White Cliffs of Dover
The White Cliffs of Dover are cliffs that form part of the English coastline facing the Strait of Dover and France. The cliffs are part of the North Downs formation, the cliff face, which reaches up to 350 feet, owes its striking appearance to its composition of chalk accentuated by streaks of black flint. The cliffs stretch along the coastline for eight miles, spreading east and west from the town of Dover in the county of Kent, the National Trust calls the cliffs an icon of Britain, with the white chalk face a symbol of home and war time defence. Because crossing at Dover was the route to the continent before the advent of air travel. In World War II, thousands of allied troops on the ships in the Dunkirk evacuation saw the welcoming sight of the cliffs. The cliffs are located along the coastline of England between approximately 51°06′N 1°14′E and 51°12′N 1°24′E, the White Cliffs are at one end of the Kent Downs designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. During the summer of 1940, reporters gathered at Shakespeare Cliff to watch aerial dogfights between German and British aircraft during the Battle of Britain and it marks the point where Great Britain most closely approaches continental Europe.
On a clear day, the cliffs are visible from the French coast. In 1999 a sustainable National Trust visitor centre was built in the area, the cliffs themselves were formed at the same time as the Strait of Dover, by ice-age floods. Flint and quartz are found in the chalk. White cliffs like those of Dover are found on the Danish islands of Møn and Langeland, the chalk cliffs of the Alabaster Coast of Normandy, are part of the same geological system as Dovers cliffs. In a 2005 poll of Radio Times readers, the cliffs were named as the third greatest natural wonder in Britain, the cliff face continues to weather at an average rate of 1 centimetre per year, although occasionally large pieces will fall. This occurred in 2001, when a chunk of the edge, as large as a football pitch. A further large section collapsed into the Channel on 15 March 2012, visitors are, urged to remain well away from the cliff edge. Several species of nesting birds nest on the cliff face, including fulmar. However, contrary to the words of the World War II song White Cliffs of Dover, bluebirds are an American species not found in the UK
The English Channel, called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France, and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover and it is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows, a line joining Isle Vierge to Lands End. The southwestern limit of the North Sea, the IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, and Leathercoat Point is at the end of St Margarets Bay. The Strait of Dover, at the Channels eastern end, is its narrowest point and it is relatively shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais.
Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries. It reaches a depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurds Deep,48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is frequently referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast. The coastline, particularly on the French shore, is indented, several small islands close to the coastline, including Chausey. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a parallel channel known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland. The Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel, the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance.
It was never defined as a border and the names were more or less descriptive. It was not considered as the property of a nation, before the development of the modern nations, British scholars very often referred to it as Gaulish and the French one as British or English. The name English Channel has been used since the early 18th century. In modern Dutch, however, it is known as Het Kanaal, later, it has been known as the British Channel or the British Sea having been called the Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy. The same name is used on an Italian map of about 1450, the Anglo-Saxon texts often call it Sūð-sǣ as opposed to Norð-sǣ
An anachronism is a chronological inconsistency in some arrangement, especially a juxtaposition of person, objects, or customs from different periods of time. An anachronism may be intentional or unintentional. Intentional anachronisms may be introduced into a literary or artistic work to help a contemporary audience engage more readily with a historical period, Anachronism can be used for purposes of rhetoric, comedy, or shock. Unintentional anachronisms may occur when a writer, artist, or performer is unaware of differences in technology, customs, attitudes, a parachronism is anything that appears in a time period in which it is not normally found. They may be objects or ideas which were common, but are now considered rare or inappropriate. They can take the form of technology or outdated fashion. Examples of parachronisms could include a suburban housewife in the United States around 1960 using a washboard for laundry, parachronism is identified when a work based on a particular eras state of knowledge is read within the context of a era—with a different state of knowledge.
Parachronism differs from prochronism, in which the object or idea has not yet been invented when the situation takes place, a prochronism occurs when an item appears in a temporal context in which it could not yet be present. The intentional use of older, often obsolete cultural artifacts may be regarded as anachronistic, for example, it could be considered anachronistic for a modern-day person to wear a top hat, write with a quill, or carry on a conversation in Latin. Such choices may reflect an eccentricity, or an aesthetic preference, some writings and works of art promoting a political, nationalist or revolutionary cause use anachronism to depict an institution or custom as being more ancient than it actually is. These flags date only from the 1830s, here anachronism promotes legitimacy for the unification of Moldavia and Wallachia into the Kingdom of Romania at the time the painting was made. Anachronism is used especially in works of imagination that rest on a historical basis and they vary from glaring inconsistencies to scarcely perceptible misrepresentation.
