Ancient Egyptian royal titulary
The royal titulary or royal protocol of an Egyptian pharaoh is the standard naming convention taken by the kings of Ancient Egypt. It symbolises worldly power and holy might and acts as a sort of mission statement for the reign of a monarch. The full titulary, consisting of five names, did not come into standard usage until the Middle Kingdom, the Horus name is the oldest form of the pharaohs name, originating in the Predynastic Period. Many of the oldest-known Egyptian pharaohs were known only by this title, the Horus name was usually written in a serekh, a representation of a palace façade. The name of the pharaoh was written in hieroglyphs inside this representation of a palace, typically an image of the falcon God Horus was perched on top of or beside it. At least one Egyptian ruler, the 2nd dynasty Seth-Peribsen, used an image of the god Seth instead of Horus and he was succeeded by Khasekhemwy, who placed the symbols of both Seth and Horus above his name. Thereafter, the image of Horus always appeared alongside the name of the pharaoh, by the time of the New Kingdom the Horus name was often written without the enclosing serekh.
The name is first definitively used by the First Dynasty pharaoh Semerkhet and this particular name was not typically framed by a cartouche or serekh, but always begins with the hieroglyphs of a vulture and cobra resting upon two baskets, the dual noun nebty. Also known as the Golden Horus Name, this form of the name typically featured the image of a Horus falcon perched above or beside the hieroglyph for gold. The meaning of this title has been disputed. One belief is that it represents the triumph of Horus over his uncle Seth, Gold was strongly associated in the ancient Egyptian mind with eternity, so this may have been intended to convey the pharaohs eternal Horus name. Similar to the Nebty name, this particular name typically was not framed by a cartouche or serekh, the pharaohs throne name, the first of the two names written inside a cartouche, and usually accompanied the title nsw-bity. The term nsw-bity It has been suggested that the Berber term for strong man, the epithet neb tawy, Lord of the Two Lands, referring to valley and delta regions of Egypt, often occurs as well.
This was the name given at birth and it was first introduced to the set of royal titles in the Fourth Dynasty and emphasizes the kings role as a representative of the solar god Ra. For women who became pharaoh, the title was interpreted as daughter also. Modern historians typically refer to the ancient kings of Egypt by this name, Middle Egyptian, An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Cairo and New York, The American University in Cairo Press and Thames and Hudson. The Great Name, Ancient Egyptian Royal Titulary, Egyptian Grammar, Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs
Tomb KV13, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was cut and decorated for the burial of the noble Bay of the Nineteenth Dynasty. An ostraca published in the French Egyptological journal BIFAO in 2000 records that Chancellor Bay was executed by pharaoh Siptah, Bay was never buried in his tomb. Moreover, no goods were found in the tomb belonging to Bay. It was reused by Amenherkhepshef and Mentuherkhepsef of the Twentieth Dynasty, the Complete Valley of the Kings,1996, Thames and Hudson, London. Guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples,1996, Theban Mapping Project, KV13 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum
The Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum is a theosophical museum devoted to Ancient Egypt, located at the Rosicrucian Park in the Rose Garden neighborhood of San Jose, United States. It was founded by the Ancient Mystical Order Rosae Crucis, the Rosicrucian Order continues to support and expand the museum and its educational and scientific activities. The founder of AMORC, Dr. Harvey Spencer Lewis, was a collector of artifacts with mystical symbolism. His very first artifact was a small Sekhmet statue, in 1921 he contributed financially to the archaeological excavations at Tel el Amarna of the Egypt Explorations Society of Boston by receiving donations from AMORC members. In return, the Egypt Explorations Society donated several Egyptian antiquities to AMORC, in 1928, he presented to the public a collection named The Rosicrucian Egyptian Oriental Museum, located at the administration buildings of AMORC at San Jose, California. After Lewis tour in Egypt in 1929, AMORC received many more artifacts and donations and as a result the collection grew significantly, the second Imperator of AMORC, Ralph Maxwell Lewis, son of H.
