Achham District, a part of Province No. 7, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Mangalsen as its district headquarters, covers an area of 1,692 km² and has a population of 257,477, it is one of the remotest districts of Nepal. It is accessible by automobile from Kathmandu and Nepalgunj via a paved road that runs along the western border of Nepal from Dhangadhi; the unpaved of Mid hill lokmarg through Dailakh district takes to Mangalsen by crossing Karnali at Rakam. Mangalsen, the district headquarters, is eight hours walk and two and one-half hour drive from Sanphebagar – a town in Achham sporting a non-functional domestic airport. A bridge crosses the Budhiganga River in Sanphebagar allowing access during high water, a second bridge over the Kailash River. During 2009/2010, the government of Nepal have constructed a paved road connecting Sanphebagar to Mangalsen; the district is served by two hospitals, the government district hospital in Mangalsen and one opened in Bayalpata named Bayalpata Hospital, a collaboration between the government and the non-profit organization Nyaya Health.
Mangalsen Municipality Kamalbazar Municipality Sanphebagar Municipality Panchadeval Binayak Municipality Chaurpati Rural Municipality Mellekh Rural Municipality Bannigadi Jayagad Rural Municipality Ramaroshan Rural Municipality Dhakari Rural Municipality Turmakhand Rural Municipality Timilsina is a common surname in Nepal. It has its roots in the Achham district of Western Nepal. All Timilsinas identify themselves as belonging to the Moudgalya gotra. Timilsinas migrated from a village named Timilsain in Achham district to various parts of the country, now have migrated all over the world, sparing only a few countries. Achham Besd four newspaper are running now. In this district Ramaroshan Daily 2063 Bs to nowadays running, it covers main market and nongovernment office, social organization and others. The Ramaroshan Daily editor is Shiba Raj Dhungana, he is Gorkhapatra Nation Daily District reporter. Dhungana has Secretary of the Federation of Nepali Journalists Achham Branch. More than 25 journalists are working here.
UN map of VDC boundaries, water features and roads in Achham "Districts of Nepal". Statoids
The Terai is a lowland region in southern Nepal and northern India that lies south of the outer foothills of the Himalayas, the Siwalik Hills, north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. This lowland belt is characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, sal forests and clay rich swamps. In northern India, the Terai spreads from the Yamuna River eastward across Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar; the Terai is part the Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands ecoregion. The corresponding lowland region in West Bengal, Bangladesh and Assam in the Brahmaputra River basin is called'Dooars'. In Nepal, the Terai stretches over 33,998.8 km2, about 23.1% of Nepal's land area, lies at an altitude of between 67 and 300 m. The region comprises more than 50 wetlands. North of the Terai rises a narrow but continuous belt of forest about 8 -- 12 km wide. In Hindi the region is called तराई,'tarāī' meaning "foot-hill". In Nepali, the region is called तराइ'tarāi' meaning "the low-lying land, plain" and "the low-lying land at the foot of the Himālayas".
The region's name in Urdu is ترائي'tarāʼī' meaning "lands lying at the foot of a watershed" or "on the banks of a river. The Terai is crossed by the large perennial Himalayan rivers Yamuna, Sarda, Karnali and Kosi that have each built alluvial fans covering thousands of square kilometres below their exits from the hills. Medium rivers such as the Rapti rise in the Mahabharat Range; the geological structure of the region consists of old and new alluvium, both of which constitute alluvial deposits of sand, silt and coarse fragments. The new alluvium is renewed every year by fresh deposits brought down by active streams, which engage themselves in fluvial action. Old alluvium is found rather away from river courses on uplands of the plain where silting is a rare phenomenon. A large number of small and seasonal rivers flow through the Terai, most of which originate in the Siwalik Hills; the soil in the Terai is fine to medium textured. Forest cover in the Terai and hill areas has decreased at an annual rate of 1.3% between 1978 and 1979, 2.3% between 1990 and 1991.