It is only since the close of the 18th century that this kind of deviation from historical reality has jarred on a general audience. Nothing becomes obsolete like a vision of an older period, writes Anthony Grafton. Come in and practice your piano now and we are jerked from our suspension of disbelief by what was intended as a means of reinforcing it, and plunged directly into the American bourgeois world of the filmmaker. Anachronism can be an aesthetic choice, anachronisms abound in the works of Raphael and Shakespeare, as well as in those of less celebrated painters and playwrights of earlier times. Anachronisms can exist in ancient texts, carol Meyers says that these anachronisms can be used to better understand the stories by asking what the anachronism represents. Repeated anachronisms and historical errors can become an part of popular culture
East Sussex /ˈsʌsᵻks/ is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent to the north and east, Surrey to the north west and West Sussex to the west, archaeological remains are plentiful, especially in the upland areas. The areas position on the coast has meant that there were invaders, including the Romans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, and the trade, all of which have declined. Sussex is traditionally sub-divided into six rapes, from the 12th century the three eastern rapes together and the three western rapes together had separate quarter sessions, with the county town of the three eastern rapes being Lewes. This situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, and the two parts were made into administrative counties, each with distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888, in East Sussex there were three self-administered county boroughs, Brighton and Hastings. In 1974 East Sussex was made a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county, at the same time the western boundary was altered, so that the Mid Sussex region was transferred to the county of West Sussex.
In 1997, Brighton and Hove became a unitary authority, it was granted city status in 2000. East Sussex is divided into five local government districts, three are larger, districts are, Lewes and Rother. Eastbourne and Hastings are mainly urban areas, the rural districts are further subdivided into civil parishes. To the north lie parallel valleys and ridges, the highest of which is the Weald itself, the sandstones and clays meet the sea at Hastings, the Downs, at Beachy Head. East Sussex, like most counties by the south coast, has an average total of around 1,750 hours of sunshine per year. This is much higher than the UKs average of about 1,340 hours of sunshine a year, the relief of the county reflects the geology. The chalk uplands of the South Downs occupies the coastal strip between Brighton and Eastbourne, there are two river gaps, the Rivers Ouse and Cuckmere. The Seven Sisters, where the Downs meet the sea, are the remnants of dry valleys cut into the chalk, to the east of Beachy Head lie the marshlands of the Pevensey Levels, formerly flooded by the sea but now enclosed within a deposited beach.
At Bexhill the land begins to rise again where the sands and clays of the Weald meet the sea, further east are the Pett Levels, more marshland, beyond which is the estuary of the River Rother. On the far side of the estuary are the dunes of Camber Sands, the highest point of the Downs within the county is Ditchling Beacon, at 814 feet, it is termed a Marilyn. The Weald occupies the northern borderlands of the county, between the Downs and Weald is a narrow stretch of lower lying land, many of the rivers and streams occupying this area originate in the Weald
South Downs Way
The South Downs Way is a long distance footpath and bridleway running along the South Downs in southern England. It is one of 15 National Trails in England and Wales, the trail runs for 160 km from Winchester in Hampshire to Eastbourne in East Sussex, with about 4,150 m of ascent and descent. People have been using the paths and tracks that have linked to form the South Downs Way for approximately 8000 years. They were a safer and dryer alternative to those in the lowlands throughout the mesolithic era. Early occupation in the area began 2000 years after that in the neolithic era, early inhabitants built tumuli in places on the hills and hill forts later, once tribal fighting became more common. Old Winchester Hill is an example of one of these hill forts along the path, of medieval historical interest, the village of Lomer, now only visible as a few small bumps in the ground, was most likely abandoned during the plague in the 14th century. Ditchling Beacon probably due to its height, had for centuries used to warn local inhabitants of pending invasion.