Spencer Lewis, decided to build new buildings for the museum, the new museum buildings opened in November 1966. By that time the museum managed to become unique by, Having the largest exhibition of Ancient Egyptian antiquities in the Western US, being the only such museum in the world with buildings constructed in Ancient Egyptian architectural style. Having a purpose-built planetarium adjacent to the museum, the Planetarium was the 5th opened in the United States, and the first with a Star Projector built in the country, constructed by H. Having its buildings set in an Egyptian revival park, in 1995, Julie Scott, M. A. S. R. C. moved to San Jose and became Director of the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum. A notable activity took place in 1999 when the Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum started the traveling exhibition Women of the Nile accompanied by many lectures, Women of the Nile travelled across the United States of America and Canada, and continued until 2001. In 2000–2002, a figure of Cleopatra VII from the collection was displayed in Rome, London.
The results were released at the 75th Anniversary of the Museum on August 6,2005, with detailed scans, one of the scanning images won the 2006 Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge 2006 co-sponsored by the National Science Foundation and Science. Below are photographs of the interior of the tomb, largely containing scenes from the Book of the Dead. The dark interior of the replica is evident
Tomb KV15, located in the Valley of the Kings in Egypt, was used for the burial of Pharaoh Seti II of the Nineteenth Dynasty. The tomb was dug into the base of a cliff face at the head of a wadi running south-west from the main part of the Valley of the Kings. It runs along a northwest-to-southeast axis, comprising a short entry corridor followed by three segments which terminate in a well room that lacks a well, which was never dug. This connects with a hall and another stretch of corridor that was converted into a burial chamber. The winged goddess Nut appears along the length of the ceiling, and what may be a representation of the Ba of Ra is painted above her head. The paintings are conventional depictions drawn from the Egyptian Litany of Re, wall paintings in the well room are more unusual, they show the king in shrines in a number of different manifestations, for instance on the back of a panther or on a papyrus skiff. The objects shown in the paintings are reflected in the made in the tomb of Tutankhamun.
Relatively little is known about the history of the tomb, Setis name appears to have been carved, erased and re-carved. Amenmesse or possibly Siptah may have been responsible for the erasure, Setis mummy was moved to the mummy cache in tomb KV35, only the lid of his sarcophagus remains in KV15. KV15 is known to have opened in antiquity, as there are 59 examples of Greek. Richard Pococke investigated it as early as 1738, but it was not until the arrival of Howard Carter in 1903–04 that the tomb was properly cleared, the tomb has been opened to tourists with improved flooring and lighting. Theban Mapping Project, KV15 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
The word pharaoh ultimately derive from the Egyptian compound pr-ˤ3 great house, written with the two biliteral hieroglyphs pr house and ˤ3 column, here meaning great or high. It was used only in larger phrases such as smr pr-ˤ3 Courtier of the High House, with specific reference to the buildings of the court or palace. From the twelfth dynasty onward, the word appears in a wish formula Great House, may it live, and be in health, but again only with reference to the royal palace and not the person. During the reign of Thutmose III in the New Kingdom, after the rule of the Hyksos during the Second Intermediate Period. During the eighteenth dynasty the title pharaoh was employed as a designation of the ruler. From the nineteenth dynasty onward pr-ˤ3 on its own was used as regularly as hm. f, the term, evolved from a word specifically referring to a building to a respectful designation for the ruler, particularly by the twenty-second dynasty and twenty-third dynasty. For instance, the first dated appearance of the pharaoh being attached to a rulers name occurs in Year 17 of Siamun on a fragment from the Karnak Priestly Annals.
