The name Krasnoluzhsky Bridge refers to three existing bridges across Moskva River, located between Kievsky Rail Terminal and Luzhniki in Moscow. The original Nicholas II Bridge and its twin, Sergievsky Bridge were built in 1903–1907, they carried two tracks of Moscow Inner Ring Railroad across the Luzhniki bend. Both were designed as through arch bridges by Alexander Pomerantsev; the 135-meter steel arch of Nicholas II Bridge was made at Sormovo works. Proskuryakov's work, considered a marvel of engineering, was proven by the 1908 flood: water level exceeded the maximum design specification by a meter and a half. After the February Revolution of 1917, the tzarist title was replaced with a politically correct Krasnoluzhsky Red Meadows. In 1926 the builder, Lavr Proskuryakov, was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery - right next to the bridge. In 1952–1956, the arched stone pillars over embankments were extended from one to two spans to accommodate street traffic. After more than 90 years of service, the bridge required extensive repairs.
The City preferred to replace the whole steel structure with a brand new arch over existing pillars. New steel arch is superficially similar to Proskuryakov's original design; the function of the bridge was not changed, it carries a railway line across Moskva River. In the 1990s, the City built parallel to existing railway tracks. New Krasnoluzhsky Road Bridge construction began in September 1997 and completed in 1998. Designers took care to make the new concrete bridge "blend" with Proskuryakov's arch, thus the main span of a dual box girder bridge is set to 144.5 meters. Roadway is 39.5 meters wide. The bridge was known as Berezhkovsky; this title appears in a contractor's illustrated report available online. Instead of scrapping the old steel arch, city planners re-used it as a structural core of the new pedestrian bridge, half a mile upstream. Named Kievsky, i.e. "Kiev Bridge", this bridge is now named after Bohdan Khmelnytskyi, hetman of the Zaporozhian Cossack Hetmanate of Ukraine. Main pedestrian walkway and stairs are enclosed in a glass canopy.
Shoreside pillars and staircases of grey stone are a close but simplified copy of the original Krasnoluzhsky bridge approaches. The bridge was opened on the official Day of Moscow, 2 September 2001. Completion was in such a rush that it made its way into the official Bridges of Moscow reference book: "One week before opening, there were six cranes and derricks working 24 hours a day!" Andreyevsky Bridge List of bridges in Moscow
Luzhniki Olympic Complex
The Luzhniki Olympic Complex is one of the biggest multifunctional sports complexes of the world, built between 1955 and 1956, located in Moscow, Russia. Known as the Central Lenin Stadium, it served as the Olympic Park of the 1980 Summer Olympics, it is served by Vorobyovy Gory and Luzhniki metro stations. Grand Sports Arena Luzhniki Palace of Sports Luzhniki Small Sports Arena Olympic Pool Druzhba Multipurpose Arena Official website
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, processing, storing, marketing or selling fish or fish products. It is defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization as including recreational and commercial fishing, the harvesting and marketing sectors; the commercial activity is aimed at the delivery of fish and other seafood products for human consumption or as input factors in other industrial processes. Directly or indirectly, the livelihood of over 500 million people in developing countries depends on fisheries and aquaculture. There are three principal industry sectors: The commercial sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated with wild-catch or aquaculture resources and the various transformations of those resources into products for sale, it is referred to as the "seafood industry", although non-food items such as pearls are included among its products. The traditional sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated with fisheries resources from which aboriginal people derive products in accordance with their traditions.
The recreational sector: comprises enterprises and individuals associated for the purpose of recreation, sport or sustenance with fisheries resources from which products are derived that are not for sale. The commercial sector of the fishing industry comprises the following chain: Commercial fishing and fish farming which produce the fish Fish processing which produce the fish products Marketing of the fish products Fish are harvested by commercial fishing and aquaculture. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the world harvest in 2005 consisted of 93.3 million tonnes captured by commercial fishing in wild fisheries, plus 48.1 million tonnes produced by fish farms. In addition, 1.3 million tons of aquatic plants were captured in wild fisheries and 14.8 million tons were produced by aquaculture. The number of individual fish caught in the wild has been estimated at 0.97-2.7 trillion per year. Following is a table of the 2011 world fishing industry harvest in tonnes by capture and by aquaculture.
The top producing countries were, in order, the People's Republic of China, Japan, the United States, Indonesia, India, Thailand and Iceland. Those countries accounted for more than half of the world's production. Aquaculture is the cultivation of aquatic organisms. Unlike fishing, aquaculture known as aquafarming, is the cultivation of aquatic populations under controlled conditions. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments. Particular kinds of aquaculture include algaculture. Fish farming involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosed pools for food. Fish species raised by fish farms include carp, tilapia and cod. Increasing demands on wild fisheries by commercial fishing operations have caused widespread overfishing. Fish farming offers an alternative solution to the increasing market demand for fish and fish protein. Fish processing is the processing of fish delivered by commercial fisheries and fish farms; the larger fish processing companies have independent fisheries.