Again during the Tudor period the beacon was utilized to warn Queen Elizabeth I of the Spanish Armada which could be coming up the channel. One particular oddity, The Long Man of Wilmington, can be only a few metres off the path. Recent study has shown that it was most likely created in the sixteenth or seventeenth century AD possibly posing more questions than it answers regarding its meaning, yet still it attracts its fair share of Neo-Druidism and other pagan interest with rituals and festival held there commonly. These objects can be closer to the sea and require a diversion. Some through walkers walk the trail west to east, and some choose to walk it east to west, the trail is popular with a wide array of walkers, including day walkers and through hikers. Several youth hostels are along the route to accommodate walkers and it passes Birling Gap, a beach area with hotel and restaurant. Most of the route is on bridleways, permitting access for walkers, occasional short sections are on roads or byways, and these are the only parts on which motor vehicles are permitted.
Some sections are on footpath, and in places an alternative signed route via road or bridleway is provided for cyclists. The South Downs Way lies within the South Downs National Park, mostly on high chalk downland of the Hampshire Downs, the easternmost section is on the high chalk cliffs of the Seven Sisters, Sussex. Apart from at the end points, the way keeps to relatively isolated rural areas and some villages, although it passes within a few miles of Brighton, various running and cycling events are held along the route, including the British Heart Foundations annual Randonee. Part or all of the 100 miles is cycled to raise funds for heart disease, part of the South Downs Way is used for Oxfams Trailwalker, the UKs toughest team charity challenge
Seaford, East Sussex
Seaford is a coastal town in East Sussex, on the south coast of England. Lying east of Newhaven and Brighton and west of Eastbourne, it is the largest town in Lewes district, the coastal confederation of Cinque Ports in the mediaeval period consisted of forty-two towns and villages, Seaford was included under the Limb of Hastings. Between 1350 and 1550, the French burned down the town several times, in the 16th century, the people of Seaford were known as the cormorants or shags because of their enthusiasm for looting ships wrecked in the bay. Local legend has it that Seaford residents would, on occasion, seafords fortunes revived in the 19th century with the arrival of the railway connecting the town to Lewes and London. It became a seaside resort town, and more recently a dormitory town for the nearby larger settlements of Eastbourne and Brighton. The traditional Sussex pronunciation of the name has a vowel in each syllable. However, outside Sussex, and increasingly within, it is pronounced with a reduced vowel on the second syllable.
The town lies on the coast near Seaford Head, roughly equidistant between the mouths of the River Ouse and the Cuckmere. The Ouse valley was a tidal estuary with its mouth nearly closed by a shingle bar. To the north the town faces the chalk downland of the South Downs, and along the coast to the east are the Seven Sisters chalk cliffs and this stretch of coast is notified for its geological and ecological features as Seaford to Beachy Head Site of Special Scientific Interest. The River Ouse used to run parallel to the shore behind the shingle bar, however, a major storm in the 16th century broke through the bar at its western end, creating a new river mouth close to the village called Meeching but renamed Newhaven. Part of the channel of the river remains as a brackish lagoon. The town formerly had excellent beaches, which were supplied by longshore drift constantly moving sand along the coast from west to east, however, in the early 20th century a large breakwater was constructed at Newhaven Harbour and the harbour entrance was regularly dredged.
These works cut off the supply of sand to the beach. By the 1980s the beach at Seaford had all but vanished and this made Seaford attractive to watersports enthusiasts but it discouraged more general seaside visitors. So in 1987 a massive beach replenishment operation was carried out, in which around 1 million tonnes of material was dredged from sandbanks out to sea, the beach has been topped up several times since then, giving the town a broad beach of sand and shingle. The towns publicity website states, For many, the attraction in Seaford is the beach. This has an attraction in the summer, when the sea reaches temperatures up to 20° Celsius
Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves
Robin Hood, Prince of Thieves is a 1991 American romantic action adventure film. The film, an iteration of the legendary English folk tale, was directed by Kevin Reynolds, the film grossed over $390 million worldwide, ranking as the second-highest-grossing film of 1991. For his role as George, Sheriff of Nottingham, Rickman received the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role. Robin of Locksley – an English nobleman who joined Richard the Lionheart, King of England in the Third Crusade – is imprisoned in Jerusalem along with his comrade, Peter Dubois. Facing the amputation of his hand by the Ayyubid prison guards, Robin escapes with Peter, Robin and Azeem escape through a sewer and into an alley, but Peter is shot and mortally wounded by an archer. Before making his last stand against the guards, he has Robin swear to protect his sister. Robin returns to England with Azeem, who has vowed to accompany him until Azeems life-debt to Robin is repaid. In England, with King Richard still away, the cruel Sheriff of Nottingham rules over the land, aided by his cousin, Guy of Gisbourne, the witch Mortianna, and the corrupt Bishop of Hereford.