Here, an induction of an individual to the Amun priesthood is dated specifically to the reign of Pharaoh Siamun and this new practice was continued under his successor Psusennes II and the twenty-second dynasty kings. Shoshenq I was the successor of Siamun. Meanwhile, the old custom of referring to the sovereign simply as pr-ˤ3 continued in traditional Egyptian narratives, by this time, the Late Egyptian word is reconstructed to have been pronounced *par-ʕoʔ whence Herodotus derived the name of one of the Egyptian kings, Φερων. In the Bible, the title occurs as פרעה, from that, Septuagint φαραώ pharaō and Late Latin pharaō, both -n stem nouns. The Quran likewise spells it فرعون firawn with n, the Arabic combines the original pharyngeal ayin sound from Egyptian, along with the -n ending from Greek. English at first spelt it Pharao, but the King James Bible revived Pharaoh with h from the Hebrew, meanwhile in Egypt itself, *par-ʕoʔ evolved into Sahidic Coptic ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ prro and rro. Scepters and staves were a sign of authority in ancient Egypt.
One of the earliest royal scepters was discovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos, kings were known to carry a staff, and Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff. The scepter with the longest history seems to be the heqa-scepter, the earliest examples of this piece of regalia dates to pre-dynastic times. A scepter was found in a tomb at Abydos that dates to the late Naqada period, another scepter associated with the king is the was-scepter. This is a long staff mounted with an animal head, the earliest known depictions of the was-scepter date to the first dynasty
In Egyptian mythology, Ptah is the demiurge of Memphis, god of craftsmen and architects. In the triad of Memphis, he is the spouse of Sekhmet and he was regarded as the father of the sage Imhotep. Ptah is the Creator god par excellence, He is considered the demiurge who existed before all other things, and by his willfulness, thought the world. It was first conceived by Thought, and realized by the Word, Ptah conceives the world by the thought of his heart and that which Ptah commanded was created, with which the constituents of nature and flora, are contained. He plays a role in the preservation of the world and this document has been known as the Memphite Theology, and shows the god Ptah, the god responsible for the creation of the universe by thought and by the word. Ptah is the patron of craftsmanship, carpenters, from the Middle Kingdom onwards, he was one of five major Egyptian gods with Ra, Isis and Amun. He is sometimes represented as a dwarf and deformed, frequently associated with the god Bes, his worship exceeded the borders of the country and was exported throughout the eastern Mediterranean.
Thanks to the Phoenicians, we find figures of Ptah in Carthage, from the Old Kingdom, he quickly absorbs the appearance of Sokar and Tatenen, ancient deities of the Memphite region. His form of Sokar is found contained in its white shroud wearing the Atef crown, in this capacity, he represents the god of the necropolis of Saqqara and other famous sites where the royal pyramids were built. Gradually he formed with Osiris a new deity called Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, statuettes representing the human form, half-human, half-hawk, or simply in its falcon form will be systematically placed in tombs to accompany and protect the dead on their journey to the West. His Tatenen form is represented by a young and vigorous man wearing a crown with two tall plumes that surround the solar disk and he thus embodies the underground fire that rumbles and raises the earth. As such, he was revered by metalworkers and blacksmiths. In this form also, Ptah is the master of ceremonies for Heb Sed, in the holy of holies of his temple in Memphis, as well as in his great sacred boat, he drove in procession to regularly visit the region during major holidays.
Ptah was symbolized by two birds with human heads adorned with solar disks, symbols of the souls of the god Re, the two Ba are identified as the twin gods Shu and Tefnut and are associated with the djed pillar of Memphis. Finally, Ptah is embodied in the bull, Apis. Frequently referred to as a herald of Re, the animal is the link with the god Re from the New Kingdom. He even received worship in Memphis, probably at the heart of the temple of Ptah. As god of craftsmen, the cult of the god Ptah quickly spread throughout Egypt, for this reason, the oratory of Ptah who listens to prayers was built near the site of Deir el-Medina, the village where the workers and craftsmen were confined
Valley of the Kings
The valley stands on the west bank of the Nile, opposite Thebes, within the heart of the Theban Necropolis. The wadi consists of two valleys, East Valley and West Valley, with the 2005 discovery of a new chamber. And the 2008 discovery of two further tomb entrances, the valley is known to contain 63 tombs and chambers and it was the principal burial place of the major royal figures of the Egyptian New Kingdom, as well as a number of privileged nobles. The royal tombs are decorated with scenes from Egyptian mythology and give clues as to the beliefs, almost all of the tombs seem to have been opened and robbed in antiquity, but they still give an idea of the opulence and power of the Pharaohs. This area has been a focus of archaeological and egyptological exploration since the end of the eighteenth century, in modern times the valley has become famous for the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun, and is one of the most famous archaeological sites in the world. In 1979, it became a World Heritage Site, along with the rest of the Theban Necropolis, exploration and conservation continues in the valley, and a new tourist centre has recently been opened.
