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Seven Against Thebes

Seven Against Thebes is the third play in an Oedipus-themed trilogy produced by Aeschylus in 467 BC. The trilogy is sometimes referred to as the Oedipodea, it concerns the battle between an Argive army led by Polynices and the army of Thebes led by Eteocles and his supporters. The trilogy won the first prize at the City Dionysia; the trilogy's first two plays and Oedipus, as well as the satyr play Sphinx, are no longer extant. When Oedipus, King of Thebes, realized he had married his own mother and had two sons and two daughters with her, he blinded himself and cursed his sons to divide their inheritance by the sword; the two sons and Polynices, in order to avoid bloodshed, agreed to rule Thebes in alternate years. After the first year, Eteocles refused to step down, leading Polynices to raise an army of Argives to take Thebes by force; this is. Seven Against Thebes features little action. Dialogues show aspects of Eteocles' character. There is a lengthy description of each of the seven captains that lead the Argive army against the seven gates of the city of Thebes as well as the devices on their respective shields.

Eteocles, in turn, announces. The commander of the troops before the seventh gate is revealed to be Polynices, the brother of the king. Eteocles remembers and refers to the curse of their father Oedipus. Eteocles resolves to fight his brother in person before the seventh gate and exits. Following a choral ode, a messenger enters, announcing that the attackers have been repelled but that Eteocles and Polynices have killed each other in battle, their bodies are brought on stage, the chorus mourns them. Due to the popularity of Sophocles' play Antigone, the ending of Seven against Thebes was rewritten about fifty years after Aeschylus' death. While Aeschylus wrote his play to end with somber mourning for the dead brothers, it now contains an ending that serves as a lead-in of sorts to Sophocles' play: a messenger appears, announcing a prohibition against burying Polynices; the seven attackers and defenders in the play are: The mytheme of the "outlandish" and "savage" Seven who threatened the city has traditionally seemed to be based on Bronze Age history in the generation before the Trojan War, when in the Iliad's Catalogue of Ships only the remnant Hypothebai subsists on the ruins of Thebes.

Yet archaeologists have been hard put to locate seven gates in "seven-gated Thebes": In 1891 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff declared that the seven gates existed only for symmetry with the seven assailants, whose names vary: some have their own identity, like Amphiaraus the seer, "who had his sanctuary and his cult afterwards... Others appear as stock figures to fill out the list," Burkert remarks. "To call one of them Eteoklos, vis-à-vis Eteokles the brother of Polyneikes, appears to be the desperate invention of a faltering poet" Burkert follows a suggestion made by Ernest Howald in 1939 that the Seven are pure myth led by Adrastos on his magic horse, seven demons of the Underworld. The city is saved when the brothers run each other through. Burkert adduces a ninth-century relief from Tell Halaf which would illustrate a text from II Samuel 2: "But each seized his opponent by the forelock and thrust his sword into his side so that all fell together"; the mythic theme passed into Etruscan culture: a fifth-century bronze mirrorback is inscribed with Fulnice and Evtucle running at one another with drawn swords.

A gruesome detail from the battle, in which Tydeus gnawed on the living brain of Melanippos in the course of the siege appears, in a sculpted terracotta relief from a temple at Pyrgi, ca. 470–460 BC. The Seven Against Thebes were Adrastus Amphiaraus Capaneus Hippomedon Parthenopeus Polynices TydeusAllies: Eteoclus and Mecisteus; some sources, state that Eteoclus and Mecisteus were in fact two of the seven, that Tydeus and Polynices were allies. This is because both Polynices were foreigners. However, Polynices was the cause of the entire conflict, Tydeus performed acts of valour far surpassing Eteoclus and Mecisteus. Either way, all nine men were present in the battle; the defenders of Thebes included Melanippus Polyphontes Megareus Hyperbius Actor Lasthenes EteoclesSee Epigoni, the mythic theme of the Second War of Thebes Of the other two plays that made up the trilogy that included Seven Against Thebes and Oedipus, of its satyr play The Sphinx, few fragments have survived. The only fragment definitively assigned to Oedipus is a line translated by Herbert Weir Smyth as "We were coming on our journey to the place from which three highways part in the branching roads, where we crossed the junction of the triple roads at Potniae."

