Universal Windows Platform apps
Universal Windows Platform apps are programs that can be used across all compatible Microsoft Windows devices, including personal computers, smartphones, Xbox One, Microsoft HoloLens, Internet of Things. UWP software is purchased and downloaded via the Microsoft Store. Starting with Windows 10, Windows uses "Windows app". Any app installed from Microsoft Store, is a "Trusted Windows Store app". Other computer programs running on a desktop computer are "desktop apps"; the terms "Universal Windows Platform" and "UWP app" only appear on Microsoft documentation for its developers. Microsoft started to retrospectively use "Windows Runtime app" to refer to the precursors of UWP app, for which there was no unambiguous name before. Windows software first became available under the name "Metro-style apps" when the Windows Store opened in 2012 and were marketed with Windows 8. In Windows 8.x, Metro-style apps do not run in a window. Instead, they either occupy the entire screen or are snapped to one side, in which case they occupy the entire height of the screen but only part of its width.
They have system menu, window borders or control buttons. Command interfaces like scroll bars are hidden at first. Menus are located in the "settings charm". Metro-style apps use the UI controls of Windows 8.x and follow Windows 8.x UI guidelines, such as horizontal scrolling and the inclusion of edge-UIs, like the app bar. In response to criticism from customers, in Windows 8.1, a title bar is present but hidden unless users move the mouse cursor to the top of the screen. The "hamburger" menu button on their title bar gives access to the charms. For most users, the only point of entry of Metro-style apps is Windows Store. Enterprises operating a Windows domain infrastructure may enter into a contract with Microsoft that allows them to sideload their line-of-business Metro-style apps, circumventing Windows Store. Major web browser vendors such as Google and Mozilla Foundation are selectively exempted from this rule. Metro-style apps are the only third-party apps that run on Windows RT. Traditional third-party apps do not run on this operating system.
Before Windows 8, computer programs were identified by their static computer icons. Windows taskbar was responsible for representing every app. Metro-style apps, are identified by their "tiles" that can show their icon and other dynamic contents. In addition, in Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 RTM, they are not shown on the Windows taskbar when they run, but on a dedicated app switcher on the left side of the screen. Windows 8.1 Update restored taskbar icons for Metro-style apps. There is no set limit. For example, one user may run as many copies of programs such as Notepad, Paint or Firefox as the system resources support. However, in Windows 8, only one copy of Metro-style apps may run at any given time. True multi-instancing of these apps were not available until Windows 10 version 1803. Windows 10 brings significant changes to how UWP apps work. How UWP apps look depends on the app itself. UWP apps built for Windows 10 have a distinct look and feel, as they use new UI controls that look different from those of previous versions of Windows.
The exception to this are apps that use custom UI, the case with video games. Apps designed for Windows 8.x look different from those designed for Windows 10. UWP apps can look identical to traditional desktop apps, using the same legacy UI controls from Windows versions dating back to Windows 95; these are legacy desktop apps that are converted to the UWP apps and distributed using the APPX file format. In Windows 10, most UWP apps those designed for Windows 8.x, are run in floating windows, users use the Windows taskbar and Task View to switch between both UWP apps and desktop apps. Windows 10 introduced "Continuum" or "Tablet Mode"; this mode is by default disabled on desktop computers and enabled on tablet computers, but desktop users can switch it on or off manually. When the Tablet Mode is off, apps may have visible title bars; when the Tablet Mode is enabled, resizable apps use the windowing system similar to that of Metro-style apps on Windows 8.x in that they are forced to either occupy the whole screen or be snapped to one side.
