Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Let Forever Be
"Let Forever Be" is a song by English big beat band The Chemical Brothers, released as the second single from their third album Surrender. It contains the vocals of Noel Gallagher of Oasis, who co-wrote the song and worked with The Chemical Brothers on "Setting Sun"; the song is a clear homage to The Beatles' "Tomorrow Never Knows", both melodically and rhythmically. Both the track's B-sides sample tracks from Surrender: "The Diamond Sky" samples the track "Surrender", "Studio K" samples "The Sunshine Underground". "Let Forever Be" was The Chemical Brothers' fourth top 10 single in the UK, peaking at number nine in the UK Singles Chart. The song was one of their biggest hits in the United States, peaking at number 29 on the Billboard Modern Rock Tracks chart. "Let Forever Be" – 3:56 "The Diamond Sky" – 3:37 "Studio K" – 5:48 The video for the track was directed by Michel Gondry, utilized ground-breaking video and film effects in its depiction of a young woman's nightmares. The video, which drew visual inspiration from Ray Davies' 1975 Granada TV production Starmaker, received much media attention and became one of the most well-known videos from the band.
The video makes specific visual and thematic references to the dance sequence "I Only Have Eyes For You", choreographed by Busby Berkeley for the Warner Bros. musical Dames directed by Ray Enright. Pitchfork Media named it the "quintessential Michel Gondry video" and ranked it at number seven in their list of the "Top 50 Music Videos of the 1990s". Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin
Underworld are a British electronic music group formed in 1980 in Cardiff and the principal name of Karl Hyde and Rick Smith recording together. Prominent former members include Darren Emerson, from 1991–1999, Darren Price, as part of the live band from 2005–2016. After initial incarnation as a funk and synth-pop band, resulting in two albums between 1988–1989, Underworld gained prominence, after reshaping in 1993, into the progressive house and techno act, releasing seven subsequent albums, including critically acclaimed Dubnobasswithmyheadman, Second Toughest in the Infants, the signature 1996 single "Born Slippy. NUXX". Known for visual style and dynamic live performances, Underworld have influenced a wide range of artists and been featured in soundtracks and scores for films and the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. Hyde and Smith began their musical partnership in Cardiff in 1979 with the Kraftwerk and reggae-inspired sounds of The Screen Gemz, they were joined by The Screen Gemz' bass player Alfie Thomas, drummer Bryn Burrows, keyboardist John Warwicker in forming a proto-electroclash/new wave band whose name was a graphic squiggle, subsequently given the pronunciation Freur.
The band signed to CBS Records, released 1983's Doot-Doot, disbanded in 1986 after followup Get Us out of Here was withheld. In 1987, Smith, Thomas and bass player Baz Allen formed a band under the name Underworld, which tried a more guitar-orientated funky electropop sound; the band signed to Sire Records and released the album Underneath the Radar in 1988 and, following the departure of Burrows, the album Change the Weather in 1989. This version of the band disbanded in 1990 and is regarded as a separate entity by the band's members to the one which would go on to release Dubnobasswithmyheadman; the Underworld of the Underneath the Radar and Change the Weather period is sometimes referred to as being "Underworld Mk1". After a break—to concentrate on, among other things, art/design project Tomato—Hyde and Smith recruited DJ Darren Emerson and after several minor releases and remixes as Lemon Interupt and Steppin' Razor readopted the Underworld moniker, they produced danceable techno as a trio.
The addition of Emerson completed Underworld's techno/rock fusion and seemed to eliminate the pop elements in the original duo's work. Their first album, Dubnobasswithmyheadman, was considered more accessible than the group's earlier material and crossed a large spectrum of dance music; the signature Hyde lyrics were in place: poetic and whispered. Hyde had been the lead singer in Underworld Mk1 but the original Hyde/Smith dance material was lyric-free as was most of the electronic music emerging from the aftermath of acid house; the band's 1996 album, Second Toughest in the Infants, was their second studio album with Emerson and achieved a degree of commercial success, due in part to its release coinciding with that of the film Trainspotting. The film featured "Dark & Long", as well as the band's most commercially successful track to date, "Born Slippy. NUXX", released only as a B-side of a single and does not appear on the Second Toughest album; the single and the album showed Underworld maturing as a trio, mixing elements of techno, house and bass and experimental music to spectacular effect.
"Born Slippy. NUXX" is one of Underworld's best-known tracks and is celebrated as one of the greatest dance tracks of the decade, it was released in 1995 as a B-side to "Born Slippy" but failed to catch on until it was included in Trainspotting. The track has since sold over a million copies and appeared on countless compilations and remixes. After the release of fifth studio album Beaucoup Fish in 1999, Hyde declared in his interviews that he had sorted out earlier problems with alcoholism but all the members admitted that the sessions had been fraught with problems, with the individual members working in their own studios and only communicating via mixes of the raw material passed back and forth on DAT. After the release of the album a large number of mixes of the album tracks seemed to surface on singles, magazine promotional CDs and similar ephemeral formats indicating the number of revisions the tracks had gone through to get to the point where they were acceptable to all three; the album's name derives from a sample of a Cajun fisherman in Louisiana on the track "Jumbo".