The products of the industry are sold wholesale to grocery chains or to intermediaries. Fish processing can be subdivided into two categories: fish handling and fish products manufacturing. Aspects of fish processing occur on fishing vessels, fish processing vessels, at fish processing plants. Another natural subdivision is into primary processing involved in the filleting and freezing of fresh fish for onward distribution to fresh fish retail and catering outlets, the secondary processing that produces chilled and canned products for the retail and catering trades. Fisheries are estimated to provide 16% of the world population's protein; the flesh of many fish are valued as a source of food. Other marine life taken as food includes shellfish, sea cucumber and roe. Fish and other marine life can be used for many other uses: pearls and mother-of-pearl and rayskin. Sea horses, star fish, sea urchins and sea cucumber are used in traditional Chinese medicine. Tyrian purple is a pigment made from marine snails, sepia is a pigment made from the inky secretions of cuttlefish.
Fish glue has long been valued for its use in all manner of products. Isinglass is used for the clarification of beer. Fish emulsion is a fertilizer emulsion, produced from the fluid remains of fish processed for fish oil and fish meal. In the industry the term seafood products is used instead of fish products. Fish markets are sale of fish and other seafood, they can be dedicated to wholesale trade between fishermen and fish merchants, or to the sale of seafood to individual consumers, or to both. Retail fish markets, a type of wet market sell street food as well. Most shrimp are marketed in different categories; the live food fish trade is a global system. The traditional fishing industry, or artisan fishing, are terms used to describe small scale commercial or subsistence fishing practises using traditional techniques such as rod and tackle and harpoons, throw nets and drag nets, etc, it does not cover the concept of fishing for sport, might be used when talking
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a sister group to the tunicates. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous and bony fish as well as various extinct related groups. Tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods; because in this manner the term "fish" is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology, unless it is used in the cladistic sense, including tetrapods. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification; the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts. Fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor. The first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Most fish are ectothermic, allowing their body temperatures to vary as ambient temperatures change, though some of the large active swimmers like white shark and tuna can hold a higher core temperature. Fish can communicate in their underwater environments through the use of acoustic communication. Acoustic communication in fish involves the transmission of acoustic signals from one individual of a species to another; the production of sounds as a means of communication among fish is most used in the context of feeding, aggression or courtship behaviour. The sounds emitted by fish can vary depending on the stimulus involved, they can produce either stridulatory sounds by moving components of the skeletal system, or can produce non-stridulatory sounds by manipulating specialized organs such as the swimbladder.
Fish are abundant in most bodies of water. They can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and hadal depths of the deepest oceans, although no species has yet been documented in the deepest 25% of the ocean. With 33,600 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any other group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide as food. Commercial and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean, they are caught by recreational fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers, exhibited in public aquaria. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, as the subjects of art and movies. Fish do not represent a monophyletic group, therefore the "evolution of fish" is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the fossil record are represented by a group of small, armored fish known as ostracoderms. Jawless fish lineages are extinct.
An extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils; the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, or a combination of factors. Fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways; the first ancestors of fish may have kept the larval form into adulthood, although the reverse is the case. Fish are a paraphyletic group: that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods, which are not fish. For this reason, groups such as the "Class Pisces" seen in older reference works are no longer used in formal classifications. Traditional classification divides fish into three extant classes, with extinct forms sometimes classified within the tree, sometimes as their own classes: Class Agnatha Subclass Cyclostomata Subclass Ostracodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Subclass Elasmobranchii Subclass Holocephali Class Placodermi † Class Acanthodii † Class Osteichthyes Subclass Actinopterygii Subclass Sarcopterygii The above scheme is the one most encountered in non-specialist and general works.