UWP apps in Windows 10 can open in multiple windows. Microsoft Edge and Photos are examples of apps that allow this. Windows 10 v1803 added true multi-instancing capabilities, so that multiple independent copies of a UWP app can run. UWP apps can be sideloaded from another device; the sideloading requirements were reduced from Windows 8.x to 10, but the app must still be signed by a trusted digital certificate that chains to a root certificate. Metro-style apps are suspended. Dynamic tiles, background components and contracts may require an app to be activated before a user starts it. For six years, invoking an arbitrary Metro-style app or UWP app from the command line was not supported
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0
A tablet computer shortened to tablet, is a mobile device with a mobile operating system and touchscreen display processing circuitry, a rechargeable battery in a single thin, flat package. Tablets, being computers, do what other personal computers do, but lack some input/output abilities that others have. Modern tablets resemble modern smartphones, the only differences being that tablets are larger than smartphones, with screens 7 inches or larger, measured diagonally, may not support access to a cellular network; the touchscreen display is operated by gestures executed by finger or digital pen, instead of the mouse and keyboard of larger computers. Portable computers can be classified according to the appearance of physical keyboards. Two species of tablet, the slate and booklet, do not have physical keyboards and accept text and other input by use of a virtual keyboard shown on their touchscreen displays. To compensate for their lack of a physical keyboard, most tablets can connect to independent physical keyboards by wireless Bluetooth or USB.
The form of the tablet was conceptualized in the middle of the 20th century and prototyped and developed in the last two decades of that century. In 2010, Apple released the iPad. Thereafter tablets rose in ubiquity and soon became a large product category used for personal and workplace applications, with sales stabilizing in the mid-2010s; the tablet computer and its associated operating system began with the development of pen computing. Electrical devices with data input and output on a flat information display existed as early as 1888 with the telautograph, which used a sheet of paper as display and a pen attached to electromechanical actuators. Throughout the 20th century devices with these characteristics have been imagined and created whether as blueprints, prototypes, or commercial products. In addition to many academic and research systems, several companies released commercial products in the 1980s, with various input/output types tried out. Tablet computers appeared in a number of works of science fiction in the second half of the 20th century.
Examples include: Isaac Asimov described a Calculator Pad in his novel Foundation Stanislaw Lem described the Opton in his novel Return from the Stars Numerous similar devices were depicted in Gene Roddenberry's 1966 Star Trek: The Original Series Arthur C. Clarke's NewsPad was depicted in Stanley Kubrick's film 2001: A Space Odyssey Douglas Adams described a tablet computer in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy and the associated comedy of the same name The sci-fi TV series Star Trek The Next Generation featured tablet computers which were designated as PADDs. A device more powerful than today's tablets appeared in The Mote in God's Eye; the Star Wars franchise features datapads, first described in print in 1991's Heir to the Empire and depicted on screen in 1999's The Phantom Menace. Further, real-life projects either proposed or created tablet computers, such as: In 1968, computer scientist Alan Kay envisioned a KiddiComp. Adults could use a Dynabook, but the target audience was children.
In 1979, the idea of a touchscreen tablet that could detect an external force applied to one point on the screen was patented in Japan by a team at Hitachi consisting of Masao Hotta, Yoshikazu Miyamoto, Norio Yokozawa and Yoshimitsu Oshima, who received a US patent for their idea. In 1992, Atari showed developers the Stylus renamed ST-Pad; the ST-Pad was prototyped early handwriting recognition. Shiraz Shivji's company Momentus demonstrated in the same time a failed x86 MS-DOS based Pen Computer with its own graphical user interface. In 1994, the European Union initiated the NewsPad project, inspired by Clarke and Kubrick's fictional work. Acorn Computers developed and delivered an ARM-based touch screen tablet computer for this program, branding it the "NewsPad". During the November 2000 COMDEX, Microsoft used the term Tablet PC to describe a prototype handheld device they were demonstrating. In 2001, Ericsson Mobile Communications announced an experimental product named the DelphiPad, developed in cooperation with the Centre for Wireless Communications in Singapore, with a touch-sensitive screen, Netscape Navigator as a web browser, Linux as its operating system.
