for the pre-Goldfinger project from John Feldmann and Simon Williams, the Electric Love Hogs. Lee began recording with members of Incubus, he released his first solo album. The album, 2002's Never a Dull Moment, has tones of rap electronica; the song "Blue" features guest vocalist Rodleen Getsic. In August 2002, Tommy Lee and his solo band joined mainstage. In 2006, he formed a new band called Rock Star Supernova with Gilby Clarke; the 2006 season of Rock Star selected Lukas Rossi as the lead singer for Supernova. Dilana, Magni Ásgeirsson, Toby Rand with his own band Juke Kartel were the three runners up and accepted an offer to go on tour with Supernova; the self-titled debut album Rock Star Supernova was released on November 21, 2006. Lee released his autobiography and his second solo album, Tommyland: The Ride in 2005; the CD featured as a soundtrack to the book and includes the singles, "Tryin to be Me", "Good Times", the theme song to his reality TV series Tommy Lee Goes to College and "Hello, Again" which features Andrew McMahon from Something Corporate and Jack's Mannequin.
Tommy Lee was a guest DJ at WXRK "K-Rock" in New York during the Fourth of July Monster Metal Meltdown in 2005. Lee recorded drum tracks for the alternative rock band Jack's Mannequin, which has released the album Everything in Transit. In November 2007, it was announced by Nikki Sixx that Tommy Lee was no longer a member of Mötley Crüe. Lee quit after the rest of the band sued his manager, Carl Stubner, for forcing Tommy to take part in reality TV shows, thus forcing the cancellation of a lengthy leg of Crüe tour dates in 2006. Lee quit once in September 2007 before returning to the band. Vince Neil refuted the claims that Tommy Lee resigned from the band and that the band would be going into the studio in January to start recording their new studio album. In the end, Tommy Lee did end up recording the new album, Saints of Los Angeles, toured with Crüe in 2008 in their tour, Crüe Fes
A peep show or peepshow is an exhibition of pictures, objects or people viewed through a small hole or magnifying glass. Though a peep show was a form of entertainment provided by wandering showmen, nowadays it more refers to a presentation of a sex show or pornographic film, viewed through a viewing slot; the peep hole was intended to control the point of view to allow an illusion of depth perception, while showmen would use it to charge for access to the view. For sex shows it became a means to view material that would be objected to if displayed. Peep shows known as peep box or raree show can be traced back to the early modern period and are known in various cultures. Around 1437 Italian humanist author, architect, priest, linguist and cryptographer Leon Battista Alberti is thought to have created the earliest impressive peep show boxes with painted pictures to be viewed through a small hole, he had two kinds: night scenes with the moon and stars, day scenes. It is thought these pictures may have been transparent and lit from behind changing from day to night by changing the lighting.
It has been suggested that it may have been a predecessor of the magic lantern that could project images. In the 17th and 18th century peep shows were exhibited on streets and fairs across Europe by itinerant showmen, competing with other entertainment like dancing bears, conjurers, et cetera, their wooden cabinets could have several viewing holes and contain sets of pictures to be set into a viewing position by pulling a corresponding string. The show was accompanied by spoken recitation that explained or dramatized what was happening inside; the boxes were decorated inside to resemble theatrical scenes. Peep shows were most popular in the 17th century in Holland; some artists from the 17th-century Dutch Golden Age painting, like Pieter Janssens Elinga and Samuel Dirksz van Hoogstraten created a type of peep shows with an illusion of depth perception by manipulating the perspective of the view seen inside the interior of a room. From around 1700 many of these "perspective boxes" or "optica" had a bi-convex lens with a large diameter and small dioptre for an exaggerated perspective, giving a stronger illusion of depth.
Most pictures showed topographical subjects with linear perspectives. From around 1745 similar perspective view prints became popular for the zograscope, which used the same principle with the lens on a stand rather than in a box. Peep shows were further developed with translucent painting techniques and cut-out shapes that provided special effects when lit from behind by candles. Changing the light from the front to the back of the picture could change the scene from day to night, much like the dissolving views that would become a popular type of magic lantern show. In the early 18th century the perspective boxes were appreciated in Japan, where they were referred to as Holland machines, they may have been imported from China earlier than from The Netherlands.19th-century Chinese peep shows were known by many names including la yang p'ien. Sometimes the showman would perform for a crowd with puppets or pictures outside the box and charge people extra to look through the holes. In Ottoman Syria a form of peep show called sanduk al-ajayib existed, which the storyteller carried on his back.
The box had six holes. Sanduk al-ajayib stories were about contemporary figures and events, or showed scenes of heaven and hell. Other common subjects in peep shows throughout the world have been exotic views and animals, scenes of classical drama or masques, court ceremonies, surprise transformations and of course, lewd pictures. Raree shows were precursors of toy theatres, with movable scenes and paper figurines, popular in the 19th century, they can be seen as predecessors to optical toys like Chinese fireworks, the diorama, the stereoscope and the magic lantern. Some peep shows offer the only accurate representation of the stage design and scenery of the masques and pageants of their time. Peep shows have been used for erotic and pornographic pictures, such as What the Butler Saw, since before the turn of the twentieth century. In contemporary use, a peep show is a piecewise presentation of pornographic films or a live sex show, viewed through a viewing slot, which shuts after the time paid for has expired.