With deforestation and cultivation increasing, a permeable mixture of gravel and sand evolves, which leads to a sinking water table. But where layers consist of clay and fine sediments, the groundwater rises to the surface and heavy sediment is washed out, thus enabling frequent and massive floods during monsoon, such as the 2008 Bihar flood; the reduction in slope as rivers exit the hills and transition from the sloping Bhabhar to the nearly level Terai causes current to slow and the heavy sediment load to fall out of suspension. This deposition process creates multiple channels with shallow beds, enabling massive floods as monsoon-swollen rivers overflow their low banks and shift channels. Many areas show erosion such as gullies. There are several differences between the climate on the western edge of the Terai at Chandigarh in India and at Biratnagar in Nepal near the eastern edge. Moving inland and away from monsoon sources in the Bay of Bengal, the climate becomes more continental with a greater difference between summer and winter.
In the far western Terai, five degrees latitude further north, the coldest months' average is 3 °C cooler. Total rainfall markedly diminishes from east to west; the monsoon arrives is much less intense and ends sooner. However, winters are wetter in the west. In India, the Terai extends over the states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal; these are the districts of these states that are on the Indo-Nepal border: Haryana: Panchkula district Uttarakhand: Haridwar district, Udham Singh Nagar and Nainital districts Uttar Pradesh: Pilibhit district, Lakhimpur Kheri district, Bahraich district, Shravasti district, Balrampur district, Siddharthnagar district, Maharajganj district Bihar: West Champaran district, East Champaran district, Sitamarhi district, Madhubani district, Supaul district, Araria district, Kishanganj district West Bengal: Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling district, Jalpaiguri Sadar subdivision of Jalpaiguri district The Terai in Nepal is differentiated into "Inner" and "Outer" Terai and includes 20 districts.
The Inner Terai consists of five elongated valleys located between the Mahabharat and Shivalik ranges. From north-west to south-east these valleys are: Surkhet Valley in the Surkhet district, north of the Kailali and Bardiya districts. Most of these valleys are 5 -- 10 up to 100 km long; the Outer Terai extends to the Indo-Gangetic plain. In the Far-Western Region, Nepal it comprises the Kanchanpur and Kailali districts, in the Mid-Western Region, Nepal Bardiya and Banke districts. Farther east, the Outer Terai comprises the Kapilvastu, Nawalparasi, Bara, Sarlahi, Dhanusa, Saptari, Sunsari and Jhapa districts. East of Banke the Nepalese Outer Terai is interrupted where the international border swings north and follows the edge of the Siwaliks adjacent to Deukhuri Valley. Here the Outer Terai is in Uttar Pradesh's Shravasti and Balrampur districts. East of Deukhuri the
Dhaulagiri was one of the fourteen zones which Nepal was divided into for administrative purposes, prior to the September 10, 2015 adoption of a new Constitution, which divided the nation instead into 7 provinces. It is in the Western Development Region of Nepal. Famous trekking areas like Mustang, Kali Gandaki valley and Mt Dhaulagiri fall in this zone. Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, the only hunting reserve in Nepal is spread over Baglung and Myagdi Districts of this zone. Dhaulagiri is divided into 4 districts: Development Regions of Nepal List of zones of Nepal List of districts of Nepal
Bajura District, a part of Province No. 7, is one of the seventy-seven districts of Nepal. The district, with Martadi as its district headquarters, covers an area of 2,188 km² and had a population of 108,781 in 2001 and 134,912 in 2011; the district has 9 Ilakas and 1 constituency areas. The district is situated in Longitude between 81° 10′ 20″ to 81° 48′ 27″ East and Latitude 29° 16′ 21″ to 29° 56′ 56″ North. Geographically the district is divided in three distinct regions from north to south viz. Higher Himalayan Region, Higher Mountain and mid – Mountains; the Higher Himalayan region comprises. Mid-Mountain range comprises different ranges of mountains e.g. Badimalika Temple; the District has started from 300m to 6400m in height. The annual rainfall is about 13,433 mm and temperatures vary from 0 °C to 40 °C; the livelihood of more than 80% of the district population depends on agriculture farming small scale livestock. Due to low level of agricultural production, the majority of the households face acute food shortages for a large part of the year.