Following earlier tablet computer products such as the Pencept PenPad, the CIC Handwriter, in September 1989, GRiD Systems released the first commercially successful tablet computer, the GRiDPad. All three products were based on extended versions of the MS-DOS operating system. In 1992, IBM announced and shipped to developers the 2521 ThinkPad, which ran the GO Corporation's PenPoint OS. Based on PenPoint was AT&T's EO Personal Communicator from 1993, which ran on AT&T's own hardware, including their own AT&T Hobbit CPU. Apple Computer launched the Apple Newton personal digital assistant in 1993, it used Apple's own new Newton OS running on hardware manufactured by Motorola and incorporating an ARM CPU, that Apple had co-develop
Windows Camera is an image and video capture utility included with the most recent versions of Windows and its mobile counterpart. It has been around on Windows-based mobile devices since camera hardware was included on those devices and was introduced on Windows PCs with Windows 8, providing users for the first time a first-party built-in camera that could interact with webcam hardware, it is similar in structure and features to the eponymous Android apps. Camera can capture standard photos, "living images", which are similar to animated GIF images, it supports 16:9, 4:3, 3:2 aspect ratios and offers square, rule of thirds, golden ratio, crosshairs alignment frames, which are disabled by default. Video capture selections can be taken with detail levels of 640 × 360 pixels/30 frames per second, 1280 × 720 pixels/30 frames per second, or 1920 × 1080 pixels/30 frames per second. Flicker reduction and video stabilization can be enabled. Photos and videos are saved by default to the Saved Images folder of the Pictures library in File Explorer, but users can change the storage location.
Camera's captures include location information. Additional settings included in the app include time delay, focus control, sensitivity control, white balance control, shutter speed control, brightness control, a toggle for switching between different cameras. For instance, most Windows phones and tablets have both front- and rear-facing cameras, so Camera’s switch button toggles between the two options. Camera was introduced to Windows Mobile in 2000 and Windows PCs in late 2012. Prior to its introduction, there was no built-in tool for using built-in PC cameras or connected external webcams, although some manufacturers included third-party camera software on devices they sold. On Lumia Windows 10 Mobile devices, it is the only camera as Microsoft discontinued support for the custom Lumia Camera apps; because Camera only uses the hardware camera, not a screen capture utility, its functionality is hardware-dependent. While all current Windows phones have at least one camera, not all desktop Windows computers have one.
Camera does not have some of the features of the iOS app, such as slow-motion videos, a 1:1 photo ratio, filters. However, all of these effects can still be added to already-created photos and videos by editing them in Photos. Camera does have a panorama capture feature similar to iOS’, but only on phones. Microsoft launched a free camera app named Pix for iOS devices, despite having its own mobile platform and Camera app. Pix has a different set of features than either Windows iOS Camera. Microsoft Photos Office Sway Microsoft Paint Imaging for Windows Official website
Condé Nast Inc. is an American mass media company founded in 1909 by Condé Montrose Nast, based at One World Trade Center and owned by Advance Publications. The company attracts more than 164 million consumers across its 19 brands and media: Allure, Architectural Digest, Ars Technica, Bon Appétit, Condé Nast Traveler, Glamour, Golf Digest, GQ, Self, Teen Vogue, The New Yorker, Vanity Fair, Vogue, W and Wired. Robert A. Sauerberg Jr. is Condé Nast's current chief president. US Vogue editor-in-chief Anna Wintour serves as the current artistic director of Condé Nast; the company launched Condé Nast Entertainment in 2011 to develop film and digital video programming. Condé Montrose Nast, a New York City-born publisher, launched his magazine empire in 1909 with the purchase of Vogue, first created in 1892 as a New York weekly journal of society and fashion news. At first, Nast published the magazine under Vogue Company and did not incorporate Condé Nast until 1923, he had a flair for nurturing elite readers as well as advertisers and upgraded Vogue, sending the magazine on its path of becoming a top fashion authority.