At Locksley Castle, Robins father, who is loyal to King Richard, is killed by the Sheriffs men after refusing to join them, Robin returns to England to find his father dead, his home in ruins, and the Sheriff and his men oppressing the people. After telling Marian of Peters demise, and while fleeing the Sheriffs forces afterwards and Azeem encounter a band of outlaws hiding in Sherwood Forest, among the band is Will Scarlet, who holds a belligerent grudge against Robin. Robin ultimately assumes command of the group, encourages his men to fight against Nottingham and they rob soldiers and convoys that pass through the forest, distribute the stolen wealth among the poor. One of their targets is Friar Tuck, who subsequently joins these Merry Men. Marian begins to sympathize with the band and renders Robin any aid she can muster, Robins successes infuriate the Sheriff, who increases the mistreatment of the people, resulting in greater local support for Robin Hood. The Sheriff kills Gisbourne for his failure to prevent the looting of several convoys, the Sheriff manages to locate the outlaws hideout and launches an attack, destroying the forest refuge and capturing most of the outlaws.
He confines Marian when she tries to help from France. In order to consolidate his claim to the throne, the Sheriff proposes to Marian, several of the rebels are due to be executed by hanging as part of the wedding celebration. Among the captured is Will Scarlet, who makes a deal with the Sheriff to find, will meets back with Robin and a handful of his most trusted aides who survived the assault by the Celts. Instead of attacking Robin, Will informs him of the Sheriffs plans to marry Marian, will continues to display anger against Robin, which motivates Robin to question why Will hates him so much
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain.
The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
Beachy Head is a chalk headland in East Sussex, England. It is situated close to Eastbourne, immediately east of the Seven Sisters, Beachy Head is located within the administrative area of Eastbourne Borough Council which owns the land. The cliff is the highest chalk sea cliff in Britain, rising to 162 metres above sea level, the peak allows views of the south east coast from Dungeness in the east, to Selsey Bill in the west. Its height has made it one of the most notorious suicide spots in the world. The chalk was formed in the Late Cretaceous epoch, between 66 and 100 million years ago, when the area was under the sea, during the Cenozoic Era, the chalk was uplifted. When the last Ice Age ended, sea levels rose and the English Channel formed, wave action contributes towards the erosion of cliffs around Beachy Head, which experience frequent small rock falls. Since chalk forms in layers separated by bands of flints. Wave action undermines the lower cliffs, causing frequent slab failures - slabs from layers of chalk break off, undermining the upper parts of the cliffs, in contrast to small rock falls, mass movements are less common.
A mass movement happened in 2001 when, after a winter of heavy rain and this made the cliff edge erode and collapse into the sea, destroying a well-known chalk stack called the Devils Chimney. The name Beachy Head appears as Beauchef in 1274, and was Beaucheif in 1317, becoming consistently Beachy Head by 1724, instead it is a corruption of the original French words meaning beautiful headland. In 1929 Eastbourne bought 4,000 acres of land surrounding Beachy Head to save it from development at a cost of about £100,000, the prominence of Beachy Head has made it a landmark for sailors in the English Channel. The ashes of German social scientist and philosopher Friedrich Engels, one of the fathers of communism, were scattered off the cliffs at Beachy Head into the Channel and she has become known as Beachy Head Lady. The headland was a danger to shipping, in 1831, construction began on the Belle Tout lighthouse on the next headland west from Beachy Head. Because mist and low clouds could hide the light of Belle Tout, the third day of fighting in the Battle of Portland in 1653 took place off Beachy Head during the First Anglo-Dutch War.