According to the National Census 2011, the total population of the district is 134,912 comprising 69,106 female and 65,806 male residing in 24,908 households. Bajura district has an average population density of around 62 people per square km; the average family size is 5.4. Life expectancy of the people is 58 years; the average literacy rate is about 32%. Bajura district has a multi ethnic composition with Chhetri, Thakuri, Damai, SarkI and Sanyashi; the common language is Nepali followed by Bhote Tamang. Although accessibility to Bajura is poor, this is improving rapidly; the Government strategy is focused on the connection of VDC headquarters with all-weather motor able roads to SRN or District headquarters. Moreover, the DDC body of Bajura district has given higher priority on rural roads; the district consists of nine municipalities, out of which four are urban municipalities and five are rural municipalities. These are as follows: Badimalika Municipality Triveni Municipality Budhiganga Municipality Budhinanda Municipality Gaumul Rural Municipality Pandav Gufa Rural Municipality Swamikartik Rural Municipality Chhededaha Rural Municipality Himali Rural Municipality Prior to the restructuring of the district, Bajura District consisted of the following Village development committees: The small health centers in many VDCs are without Auxiliary Health Workers, Auxiliary Nurse Midwives and Community Health Workers.
So, people seeking emergency health assistance have to travel a long distance to the district headquarters or Kathmandu or end up dying because of lack of treatment. Many people still believe in Dhami and Jhakri and do not always seek medicine or go to the hospital for the treatment. An NGO, PHASE Nepal provides many health care facilities and training programs to six VDCs: Kolti, Kotila, Pandusain and Baddhu. Many people residing in these VDCs have benefited from the program. PHASE Nepal is working on several projects in this district including community health and education, hygiene and diarrhoea mitigation programmes. Bajura Multiple CampusIt has been conditioning the bachelor level programs with affiliation to Tribhuwan University, Kathmandu, Nepal. Badimalika English Boarding School Converse Academy Shree Malika Higher Secondary School Shree Jana Prakash Higher Secondary School Shree bhanodaya higher secondary school "Districts of Nepal". Statoids. Martadi
Sagarmāthā was one of the fourteen zones of Nepal until the restructuring of zones into provinces. Sagarmāthā is a Nepali word derived from सगर् meaning "sky" and माथा meaning "head", it includes mountain districts of the Himalayas in the north, hill districts in the center, valley districts of the Terai in the south. It is bordered by China to the north, India to the south, the Koshi Zone to the east and the Janakpur Zone to the west. Sagarmāthā is divided into six districts: The main city of the Sagarmāthā Zone was Rajbiraj, the headquarters. Other towns of the Sagarmāthā hill area were Katari, Diktel and Namche Bazaar. Triyuga is an emerging city in the zone. Sagarmāthā Zone took its name from the Nepalese name for Mount Everest, located in the north of the zone within the Sagarmatha National Park in the Solu Khumbu district. Sagarmāthā means "the Head in the Great Blue Sky". Development Regions of Nepal List of zones of Nepal List of districts of Nepal Sagarmatha National Park List of districts of Nepal
Geography of Nepal
Nepal measures about 800 kilometers along its Himalayan axis by 150 to 250 kilometers across. Nepal has an area of 147,181 square kilometers. Nepal is landlocked by China's Tibet Autonomous Region to the north. West Bengal's narrow Siliguri Corridor or Chicken's Neck separate Bangladesh. To the east are India and Bhutan. Nepal depends on India for goods transport facilities and access to the sea for most goods imported from China. For a small country, Nepal has tremendous geographic diversity, it rises from as low as 59 metres elevation in the tropical Terai—the northern rim of the Gangetic Plain, beyond the perpetual snow line to some 90 peaks over 7,000 metres including Earth's highest 8,848 metres Mount Everest or Sagarmatha. In addition to the continuum from tropical warmth to cold comparable to polar regions, average annual precipitation varies from as little as 160 millimetres in the rainshadow north of the Himalaya to as much as 5,500 millimetres on windward slopes. Along a south-to-north transect, Nepal can be divided into three belts: Terai and Himal.