Many of the above groups are paraphyletic, in that they have given rise to successive groups: Agnathans are ancestral to Chondrichthyes, who again have given rise to Acanthodiians, the ancestors of Osteichthyes. With the arrival of phylogenetic nomenclature, the fishes has been split up into a more detailed scheme, with the following major groups: Class Myxini Class Pteraspidomorphi † Class Thelodonti † Class Anaspida † Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Petromyzontidae Class Conodonta † Class Cephalaspidomorphi † Galeaspida † Pituriaspida † Osteostraci † Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class Placodermi † Class Chondrichthyes Class Acanthodii † Superclass Osteichthy
The crucian carp is a medium-sized member of the common carp family Cyprinidae. It occurs in northern European regions; the crucian carp is a distributed European species, its range spanning from England to Russia. Its habitat includes lakes and slow-moving rivers, it has been established that the fish is not introduced. The crucian carp is a medium-sized cyprinid 15 cm in body length, exceeds in weight over 3.0 kilograms. But a maximum total length of 64.0 cm is reported for a male, the heaviest published weighed 3 kilograms. They are broadly described as having a body of "golden-green shining color", but a more precise source states that young fish are golden-bronze but darken with maturity, until they gain a dark green back, deep bronze upper flanks, gold on the lower flanks and belly, reddish or orange fins, although other colour variations exist. One distinguishing characteristic is a convexly rounded fin, as opposed to goldfish hybrids which have concave fins; the variation in shape of a crucian carp can be high.
When cohabiting waters where predatory such as pike or perch fish are present, there occurs an induced change in the morphology of the population, from a sleeker to a deeper bodied form, into perfect disc shape with well-rounded fins, making it difficult for predators to swallow the crucian carp. The crucian carp is the type species for the genus, which has led to confusion in the taxonomy of species native to East Asia. There are reports of hybridisation between the crucian and domestic or feral goldfish, verified by production of viable hybrids in laboratory conditions. Although the hybrids thus produced were sterile or nearly so, genetic contamination of the native population has been raised as a concern. Carassius species exhibit some remarkable physiological adaptations to their environment. For example, in anoxic conditions during winter Carassius carassius can survive for considerable periods by anaerobic respiration, with ethanol as the major metabolic end product. During summer the fish may survive anaerobic conditions by this metabolic expedient, though only to a far more limited extent.
Experimentally the fish have been maintained under anoxic conditions for 140 days. Anoxia can be tolerated longest in the coldest water down to 0 °C, because colder conditions lower the metabolic rate. Alcohol production occurs in the muscle tissues, but in the liver, where the process is thought to have originated. Goldfish can produce alcohol in muscle tissues, but to a much more limited extent. Experimentally it has been demonstrated that the metabolic process involves the production of pyruvate from lactate, followed by decarboxylation to acetaldehyde, hydrogenated to ethanol as the major metabolic end product. In turn the fish excretes the ethanol into the water rather than accumulating it to toxic levels in the tissues. Excretion of lactate in significant quantities is not a common nor a desirable metabolic facility, but the excretion of ethanol presents no serious metabolic challenges; this metabolic expedient avoids the fatal accumulation of acid end-products of anaerobic glycolysis. In Britain, leisurely or competitive catching of this fish by rod and tackle belong in the coarse fishing category.
The British rod-caught record for largest crucian is four pounds, nine ounces, landed by Martin Bowler in 2003, tied by Joshua Blavins in 2011. There have been various bids for a breakage of this record since, but they were rejected as not "true" crucians" but rather, e.g. a "brown goldfish variant". In the Netherlands, a typical crucian specimen of 54 cm, weighing 3 kg has been caught and photographed; some sources state. Aside from confusion in nomenclature, there is the practical issue of distinguishing true crucian carp from goldfish hybrids in, e.g. competitive coarse fishing. The following is based on a similar table of guidelines constructed by the Farnham Angling Society: These carp are occasionally kept as freshwater aquarium fish, as well as in water gardens, although they are not available commercially because they are not in high demand due to the presence of more colourful fish such as the koi or orfe, it has been suggested that this is a farmed fish worldwide. Crassius at 1,957,337 tonnes, worth US$2,135,857,000, ranked 9th in worldwide in aquaculture, including marine fish and crustaceans, however this statistics treats the Asian C. gibelio carp as a subspecies of the European crucian carp, it is evident that the greater bulk of this number is from the Asian fish farmed in China.
In terms of freshwater catches of C. crassius, FAO's 2006 statistics show 5.53 thousand tons harvested, which ranked 13th worldwide among freshwater fishes caught. The breakdown was Kazakhstan 2.2, Japan 1.12, Serbia 0.84, Moldova 0.19, Uzbekistan 0.19, Poland 0.13. In thes
Rutilus is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae found in Eurasia. This genus is a distributed lineage of cyprinids and ranges from West Europe to East Siberia. Species within the genus include: Rutilus caspicus Rutilus frisii Rutilus kutum Rutilus heckelii Rutilus meidingeri Rutilus pigus Rutilus rutilus Rutilus virgo
Setun River's Valley wildlife sanctuary
Setun River's Valley is the largest wildlife sanctuary within the Moscow bounds. The sanctuary territory is located along the course of the Setun River; the Setun River's flow is within the Western Administrative Okrug of the city. The fauna is represented by the least weasel, Eurasian water shrew, muskrat, it was founded in 1998