Nast's portfolio expanded to include House & Garden, Vanity Fair and American Golfer. The company introduced British Vogue in 1916, Condé Nast became the first publisher of an overseas edition of an existing magazine. Condé Nast is considered to be the originator of the "class publication," a type of magazine focused on a particular social group or interest instead of targeting the largest possible readership, its magazines focus on a wide range of subjects, including travel, home and other interests, with fashion the larger portion of the company's focus. Nast opened a printing press in 1924, which closed in 1964 to make way for more centrally located sites capable of producing higher volumes. During the Great Depression, Condé Nast introduced innovative typography and color. Vogue's first full color photograph was featured on the cover in 1932, marking the year when Condé Nast began replacing fashion drawings on covers with photo illustrations―an innovative move at the time. Glamour, launched in 1939, was the last magazine introduced to the company by Nast, who died in 1942.
In 1959, Samuel I. Newhouse bought Condé Nast for US$5 million as an anniversary gift for his wife Mitzi, who loved Vogue, he merged it with the held holding company Advance Publications. His son, S. I. Newhouse, Jr. known as "Si," became chairman of Condé Nast in 1975. The Newhouse era at Condé Nast launched a period of acquisitions, overhauls of existing magazines and the founding of new publications. In January 2000, Condé Nast moved from 350 Madison Avenue to 4 Times Square, which at the time was the first skyscraper built in New York City since 1992 and boasted a Frank Gehry cafeteria; the move was viewed as contributing to the transformation of Times Square. In the same year, Condé Nast purchased Fairchild Publications, home to W and WWD, from the Walt Disney Company. In 2001, Condé Nast bought Golf Digest and Golf World from The New York Times Company for US$435 million. On October 5, 2009, Condé Nast announced the closure of three of its publications: Cookie, Modern Bride, Elegant Bride.
Gourmet ceased monthly publication with its November 2009 issue. In print, Gourmet continues in the form of special editions on cookbooks. Other Condé Nast titles were shut down as well; the company folded the women's magazine Jane with its August issue in 2007 and shut down its website. One of Condé Nast's oldest titles, the American edition of House and Garden, ceased publication after the December 2007 issue. Portfolio and Domino were folded as well. Condé Nast has made some notable acquisitions. On October 31, 2006, Condé Nast acquired the content aggregation site Reddit, spun off as a wholly owned subsidiary in September 2011. On May 20, 2008, the company announced its acquisition of a popular technology-oriented website, Ars Technica. In July 2010, Robert Sauerberg became Condé Nast's president. In May 2011, Condé Nast was the first major publisher to deliver subscriptions for the iPad, starting with The New Yorker. In the same month, Next Issue Media, a joint venture formed by five U. S. publishers including Condé Nast, announced subscriptions for Android devices available for the Samsung Galaxy Tab.
In June 2011, Condé Nast announced that it would relocate its headquarters to One World Trade Center in 2015. In September 2011, Condé Nast said; the company launched Conde Nast Entertainment in 2011 to develop film and digital video programming. In May 2013, CNÉ's Digital Video Network debuted, featuring web series for such publications as Glamour and GQ. Wired joined the Digital Video Network with the announcement of five original web series including the National Security Agency satire Codefellas and the animated advice series Mister Know-It-All. In late October 2013, the company ceased its unpaid internship program. In November 2014, Condé Nast moved into One World Trade Center, where its new headquarters is located. On September 14, 2015, the company announced Robert A. Sauerberg Jr. was appointed as its chief executive officer and will remain its president.