In the other direction, it is divided into three major river systems, from east to west: Koshi, Gandaki/Narayani and Karnali, all tributaries of the Ganges. The Ganges-Yarlung Zangbo/Brahmaputra watershed coincides with the Nepal-Tibet border, however several Ganges tributaries rise inside Tibet. Terai is a low land region containing some hill ranges; the Terai region begins at the Indian border and includes the southernmost part of the flat, intensively farmed Gangetic Plain called the Outer Terai. By the 19th century and other resources were being exported to India. Industrialization based on agricultural products such as jute began in the 1930s and infrastructure such roadways and electricity were extended across the border before it reached Nepal's pahad; the Outer Terai is culturally more similar to adjacent parts of India's Bihar and Uttar Pradesh than to the Pahad of Nepal. Nepali is taught in schools and spoken in government offices, however the local population uses Maithali and Tharu languages.
The Outer Terai ends at the base of the first range of foothills called the Siwaliks or Churia. This range has a densely forested skirt of coarse alluvium called the bhabhar. Below the bhabhar, less permeable sediments force groundwater to the surface in a zone of springs and marshes. In Persian, terai refers to marshy ground. Before the use of DDT this was dangerously malarial. Nepal's rulers used. Above the bhabhar belt, the Siwaliks rise to about 700 metres with peaks as high as 1,000 metres, steeper on their southern flanks because of faults known as the Main Frontal Thrust; this range is composed of poorly consolidated, coarse sediments that do not retain water or support soil development so there is no agricultural potential and sparse population. In several places beyond the Siwaliks there are dūn valleys called Inner Terai; these valleys have productive soil but were dangerously malarial except to indigenous Tharu people who had genetic resistance. In the mid-1950s DDT came into use to suppress mosquitos and the way was open to settlement from the land-poor hills, to the detriment of the Tharu.
The terai ends and the Pahad begin at a higher range of foothills called the Mahabharat Range. Hilly is a mountain region which doesn't contain snow, it is situated south of the Himal, the hilly is betw altitude. This region begins at the Mahabharat Range where a fault system called the Main Boundary Thrust creates an escarpment 1,000 to 1,500 metres high, to a crest between 1,500 and 2,700 metres; these steep southern slopes are nearly uninhabited, thus an effective buffer between languages and culture in the Terai and hilly. Hindu Paharis populate river and stream bottoms that enable rice cultivation and are warm enough for winter/spring crops of wheat and potato; the urbanized Kathmandu and Pokhara valleys fall within the Hill region. Newars are an indigenous ethnic group with their own Tibeto-Burman language; the Newar were indigenous to the Kathmandu valley but have spread into Pokhara and other towns alongside urbanized Pahari. Other indigenous janajati ethnic groups -— natively speaking localized Tibeto-Burman languages and dialects -— populate hillsides up to about 2,500 metres.