The types of soil where the Valley of the Kings is located are a sandwich of dense limestone and other sedimentary rock. During the Pleistocene the valley was carved out of the plateau by steady rains, there is currently little year-round rain in this part of Egypt, but there are occasional flash floods that hit the valley, dumping tons of debris into the open tombs. The quality of the rock in the Valley is inconsistent, ranging from finely-grained to coarse stone, the occasional layer of shale caused construction and conservation difficulties, as this rock expands in the presence of water, forcing apart the stone surrounding it. It is thought that some tombs were altered in shape and size depending on the types of rock the builders encountered, builders took advantage of available geological features when constructing the tombs. Some tombs were quarried out of existing limestone clefts, others behind slopes of scree, the problems of tomb construction can be seen with tombs of Ramesses III and his father Setnakhte.
Setnakhte started to excavate KV11 but broke into the tomb of Amenmesse, so construction was abandoned and he usurped the tomb of Twosret. When looking for a tomb, Ramesses III extended the partly-excavated tomb started by his father, the tomb of Ramesses II returned to an early style, with a bent axis, probably due to the quality of the rock being excavated. The area of the Theban hills is subject to infrequent violent thunder storms, recent studies have shown that there are at least seven active flood stream beds leading down into the central area of the valley. This central area appears to have been flooded at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty, the tombs KV63, KV62, and KV55 are dug into the actual wadi bedrock rather than the debris, showing that the level of the valley was five meters below its present level. This was the area that was the subject of the Amarna Royal Tombs Project ground scanning radar investigation, the Theban Hills are dominated by the peak of al-Qurn, known to the Ancient Egyptians as ta dehent, or The Peak.
It has an appearance, and it is probable that this echoed the pyramids of the Old Kingdom. Its isolated position resulted in reduced access, and special police were able to guard the necropolis
Tomb KV14 is a joint tomb, used originally by Twosret and reused and extended by Setnakhte. It has been open since antiquity, but was not properly recorded until Hartwig Altenmüller excavated it from 1983 to 1987. Located in the body of the Valley of the Kings, it has two burial chambers, the extensions making the tomb one of the largest of the Royal Tombs. The original decoration showing the female Twosret was replaced with those of the male Setnakhte, even later, the name of Setnakte was replaced by those of Seti II. The Complete Valley of the Kings,1996, Thames and Hudson, London Siliotti, guide to the Valley of the Kings and to the Theban Necropolises and Temples,1996, A. A. Gaddis, Cairo Theban Mapping Project, KV14 - Includes description and plans of the tomb
Tale of Two Brothers
The Tale of Two Brothers is an ancient Egyptian story that dates from the reign of Seti II, who ruled from 1200 to 1194 BC during the 19th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. The story is preserved on the Papyrus DOrbiney, which is preserved in the British Museum. The story centers around two brothers, who is married, and the younger Bata, the brothers work together, farming land and raising cattle. One day, Anpus wife attempts to seduce Bata, when he strongly rejects her advances, the wife tells her husband that his brother attempted to seduce her and beat her when she refused. In response to this, Anpu attempts to kill Bata, who flees, the god creates a crocodile-infested lake between the two brothers, across which Bata is finally able to appeal to his brother and share his side of the events. To emphasize his sincerity, Bata severs his genitalia and throws them into the water, Bata tells Anpu that if he is ever given a jar of beer that froths, he should know to seek out his brother. After hearing of his brothers plan, Anpu returns home and kills his wife, Bata is establishing a life in the Valley of the Cedar, building a new home for himself.