The band wanted to call the album Tonight, Matthew, I'm going to be Underworld but were convinced by their record company, Junior Boy's Own, that the name would not be understood outside the UK. After all the singles had been released, a box set, Beaucoup Fish Singles, a retrospective of all 4 singles came out. Underworld embarked on a spirited and well-received tour in 1999, which resulted in a live CD and DVD drawn from several dates on the tour. Called Everything, the project captured the live Underworld experience faithfully. A companion DVD was released separately soon after the album's release; the DVD features live footage of the band mixed with videography and artistic effects by the design group Tomato. The DVD features several songs not on the album: "Moaner", "Puppies", "Kittens" and "Rowla"; the disco scene in Vanilla Sky features Underworld's 1993 hit "Rez". After the release and promotion of Everything, Emerson decided to leave Underworld to f
Tomorrow Never Knows
"Tomorrow Never Knows" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles. It was released in August 1966 as the final track on their album Revolver, although it was the first song recorded for the LP. Credited as a Lennon–McCartney song, it was written by John Lennon; the song marked a radical departure for the Beatles, as the band embraced the potential of the recording studio without any consideration for being able to reproduce the results in concert. When writing the song, Lennon drew inspiration from his experiences with the hallucinogenic drug LSD and from the book The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead by Timothy Leary, Richard Alpert and Ralph Metzner. On the recording, the Beatles incorporated musical elements that were unconventional in pop music, including musique concrète, avant-garde composition, electro-acoustic sound manipulation; the song features an Indian-inspired modal backing of tambura and sitar drone and bass guitar, with minimal harmonic deviation from a single chord, underpinned by a constant but non-standard drum pattern.
Part of Lennon's vocal was fed through a Leslie speaker cabinet, used as a loudspeaker for a Hammond organ. The song's backwards guitar parts and effects marked the first use of reversed sounds in a pop recording, although the Beatles' 1966 B-side "Rain", which they recorded soon afterwards using the same technique, was issued over three months before Revolver. On release, "Tomorrow Never Knows" was the source of confusion and ridicule for many of the Beatles' less progressive fans and for some members of the music press, it has since been recognised as "the most effective evocation of a LSD experience recorded", in author Colin Larkin's description, as a song that introduced into popular music lyrical themes espousing mind expansion, anti-materialism and Eastern spirituality. It has been cited as an early and influential recording in the psychedelic music and electronic music genres for its pioneering use of sampling, tape manipulation, other production techniques. Pitchfork Media placed the track at number 19 on its list of "The 200 Greatest Songs of the 1960s", Rolling Stone ranked it at number 18 on the magazine's list of the 100 greatest Beatles songs.
John Lennon wrote "Tomorrow Never Knows" in January 1966, with lyrics adapted from the book The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead by Timothy Leary, Richard Alpert and Ralph Metzner, in turn adapted from the Tibetan Book of the Dead. Although Beatles aide Peter Brown believed that Lennon's source for the lyrics was the Tibetan Book of the Dead itself, which, he said, Lennon had read while under the influence of LSD, George Harrison stated that the idea for the lyrics came from Leary and Metzner's book. Paul McCartney confirmed this, stating that when he and Lennon visited the newly opened Indica bookshop, Lennon had been looking for a copy of The Portable Nietzsche and found a copy of The Psychedelic Experience that contained the lines: "Whenever in doubt, turn off your mind, float downstream". Lennon said he bought the book, went home, took LSD, followed the instructions as stated in the text; the book held that the "ego death" experienced under the influence of LSD and other psychedelic drugs is similar to the dying process and requires similar guidance.
This is a state of being known by eastern masters as samādhi. The title never appears in the song's lyrics. Lennon revealed that, like "A Hard Day's Night", it was taken from one of Ringo Starr's malapropisms. In a television interview in early 1964, Starr had uttered the phrase "Tomorrow never knows" when laughing off an incident that took place at the British Embassy in Washington, DC, during which one of the guests had cut off a portion of his hair; the piece was titled "Mark I" and remained so until the Beatles were mixing the Revolver album in June. "The Void" is cited as another working title, but according to Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn, this resulted from Neil Aspinall, one of the band's aides, erroneously referring to it as such in a contemporary issue of The Beatles Book. Lennon said he settled on Starr's phrase "to sort of take the edge off the heavy philosophical lyrics". McCartney remembered that though the song's harmony was restricted to the chord of C, George Martin, the Beatles' producer, accepted it as it was and said it was "rather interesting".