The only two fragments definitively assigned to The Sphinx were translated by Smyth as "For the stranger a garland, an ancient crown, the best of bonds, as Prometheus said," and "The Sphinx, the Watch-dog that presideth over evil days." Translators David Grene and Richmond Lattimore wrote that "the rise of German Romanticism, the consequent resurgence of enthusiasm for Aesch

Oracle VDI

Oracle Virtual Desktop Infrastructure software is a desktop virtualization product that provides desktop virtualization to replace personal computers with virtual machines on a server. Desktops are accessed via Sun Ray Client, Oracle VDC Client (basically a software version of the Sun Ray using the same ALP protocol as the Sun Ray, Remote Desktop Protocol client, or optionally through the web via Oracle Secure Global Desktop software; the product features tight integration with Active Directory for user authentication. When accessing a VM, the user is presented with an Oracle VDI login screen. Upon entering credentials, the connection broker determines the correct VM for the user based on customizable policies. Once the VM has been determined it will be made available and the user is redirected to the client OS or, if VirtualBox is used as virtualization backend, the RDP server built into VirtualBox. Multiple supported virtualization products were: Oracle VirtualBox, VMware vSphere, Microsoft Hyper-V and Remote Desktop Services.

Built-in vRDP support in VirtualBox can be used to remotely access operating systems that lack a built-in RDP server, such as Linux. In 2013, Oracle announced that it was discontinuing all further development of Oracle VDI, although existing customers would continue to be supported for a transitional period. Full support of Oracle VDI is scheduled to end in March 2017. VirtualBox Sun Ray Sun xVM Sun Ops Center

Madagascar at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Madagascar competed at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, from 13 to 29 August 2004. Malagasy athletes have so far achieved qualifying standards in the following athletics events. KeyNote–Ranks given for track events are within the athlete's heat only Q = Qualified for the next round q = Qualified for the next round as a fastest loser or, in field events, by position without achieving the qualifying target NR = National record N/A = Round not applicable for the event Bye = Athlete not required to compete in round MenWomen Madagascar sent two boxers to Athens. Madagascar has qualified a single judoka. MenWomen Madagascar nominated a female tennis player to compete in the tournament through a tripartite invitation. Official Report of the XXVIII Olympiad

George Armytage (grazier)

George Armytage was a farmer and pastoralist, builder of The Hermitage in Geelong, Victoria. Armytage was born at Ticknall, England in 1795, was educated at schools in Yorkshire, he was the son of George Armytage, who died in Australia in 1853, having emigrated at the age of eighty-seven. Armytage junior subsequently studied engineering in London until his twentieth year, when, on 28 February 1815, he sailed for Australia in the Hebe. Armytage reached Sydney in August 1815. In the following year he landed in Van Diemen's Land, where he was allotted a few acres of land at Bagdad, which were increased to 500 acres in 1817. In 1818 he married Miss Elizabeth Peters. In 1826 he received a further grant of 1,000 acres, built upon it the first watermill in Tasmania. During this period Armytage was part of the Bagdad division of the Tasmanian police who were involved in the Black War that resulted in the deaths of a possible 900 Indigenous Australians. In 1835 Port Phillip District commenced to attract settlers.

During 1836 an investigation into the murder of local indigenous people took place in regards to a Charles Franks, employed by George Armytage to secure selection of desired parcels of land. Franks was found to have been using lead as a poison. Franks stated that he was using lead to poison "Crows" which at the time was a slang term for Indigenous Australians and a reference to Jim Crow. In 1847 Mr. Armytage proceeded to Victoria, settled upon his son George Armytage's station at Ingleby, where his eldest son had died of typhus fever on 12 September 1842. In 1851 he settled at Geelong, built "The Hermitage". Armytage died of erysipelas in 1862, his widow surviving him until 1873. Armytage, George Australian Dictionary of Biography

History of economic thought

The history of economic thought deals with different thinkers and theories in the subject that became political economy and economics, from the ancient world to the present day in the 21st Century. This field encompasses many disparate schools of economic thought. Ancient Greek writers such as the philosopher Aristotle examined ideas about the art of wealth acquisition, questioned whether property is best left in private or public hands. In the Middle Ages, scholasticists such as Thomas Aquinas argued that it was a moral obligation of businesses to sell goods at a just price. In the Western world, economics was not a separate discipline, but part of philosophy until the 18th–19th century Industrial Revolution and the 19th century Great Divergence, which accelerated economic growth. Hesiod active 750 to 650 BC, a Boeotian who wrote the earliest known work concerning the basic origins of economic thought, contemporary with Homer. Fan Li, an adviser to King Goujian of Yue, wrote on economic issues and developed a set of "golden" business rules.

Chanakya of the Mauryan Empire, authored the Arthashastra along with several Indian sages, a treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy. The Arthashastra posits its own theory that there are four necessary fields of knowledge, the Vedas, the Anvikshaki, the science of government and the science of economics, it is from these four that all other knowledge and human prosperity is derived. Ancient Athens, an advanced city-state civilisation and progressive society, developed an embryonic model of democracy. Xenophon's Oeconomicus is a dialogue principally about household agriculture. Plato's dialogue The Republic describing an ideal city-state run by philosopher-kings contained references to specialization of labor and to production. According to Joseph Schumpeter, Plato was the first known advocate of a credit theory of money that is, money as a unit of account for debt. Aristotle's Politics analyzed different forms of the state as a critique of Plato's model of a philosopher-kings.