Bata comes upon the Ennead, or the principal Egyptian deities, the god frequently depicted in Egyptian mythology as having fashioned humans on a potters wheel, creates a wife for Bata. Because of her creation, Batas wife is sought after by the pharaoh. When the pharoh succeeds in bringing her to live with him and they do so, and Bata dies. Anpu receives a frothy jar of beer and sets off to the Valley of the Cedar and he searches for his brothers heart for more than three years, finding it at the beginning of the fourth year. He follows Batas instructions and puts the heart in a bowl of cold water, Bata takes the form of a bull and goes to see his wife and the pharaoh. His wife, aware of his presence as a bull, asks the pharaoh if she may eat its liver, the bull is sacrificed, and two drops of Batas blood fall, from which grow two Persea trees. Bata, now in the form of a tree, again addresses his wife, as this is happening, a splinter ends up in the wifes mouth, impregnating her. She eventually gives birth to a son, whom the pharaoh ultimately makes crown prince, when the pharaoh dies, the crown prince becomes king, and he appoints his elder brother Anpu as crown prince.
The story ends happily, with the brothers at peace with one another, there are several themes present in the Tale of Two Brothers that are significant to ancient Egyptian culture. The second half of the tale deals largely with Egyptian ideas of kingship and that Batas wife ultimately ends up pregnant with him is a reference the duality of the role of women in pharaonic succession, the roles of wife and mother were often simultaneous. Also, the aspect of his wifes creation could be seen to serve as legitimacy for the kingship of Bata
Upper Egypt is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver to Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt is between the Cataracts of the Nile above modern-day Aswan, downriver to the area between Dahshur and El-Ayait, which is south of modern-day Cairo, the northern part of Upper Egypt, between Sohag and El-Ayait, is known as Middle Egypt. In Arabic, inhabitants of Upper Egypt are known as Saidis, in ancient Egypt, Upper Egypt was known as tꜣ šmꜣw, literally the Land of Reeds or the Sedgeland It was divided into twenty-two districts called nomes. The first nome was roughly where modern-day Aswan is and the twenty-second was at modern Atfih just to the south of Cairo, the main city of prehistoric Upper Egypt was Nekhen, whose patron deity was the vulture goddess Nekhbet. By about 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops, shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to grow and increase in complexity. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the Levantine ceramics, extensive use of copper became common during this time.
The Mesopotamian process of sun-drying adobe and architectural principles—including the use of the arch, concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt underwent a unification process, warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta, for most of pharaonic Egypts history, Thebes was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. After its devastation by the Assyrians, its importance declined, under the Ptolemies, Ptolemais Hermiou took over the role of Upper Egypts capital city. Upper Egypt was represented by the tall White Crown Hedjet, and its symbols were the flowering lotus, in the 11th century, large numbers of pastoralists, known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt and moved westward into Libya and as far as Tunis. It is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt, associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, were the cause of the migration.
In the 20th-century Egypt, the title Prince of the Said was used by the apparent to the Egyptian throne. Although the Kingdom of Egypt was abolished after the Egyptian revolution of 1952, media related to Upper Egypt at Wikimedia Commons
Turin is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy, capital of the Piedmont region and was the first capital city of Italy. The city is located mainly on the bank of the Po River, in front of Susa Valley and surrounded by the western Alpine arch. The population of the city proper is 892,649 while the population of the area is estimated by Eurostat to be 1.7 million inhabitants. The Turin metropolitan area is estimated by the OECD to have a population of 2.2 million, in 1997 a part of the historical center of Torino was inscribed in the World Heritage List under the name Residences of the Royal House of Savoy. Turin is well known for its Renaissance, Rococo, Neo-classical, many of Turins public squares, castles and elegant palazzi such as Palazzo Madama, were built between the 16th and 18th centuries. This was after the capital of the Duchy of Savoy was moved to Turin from Chambery as part of the urban expansion, the city used to be a major European political center.