Windows 8.1 is a personal computer operating system, produced by Microsoft and released as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 27, 2013, reached general availability on October 17, 2013, about a year after the retail release of its predecessor. Windows 8.1 was made available as a free upgrade for retail copies of Windows 8 and Windows RT users via the Windows Store. Windows 8.1 aimed to address complaints of Windows 8 reviewers on launch. Visible enhancements include an improved Start screen, additional snap views, additional bundled apps, tighter OneDrive integration, Internet Explorer 11, a Bing-powered unified search system, restoration of a visible Start button on the taskbar, the ability to restore the previous behavior of opening the user's desktop on login instead of the Start screen. Windows 8.1 added support for such emerging technologies as high-resolution displays, 3D printing, Wi-Fi Direct, Miracast streaming, as well as the ReFS file system.
Windows 8.1 received better positive reception than Windows 8, with critics praising the expanded functionality available to apps in comparison to 8, its OneDrive integration, along with its user interface tweaks and the addition of expanded tutorials for operating the Windows 8 interface. Despite these improvements, Windows 8.1 was still criticized for not addressing all digressions of Windows 8, the potential privacy implications of the expanded use of online services. As of February 2019, 6.55% of Windows computers are running Windows 8.1. In February 2013, ZDNet writer Mary Jo Foley disclosed potential rumors about "Blue", the codename for a wave of planned updates across several Microsoft products and services, including Windows 8, Windows Phone 8, Outlook.com, SkyDrive. In particular, the report detailed that Microsoft was planning to shift to a more "continuous" development model, which would see major revisions to its main software platforms released on a consistent yearly cycle to keep up with market demands.
Lending credibility to the reports, Foley noted that a Microsoft staff member had listed experience with "Windows Blue" on his LinkedIn profile, listed it as a separate operating system from 8. A post-RTM build of Windows 8, build 9364, was leaked in March 2013; the build, believed to be of "Windows Blue", revealed a number of enhancements across Windows 8's interface, including additional size options for tiles, expanded color options on the Start screen, the expansion of PC Settings to include more options that were exclusive to the desktop Control Panel, the ability for apps to snap to half of the screen, the ability to take screenshots from the Share charm, additional stock apps, increased SkyDrive integration and Internet Explorer 11. Shortly afterward on March 26, 2013, corporate vice president of corporate communications Frank X. Shaw acknowledged the "Blue" project, stating that continuous development would be "the new normal" at Microsoft, that "our product groups are taking a unified planning approach so people get what they want—all of their devices and services working together wherever they are and for whatever they are doing."In early May, press reports announcing the upcoming version in Financial Times and The Economist negatively compared Windows 8 to New Coke.
The theme was echoed and debated in the computer press. Shaw rejected this criticism as "extreme", adding that he saw a comparison with Diet Coke as more appropriate. On May 14, 2013, Microsoft announced that "Blue" would be named Windows 8.1. Following a keynote presentation focusing on this version, the public beta of Windows 8.1 was released on June 26, 2013 during Build. Build 9600 of Windows 8.1 was released to OEM hardware partners on August 27, 2013, became available on October 17, 2013. Unlike past releases of Windows and its service packs, volume license customers and subscribers to MSDN Plus and TechNet Plus were unable to obtain the RTM version upon its release. However, after criticism, Microsoft reversed its decision and released the RTM build on MSDN and TechNet on September 9, 2013. Prior to the release of Windows 8.1, Microsoft premiered a new television commercial in late-September 2013 that focused on its changes as part of the "Windows Everywhere" campaign. Shortly after its release, Windows RT 8.1 was temporarily recalled by Microsoft following reports that some users had encountered a rare bug which corrupted the operating system's Boot Configuration Data during installation, resulting in an error on startup.