The harmonic structure is derived from Indian music, a genre that Harrison had introduced to the Beatles' sound late in 1965 with his sitar part on "Norwegian Wood", is based on a high volume C drone played on a tambura. The song's musical key is C Mixolydian; the chord over the drone is C major, but some changes to B♭ major result from vocal modulations, as well as orchestral and guitar tape loops. According to author Peter Lavezzoli, the composition is the first pop song to eschew formal chord changes altogether. Despite this limitation, musicologist Dominic Pedler sees the Beatles' harmonic ingenuity displayed in the upper harmonies – "Turn off your mind", for example, is a run of unvarying E melody notes, before "relax" involves an E–G melody-note shift and "float downstream" an E–C–G descent. "It is not dying" involves a run of three G melody notes that rise on "dying" to a B♭, at the start of the verse's fifth bar, creating a ♭VII/I "slash" polychord. Due to Lennon's adherence to Leary's text, "Tomorrow Never Knows" was the first song by the Beatles to depart from any form of rhyming scheme.
"Tomorrow Never Knows" was the fi
British Phonographic Industry
The BPI Limited known as the British Phonographic Industry or BPI, is the British recorded music industry's trade association. Its membership comprises hundreds of music companies including all three "major" record companies in the UK, hundreds of independent music labels and small to medium-sized music businesses, it has represented the interests of British record companies since being formally incorporated in 1973 when the principal aim was to promote British music and fight copyright infringement. In 2007, the association's legal name was changed from British Phonographic Industry Limited, it founded the annual BRIT Awards for the British music industry in 1977, The Classic BRIT Awards. The organizing company, BRIT Awards Limited, is a owned subsidiary of the BPI. Proceeds from both shows go to the BRIT Trust, the charitable arm of the BPI that has donated £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation in 1989. In September 2013, the BPI presented the first BRITs Icon Award to Sir Elton John.
The BPI endorsed the launch of the Mercury Prize for the Album of the Year in 1992. The recorded music industry's Certified Awards program, which attributes Platinum and Silver status to singles and music videos based on their sales performance, has been administered by the BPI since its inception in 1973. In September 2008, the BPI became one of the founding members of UK Music, an umbrella organisation representing the interests of all parts of the industry; the charitable arm of the BPI, the trust was conceived in 1989 by a collection of leading music industry individuals with a mission to give young people a chance to express their musical creativity regardless of race, sex or ability. The BRIT Trust is the only music charity supporting all types of education across the entire spectrum of music. Through the projects it supports, which include Nordoff-Robbins Music Therapy and the BRIT School, the Trust offers young people the opportunity to enhance their lives through music. Proceeds from the BRIT Awards and the Classic BRITs shows go to the BRIT Trust, which has donated £15m to charitable causes nationwide since its foundation.
Opened in September 1991, the BRIT School is a joint venture between The BRIT Trust and the Department for Education and Skills. Based at Selhurst in Croydon, the school is the only non fee-paying performing arts school in the UK, it teaches up to 1,100 students each year aged from 14–19 years in music, drama, musical theatre, production and art & design. Students are from diverse backgrounds and are not required to stick to their own discipline. Nor do students have to work/perform in the evening to pay for the tuition; the BPI administers the BRIT Certified Platinum, Gold and Bronze awards scheme for music releases in the United Kingdom. The level of the award varies depending on the format of the release and the level of sales achieved. Although the awards program was for many years based on the level of shipments by record labels to retailers, since July 2013, certifications have been automatically allocated by the BPI upon the relevant sales thresholds being achieved. Member companies do, still have the option to certify titles based on shipment levels if they choose to.
Since July 2014, audio streaming has been included for singles at a ratio of 100 streams equivalent to 1 unit. From June 2015, audio streams were added to album certifications. According to BPI, they would take the 12 most-streamed tracks from the standard version of an album, with the top two songs down-weighted in line with the average of the rest; the total of these streams will be divided by 1,000 and added to the physical and digital sales of the album. On 6 April 2018, the BPI announced changes to its certifications. A new Bronze certification was introduced, which will be awarded to an artist's first album to reach 30,000 units. Additionally, the program was re-branded as BRIT Certified, with public promotion of the programme being assumed by the BRIT Awards' social media outlets and digital properties. Chief executive Geoff Taylor justified the change by stating that it was part of an effort to cross-promote the certifications with "the UK's biggest platform for artistic achievement".