Turin was Italys first capital city in 1861 and home to the House of Savoy, from 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the Royal House of Savoy and finally the first capital of the unified Italy. Turin is sometimes called the cradle of Italian liberty for having been the birthplace and home of notable politicians and people who contributed to the Risorgimento, such as Cavour. The city currently hosts some of Italys best universities, academies and gymnasia, such as the University of Turin, founded in the 15th century, in addition, the city is home to museums such as the Museo Egizio and the Mole Antonelliana. Turins attractions make it one of the worlds top 250 tourist destinations, Turin is ranked third in Italy, after Milan and Rome, for economic strength. With a GDP of $58 billion, Turin is the worlds 78th richest city by purchasing power, as of 2010, the city has been ranked by GaWC as a Gamma World city. Turin is home to much of the Italian automotive industry, the Taurini were an ancient Celto-Ligurian Alpine people, who occupied the upper valley of the Po River, in the center of modern Piedmont.
In 218 BC, they were attacked by Hannibal as he was allied with their long-standing enemies, the Taurini chief town was captured by Hannibals forces after a three-day siege. As a people they are mentioned in history. It is believed that a Roman colony was established in 27 BC under the name of Castra Taurinorum, both Livy and Strabo mention the Taurinis country as including one of the passes of the Alps, which points to a wider use of the name in earlier times. In the 1st century BC, the Romans created a military camp, the typical Roman street grid can still be seen in the modern city, especially in the neighborhood known as the Quadrilatero Romano. Via Garibaldi traces the path of the Roman citys decumanus which began at the Porta Decumani. The Porta Palatina, on the side of the current city centre, is still preserved in a park near the Cathedral
Merneptah or Merenptah was the fourth ruler of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Ancient Egypt. He may have born in 1273 BC, ruling Egypt for almost ten years from late July or early August 1213 BC until his death on May 2,1203 BC. He was the son of Ramesses II and only came to power because all his older brothers. By the time he ascended to the throne he was almost sixty years old and his throne name was Ba-en-re Mery-netjeru, which means The Soul of Ra, Beloved of the Gods. It is presumed that Merneptah was married to Queen Takhat and one of their sons would become the Nineteenth Dynasty pharaoh, Seti II. They were the parents of prince Merenptah and possibly the usurper, Merneptah had to carry out several military campaigns during his reign. In year 5 he fought against the Libyans, who—with the assistance of the Sea Peoples—were threatening Egypt from the West, Merneptah led a victorious six-hour battle against a combined Libyan and Sea People force at the city of Perire, probably located on the western edge of the Delta.
Later in the inscription Merneptah receives news of the attack and he has brought his wife and his children--leaders of the camp, and he has reached the western boundary in the fields of Perire. In the Athribis Stele, in the garden of Cairo Museum, it states His majesty was enraged at their report, like a lion, assembled his court and gave a rousing speech. Later he dreamed he saw Ptah handing him a sword and saying Take thou, when the bowmen went forth, says the inscription, Amun was with them as a shield. After six hours the surviving Nine Bows threw down their weapons, abandoned their baggage and dependents, Merneptah states that he defeated the invasion, killing 6,000 soldiers and taking 9,000 prisoners. its seed is no more. This is the first recognised ancient Egyptian record of the existence of Israel--not as a country or city, Merneptah was already an elderly man in his late 60s, if not early 70s, when he assumed the throne. Merneptah moved the center of Egypt from Piramesse, his fathers capital, back to Memphis.
This palace was excavated in 1915 by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, merneptahs successor, Seti II, was a son of Queen Isetnofret. Seti was able to reassert his authority over Thebes in his fifth year and it is possible that before seizing Upper Egypt, Amenmesse had been known as Messuwy and had been viceroy of Kush. Merneptah suffered from arthritis and atherosclerosis and died an old man after a reign which lasted for nearly a decade, Merneptah was originally buried within tomb KV8 in the Valley of the Kings, but his mummy was not found there. In 1898 it was located along with eighteen other mummies in the mummy found in the tomb of Amenhotep II by Victor Loret. Merneptahs mummy was taken to Cairo and eventually unwrapped by Dr. G. Elliott Smith on July 8,1907, Dr Smith notes that, The body is that of an old man and is 1 meter 714 millimeters in height