On October 21, 2013, Microsoft confirmed that the bug was limited to the original Surface tablet, only affected 1 in 1000 installations. The company released recovery media and instructions which could be used to repair the device, restored access to Windows RT 8.1 the next day. It was found that changes to screen resolution handling on Windows 8.1 resulted in mouse input lag in certain video games that do not use the DirectInput API's—particularly first-person shooter games, including Deus Ex: Human Revolution, Hitman: Absolution, Metro 2033. Users found the issues to be more pronounced when using gaming mice with high resolution and/or polling rates. Microsoft released a patch to fix the bug on certain games in November 2013, acknowledged that it was caused by "changes to mouse-input processing for low-latency interaction scenarios". On April 8, 2014, a day of the End of Support for Windows XP, Microsoft released the Windows 8.1 Update, w
Smartphones are a class of mobile phones and of multi-purpose mobile computing devices. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems, which facilitate wider software and multimedia functionality, alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging. Smartphones include various sensors that can be leveraged by their software, such as a magnetometer, proximity sensors, barometer and accelerometer, support wireless communications protocols such as Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, satellite navigation. Early smartphones were marketed towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant devices with support for cellular telephony, but were limited by their battery life, bulky form, the immaturity of wireless data services. In the 2000s, BlackBerry, Nokia's Symbian platform, Windows Mobile began to gain market traction, with models featuring QWERTY keyboards or resistive touchscreen input, emphasizing access to push email and wireless internet.
Since the unveiling of the iPhone in 2007, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors, with large, capacitive screens with support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards, offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store, use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants, as well as mobile payment services. Improved hardware and faster wireless communication have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. In the third quarter of 2012, one billion smartphones were in use worldwide. Global smartphone sales surpassed the sales figures for feature phones in early 2013; the first commercially available device that could be properly referred to as a "smartphone" began as a prototype called "Angler" developed by Frank Canova in 1992 while at IBM and demonstrated in November of that year at the COMDEX computer industry trade show. A refined version was marketed to consumers in 1994 by BellSouth under the name Simon Personal Communicator.
In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls, the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. It included an address book, appointment scheduler, world time clock, notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news; the term "smart phone" or "smartphone" was not coined until a year after the introduction of the Simon, appearing in print as early as 1995, describing AT&T's PhoneWriter Communicator. Beginning in the mid-late 1990s, many people who had mobile phones carried a separate dedicated PDA device, running early versions of operating systems such as Palm OS, Newton OS, Symbian or Windows CE/Pocket PC; these operating systems would evolve into early mobile operating systems. Most of the "smartphones" in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware; the results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access.
The trend at the time, that manufacturers competed on in both mobile phones and PDAs was to make devices smaller and slimmer. The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices limited their popularity to "early adopters" and business users who needed portable connectivity. In March 1996, Hewlett-Packard released the OmniGo 700LX, a modified HP 200LX palmtop PC with a Nokia 2110 mobile phone piggybacked onto it and ROM-based software to support it, it had a 640×200 resolution CGA compatible four-shade gray-scale LCD screen and could be used to place and receive calls, to create and receive text messages and faxes. It was 100% DOS 5.0 compatible, allowing it to run thousands of existing software titles, including early versions of Windows. In August 1996, Nokia released the Nokia 9000 Communicator, a digital cellular PDA based on the Nokia 2110 with an integrated system based on the PEN/GEOS 3.0 operating system from Geoworks.
The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design, with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below. The PDA provided e-mail; when closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone. In June 1999 Qualcomm released the "pdQ Smartphone", a CDMA digital PCS smartphone with an integrated Palm PDA and Internet connectivity. Subsequent landmark devices included: The Ericsson R380 by Ericsson Mobile Communications; the first device marketed as a "smartphone", it was the first Symbian-based phone, with PDA functionality and limited Web browsing on a resistive touchscreen utilizing a stylus. Users could not install their own software on the device, however; the Kyocera 6035, a dual-nature device with a separate Palm OS PDA operating system and CDMA mobile phone firmware. It supported limited Web browsing with the PDA software treating the phone hardware as an attached modem. Handspring's Treo 180, the first smartphone that integrated the Palm OS on a GSM mobile phone having telephony, SMS messaging and Internet access built in to the OS.
The 180 model had a thumb-type keyboard and the 180g version had a Graffiti handwriting recognition area, instead. In 1999, Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched i-mode, a new