Adam Barker – Universal Music UK Mike Batt LVO – Deputy chairman, BPI - Dramatico Entertainment John Craig OBE – First Night Records Jonathan Cross – Warner Music UK Nick Gatfield – Sony Music Entertainment Nick Hartley – PIAS David Joseph – Universal Music UK Max Lousada – Warner Music UK Korda Marshall – Infectious Music Iain McNay – Cherry Red Records Emma Pike – Sony Music Entertainment Peter Stack – Union Square Music Geoff Taylor – Chief executive officer, BPI and BRIT Awards Limited Tony Wadsworth CBE – Chairman, BPI and BRIT Awards Limited Kiaron Whitehead – General counsel, BPISource: BPI The BPI have developed bespoke software and automated crawling tools created in-house by the BPI search for members repertoire across more than 400 known infringing sites and generate URLs which are sent to Google as a DMCA Notice for removal within hours of receipt. Additionally, personnel are seconded to the City of London Police Intellectual Property Crime Unit to support anti-"piracy" operations.
Home Taping Is Killing Music Official C
UK Singles Chart
The UK Singles Chart is compiled by the Official Charts Company, on behalf of the British record industry, listing the top-selling singles in the United Kingdom, based upon physical sales, paid-for downloads and streaming. The Official Chart, broadcast on BBC Radio 1 and MTV, is the UK music industry's recognised official measure of singles and albums popularity because it is the most comprehensive research panel of its kind, today surveying over 15,000 retailers and digital services daily, capturing 99.9% of all singles consumed in Britain across the week, over 98% of albums. To be eligible for the chart, a single is defined by the Official Charts Company as either a'single bundle' having no more than four tracks and not lasting longer than 25 minutes or one digital audio track not longer than 15 minutes with a minimum sale price of 40 pence; the rules have changed many times as technology has developed, the most notable being the inclusion of digital downloads in 2005 and streaming in July 2014.
The OCC website contains the Top 100 chart. Some media outlets only list the Top 75 of this list; the chart week runs from 00:01 Friday to midnight Thursday, with most UK physical and digital singles being released on Fridays. From 3 August 1969 until 5 July 2015, the chart week ran from 00:01 Sunday to midnight Saturday; the Top 40 chart is first issued on Friday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 as The Official Chart from 16:00 to 17:45, before the full Official Singles Chart Top 100 is posted on the Official Charts Company's website. A rival chart show, The Vodafone Big Top 40, is based on iTunes downloads and commercial radio airplay across the Global Radio network only, is broadcast on Sunday afternoons from 16:00 to 19:00 on 145 local commercial radio stations across the United Kingdom; the Big Top 40 is not regarded by the industry or wider media. There is a show called "Official KISS Top 40", counting down 40 most played songs on Kiss FM every Sunday 17:00 to 19:00; the UK Singles Chart began to be compiled in 1952.
According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 1 July 2012, 1,200 singles have topped the UK Singles Chart. The precise number of chart-toppers is debatable due to the profusion of competing charts from the 1950s to the 1980s, but the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by the Official Charts Company; the company regards a selected period of the New Musical Express chart and the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969 as predecessors for the period prior to 11 February 1969, where multiples of competing charts coexisted side by side. For example, the BBC compiled its own chart based on an average of the music papers of the time; the first number one on the UK Singles Chart was "Here in My Heart" by Al Martino for the week ending date 14 November 1952. As of the week ending date 18 April 2019, the UK Singles Chart has had 1352 different number-one hits; the current number-one single is "Someone You Loved" by Lewis Capaldi.
Before the compilation of sales of records, the music market measured a song's popularity by sales of sheet music. The idea of compiling a chart based on sales originated in the United States, where the music-trade paper Billboard compiled the first chart incorporating sales figures on 20 July 1940. Record charts in the UK began in 1952, when Percy Dickins of the New Musical Express gathered a pool of 52 stores willing to report sales figures. For the first British chart Dickins telephoned 20 shops, asking for a list of the 10 best-selling songs; these results were aggregated into a Top 12 chart published in NME on 14 November 1952, with Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" awarded the number-one position. The chart became a successful feature of the periodical. Record Mirror compiled its own Top 10 chart for 22 January 1955; the NME chart was based on a telephone poll. Both charts expanded in size, with Mirror's becoming a Top 20 in October 1955 and NME's becoming a Top 30 in April 1956. Another rival publication, Melody Maker, began compiling its own chart.
It was the first chart to include Northern Ireland in its sample. Record Mirror began running a Top 5 album chart in July 1956. In March 1960, Record Retailer had a Top 50 singles chart. Although NME had the largest circulation of charts in the 1960s and was followed, in March 1962 Record Mirror stopped compiling its own chart and published Record Retailer's instead. Retailer began independent auditing in January 1963, has been used by the UK Singles Chart as the source for number-ones since the week ending 12 March 1960; the choice of Record Retailer as the source has been criticised. With available lists of which record shops were sampled to compile the charts some shops were subjected to "hyping" but, with Record Retailer being less followed than some charts, it was subject to less hyping. Additionally, Retailer was set up by independent record shops and had no funding or affiliation with record companies. However, it had a smaller sample size than some ri