Of particular interest for economists, Plato provided a blueprint of a society based on common ownership of resources. Aristotle viewed this model as an oligarchical anathema. Though Aristotle did advocate holding many things in common, he argued that not everything could be because of the "wickedness of human nature"."It is better that property should be private", wrote Aristotle, "but the use of it common. In Politics Book I, Aristotle discusses the general nature of households and market exchanges. For him there is a certain "art of acquisition" or "wealth-getting", but because it is the same many people are obsessed with its accumulation, "wealth-getting" for one's household is "necessary and honorable", while exchange on the retail trade for simple accumulation is "justly censured, for it is dishonorable". Writing of the people, Aristotle stated that they as a whole thought acquisition of wealth as being either the same as, or a principle of oikonomia, with oikos meaning "house" and with nomos meaning "law".

Aristotle himself disapproved of usury and cast scorn on making money through a monopoly. Aristotle discarded Plato's credit theory of money for metallism, the theory that money derives its value from the purchasing power of the commodity upon which it is based, is only an "instrument", its sole purpose being a medium of exchange, which means on its own "it is worthless... not useful as a means to any of the necessities of life". Thomas Aquinas was economic writer, he taught in both Cologne and Paris, was part of a group of Catholic scholars known as the Schoolmen, who moved their enquiries beyond theology to philosophical and scientific debates. In the treatise Summa Theologica Aquinas dealt with the concept of a just price, which he considered necessary for the reproduction of the social order. Similar in many ways to the modern concept of long run equilibrium, a just price was just sufficient to cover the costs of production, including the maintenance of a worker and his family. Aquinas argued it was immoral for sellers to raise their prices because buyers had a pressing need for a product.

Aquinas discusses a number of topics in the format of questions and replies, substantial tracts dealing with Aristotle's theory. Questions 77 and 78 concern economic issues what a just price might be, the fairness of a seller dispensing faulty goods. Aquinas argued against any form of cheating and recommended always paying compensation in lieu of good service. Whilst human laws might not impose sanctions for unfair dealing, divine law did, in his opinion. One of Aquinas' main critics was Duns Scotus from Duns Scotland, who taught in Oxford and Paris. In his work Sententiae, he thought it possible to be more precise than Aquinas in calculating a just price, emphasizing the costs of labor and expenses, although he recognized that the latter might be inflated by exaggeration because buyer and seller have different ideas of a just price. If people did not benefit from a transaction, in Scotus' view, they would not trade. Scotus said merchants perform a necessary and useful social role by transporting goods and making them available to the public.

Jean Buridan was a Fr

East and West Riding Regiment

The East and West Riding Regiment was a regiment of the British Territorial Army from 1999 to 2006. The regiment was formed in 1999 by the amalgamation of the 3rd Battalion, The Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire, the 3rd Battalion, the Duke of Wellington's Regiment and the King's Own Yorkshire Yeomanry due to the reforms implemented in consequence of the Strategic Defence Review; the regimental headquarters was at Pontefract and the regiment, part of 15 Brigade, comprised one small Headquarter Company and five Rifle Companies: Waterloo Company - Headquarter Company Minden Company Quebec Company Imphal Company Ypres Company Fontenay CompanyNo new cap badge was created for this regiment, soldiers wore their former regimental cap badge or were badged according to the company they joined. Headquarter Company was a composite company with TA posts allocated proportionally by cap badge - 20% LI/40% PWO/40% DWR. Subsequently all new Headquarter Company recruits were badged Light Infantry or by trade.

The regimental crest was a combination of the Light Infantry and the Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire cap badges and crest from the Duke of Wellington's Regiment. During the summer of 2004 the regiment adopted a single Tactical Recognition Flash of the White Rose of Yorkshire on a black background; the official Army abbreviation for the regiment was "E and WRR". In November 2004, the regiment dispatched a composite company to Basra, Iraq as part of 4th Mechanized Brigade of the Multi-National Division for a 6-month tour-of-duty. Structure c.2007: Headquarters Company - York A Company - Kingston upon Hull B Company - Middlesbrough C Company - Huddersfield D Company - BarnsleyAs part of the Future Infantry Structure restructuring of the army announced in 2004, the Light Infantry company was replaced by a company of Green Howards. The regiment became the 4th Battalion of the newly created Yorkshire Regiment on 6 June 2006. HQ company and four infantry companies transferred to the Yorkshire Regiment.

The Yorkshire Regiment MOD website The Prince of Wales's Own Regiment of Yorkshire Museum website The Green Howards Museum website The Duke of Wellington's Regimental Association website The Yorkshire Volunteers Association website