This group includes Magar and Kham Magar west of Pokhara, Gurung south of the Annapurnas, Tamang around the periphery of Kathmandu Valley and Rai, Koinch Sunuwar and Limbu further east. Temperate and subtropical fruits are grown as cash crops. Marijuana was grown and processed into Charas until international pressure persuaded the government to outlaw it in 1976. There is increasing reliance on animal husbandry with elevation, using land above 2,000 metres for summer grazing and moving herds to lower elevations in winter. Grain production has not kept pace with population growth at elevations above 1,000 metres where colder temperatures inhibit double cropping. Food deficits drive emigration out of the pahad in search of employment; the Hilly ends where ridges begin rising out of the temperate climate zone into subalpine zone above 3,000 metres. Himal is a mountain region containing snow; the Mountain Region or Parbat begins where high ridges begin rising above 3,000 metres into the subalpi
Doti District, is one of the 77 districts of Nepal. This district, with Silgadhi as its headquarters, covers an area of 2,025 square kilometres with a population of 207,066 in 2001 and increasing marginally to 211,746 in 2011. Doti was a medieval kingdom of Kumaon, it was founded by Niranjan Malla Dev, the last son of the Katyuri dynasty and younger brother of Abhay Pal of Askot. The area between Ramganga in the west and the Karnali River in the east was under the control of the Raikas. Ancient Doti was a part of Kumaon_Kingdom, Now remaining Kumaon region is part of Uttrakhand a state in modern-day india, Nepal's neighboring country. Kingdom of Kumaon lost Doti during Exapnsion of Nepal Kingdom in 1790, it was formed after the Katyuri Kingdom's disintegration during the 13th century. Doti was one of eight different princely states formed after the disintegration, all claim Katyuri heritage; the seven other known states are: Baijnath-Katyuri Dwarahat Baramandal Askot Sira Sora Sui The Katyuri Kingdom's dissolution is attributed to the invasion of Khas Kings Ashoka Challa and Krachalla, from the Karnali zone in 1191 and 1223 respectively.
The whole land between Ramganga in the west and the Karnali in the east, came under the Raikas' rule — after the establishment of the Katyuri's dynastic Raikas Doti. Brahma Dev Mandi at Kanchanpur. Historical evidence of the following raikas has been discovered: Niranjan Malla Dev Nagi Malla Ripu Malla Nirai Pal may be from Askot as historical evidence from 1354 AD relating to him has been found in Almora. Nag Malla Dhir Malla Ripu Malla Anand Malla Balinarayan Malla Sansar Malla Kalyan Malla Suratan Malla Kriti Malla Prithivi Malla Medini Jay Malla Ashok Malla Raj Malla Arjun Malla/Shahi Bhupati Malla/Shahi Sagaram Shahi Hari Malla/Shahi Rudra Shahi Vikram Shahi Mandhata Shahi Raghunath Shahi Hari Shahi Krishna Shahi Deep Shahi Prithivi Pati Shahi The historic place of war between the Doti Kingdom and Gorkha kingdom during the period of Expanding Kingdom of Nepal in 1790, is Nari-Dang which lies on the bank of the Seti River and Dumrakot was the base of the Doti Kingdom during the fighting against the Gorkhalis.
Doti was captured by Gorkha forces, the Gorkha rulers went on to destroy several historical sites in Doti — attempting to cover its legendary bravery and tenacity. The Dotyali people were subject to ethnic prejudice, were excluded from government jobs and offices of state. Somehow in 1950, a few Dotyalis established their identities as national heroes based on their courage and contribution to their country. Noted among them are Martyr Dashrath Chand Ministry of Home Affairs, Martyr Bhim Dutta Pant Ministry of Home Affairs, K. I. Singh, a revolutionary leader who became prime minister. Dotiyali is the local language spoken in the Doti region. According to Rahul Sankrityayan, Dotiyali is the dialect of the Kumauni language, brought to Doti by a section of the Katyuri dynasty of Kumaun which had ruled over Doti until 1790; the Doti kingdom was formed after the Katyuri kingdom had broken up into eight different princely states of different sections of the Katyuris. However, in Nepal it is considered as a Nepali dialect.
The district consists of nine municipalities, out of which two are urban municipalities and seven are rural municipalities. These are as follows: Dipayal Silgadhi Municipality Shikhar Municipality Purbichauki Rural Municipality Badikedar Rural Municipality Jorayal Rural Municipality Sayal Rural Municipality Aadarsha Rural Municipality Kisingh Rural Municipality Bogatan Rural Municipality Prior to the restructuring of the district, Doti District consisted of the following Village development committees: Doti Khaptad Lake Sources