The viewing slots can be paid for at a counter. For live peep shows, booths can surround a stage upon which a female performer performs a striptease and sexually explicit poses. In Barcelona female performers at times perform sexual intercourse with male performers on stage. In some cases, booths include paper towel dispensers, for customers. A customer and performer can mutually agree on a fee for a "private dance", which can take place in a peep show booth with a clear window and seating space for only one spectator. Research on peep show establishments in California examined the hypothesis that neighborhoods surrounding sex businesses such as peep show establishments and X-rated movie stores have higher rates of crime; the researchers compared 911 calls in peep control neighborhoods in San Diego. Although peep show neighborhoods had 16 percent more calls, the researchers concluded that the difference was not statistically significant. Other researchers concluded that the difference was significant.
Regal Show World was an adult entertainment
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II was the head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of the Vatican City State from 1978 to 2005. He was elected pope by the second Papal conclave of 1978, called after Pope John Paul I, elected in August to succeed Pope Paul VI, died after 33 days. Cardinal Wojtyła was elected on the third day of the conclave and adopted his predecessor's name in tribute to him. John Paul II is recognised as helping to end Communist rule in his native Poland and all of Europe. John Paul II improved the Catholic Church's relations with Judaism, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Anglican Communion, he upheld the Church's teachings on such matters as artificial contraception, the ordination of women, a celibate clergy, although he supported the reforms of the Second Vatican Council, he was seen as conservative in their interpretation. He was one of the most travelled world leaders in history, visiting 129 countries during his pontificate; as part of his special emphasis on the universal call to holiness, he beatified 1,340 and canonised 483 people, more than the combined tally of his predecessors during the preceding five centuries.
By the time of his death, he had named most of the College of Cardinals, consecrated or co-consecrated a large number of the world's bishops, ordained many priests. A key goal of John Paul's papacy was to reposition the Catholic Church, his wish was "to place his Church at the heart of a new religious alliance that would bring together Jews and Christians in a great religious armada". John Paul II was the second longest-serving pope in modern history after Pope Pius IX, who served for nearly 32 years from 1846 to 1878. Born in Poland, John Paul II was the first non-Italian pope since the Dutch Pope Adrian VI, who served from 1522 to 1523. John Paul II's cause for canonisation commenced in 2005 one month after his death with the traditional five-year waiting period waived. On 19 December 2009, John Paul II was proclaimed Venerable by his successor Pope Benedict XVI and was beatified on 1 May 2011 after the Congregation for the Causes of Saints attributed one miracle to his intercession, the healing of a French nun from Parkinson's disease.
A second miracle attributed to John Paul II's intercession was approved on 2 July 2013, confirmed by Pope Francis two days later. John Paul II was canonised on 27 April 2014, together with Pope John XXIII. On 11 September 2014, Pope Francis added these two optional memorials to the worldwide General Roman Calendar of saints, in response to worldwide requests, it is traditional to celebrate saints' feast days on the anniversary of their deaths, but that of John Paul II is celebrated on the anniversary of his papal inauguration. Posthumously, he has been referred to by some Catholics as "St. John Paul the Great", although the title has no official recognition. Karol Józef Wojtyła was born in the Polish town of Wadowice, he was the youngest of three children born to Karol Wojtyła, an ethnic Pole, Emilia Kaczorowska, whose mother's maiden surname was Scholz. Emilia, a schoolteacher, died from a heart attack and kidney failure in 1929 when Wojtyła was eight years old, his elder sister Olga had died before his birth, but he was close to his brother Edmund, nicknamed Mundek, 13 years his senior.
Edmund's work as a physician led to his death from scarlet fever, a loss that affected Wojtyła deeply. As a boy, Wojtyła was athletic playing football as goalkeeper. During his childhood, Wojtyła had contact with Wadowice's large Jewish community. School football games were organised between teams of Jews and Catholics, Wojtyła played on the Jewish side. "I remember. At elementary school there were fewer. With some I was on friendly terms, and what struck me about some of them was their Polish patriotism." It was around this time. He became close to a girl called Ginka Beer, described as "a Jewish beauty, with stupendous eyes and jet black hair, slender, a superb actress."In mid-1938, Wojtyła and his father left Wadowice and moved to Kraków, where he enrolled at the Jagiellonian University. While studying such topics as philology and various languages, he worked as a volunteer librarian and was required to participate in compulsory military training in the Academic Legion, but he refused to fire a weapon.
He worked as a playwright. During this time, his talent for language blossomed, he learned as many as 12 languages — Polish, Italian, Portuguese, English, Ukrainian, Serbo-Croatian and Esperanto, nine of which he used extensively as pope. In 1939, Nazi German occupation forces closed the university after invading Poland. Able-bodied males were required to work, so from 1940 to 1944 Wojtyła variously worked as a messenger for a restaurant, a manual labourer in a limestone quarry and for the Solvay chemical factory, to avoid deportation to Germany. In 1940 he was struck by a tram; the same year he was hit by a lorry in a quarry, which left him with one shoulder higher than the other and a permanent stoop. His father, a former Austro-Hungarian non-commissioned officer and officer in the Polish Army, died of a heart attack in 1941, leaving Wojtyła as the immediate family's only surviving member