The Battle of Beachy Head in 1690 was an engagement during the Nine Years War. The so-called Second Battle of Beachy Head took place over a week in September 1916 during the First World War, three German U-Boats sank 30 merchant ships between Beachy Head and the Eddystone. This was despite an effort involving the Royal Navy and 49 destroyers,48 torpedo boats. During the Second World War, the Royal Air Force established a relay station at Beachy Head to improve radio communications with aircraft
South Downs National Park
The South Downs National Park is Englands newest National Park, having become fully operational on 1 April 2011. The national park covers the hills of the South Downs and a substantial part of a separate physiographic region. The South Downs Way spans the length of the park and is the only National Trail that lies wholly within a national park. the characteristic landscape beauty is strictly preserved. The South Downs was the last of the original twelve recommended national parks to be designated and it did however recognise the great natural beauty of the area and proposed to take forward discussions to designate it as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. In September 1999 the government, following a review of national policy, declared its support for the creation of a South Downs National Park. In January 2003 the Countryside Agency made an Order to designate the park in 2003 which was submitted to the Secretary of State for the Environment on 27 January 2003. Following an appeal on the High Court case and new legislation included in the Natural Environment and Rural Communities Act 2006, the Secretary of State invited objections and representations on new issues relating to the proposed national park in a consultation that ran from 2 July to 13 August 2007.
In the light of the received, the Secretary of State decided that it was appropriate to re-open the 2003–05 public inquiry. The inquiry re-opened on 12 February 2008 and was closed on 4 July 2008 after 27 sitting days, the Inspectors report was submitted on 28 November 2008. On 31 March 2009 the result of the inquiry was published, the Secretary of State, Hilary Benn, announced that the South Downs would be designated a national park, and on 12 November 2009 he signed the order confirming the designation. Importantly, he confirmed that a number of disputed areas, including the western Weald, the town of Lewes. The new national park came into operation on 1 April 2011 when the new South Downs National Park Authority assumed statutory responsibility for it. The occasion was marked by a ceremony which took place in the market square of Petersfield. The national park is administered by the South Downs National Park Authority, the SDNPA was established on 1 April 2010, and became fully functioning, including becoming the planning authority for the national park, on 1 April 2011.
It is responsible for promoting the statutory purposes of the national park and it must fulfill the following duty, In carrying out its role, the Authority has a duty to seek to foster the economic and social well-being of the communities living within the National Park. The SDNPA is a body, funded by central government. The chair of SDNPA is Margaret Paren, a civil servant who after retirement became involved in campaigning for the national park. The South Downs National Park stretches for 140 km across southern England from St Catherines Hill near Winchester in Hampshire in the west to Beachy Head, near Eastbourne in East Sussex in the east
Windows 7 is a personal computer operating system developed by Microsoft. It is a part of the Windows NT family of operating systems, Windows 7 was released to manufacturing on July 22,2009, and became generally available on October 22,2009, less than three years after the release of its predecessor, Windows Vista. Windows 7s server counterpart, Windows Server 2008 R2, was released at the same time, Windows 7 continued improvements on Windows Aero with the addition of a redesigned taskbar that allows applications to be pinned to it, and new window management features. Other new features were added to the system, including libraries, the new file sharing system HomeGroup. A new Action Center interface was added to provide an overview of system security and maintenance information. Windows 7 shipped with updated versions of several applications, including Internet Explorer 8, Windows Media Player. Windows 7 was a success for Microsoft, even prior to its official release. Originally, a version of Windows codenamed Blackcomb was planned as the successor to Windows XP, major features were planned for Blackcomb, including an emphasis on searching and querying data and an advanced storage system named WinFS to enable such scenarios.
However, an interim, minor release, codenamed Longhorn, was announced for 2003, by the middle of 2003, Longhorn had acquired some of the features originally intended for Blackcomb. Development of Longhorn was restarted, and thus delayed, in August 2004, a number of features were cut from Longhorn. Blackcomb was renamed Vienna in early 2006, as such, adoption of Vista in comparison to XP remained somewhat low. In July 2007, six months following the release of Vista, it was reported that the next version of Windows would be codenamed Windows 7. Bill Gates, in an interview with Newsweek, suggested that Windows 7 would be more user-centric, Gates said that Windows 7 would focus on performance improvements. Senior Vice President Bill Veghte stated that Windows Vista users migrating to Windows 7 would not find the kind of device compatibility issues they encountered migrating from Windows XP, an estimated 1,000 developers worked on Windows 7. These were broadly divided into core operating system and Windows client experience, in October 2008, it was announced that Windows 7 would be the official name of the operating system.
The first external release to select Microsoft partners came in January 2008 with Milestone 1, at PDC2008, Microsoft demonstrated Windows 7 with its reworked taskbar. On December 27,2008, the Windows 7 Beta was leaked onto the Internet via BitTorrent. According to a performance test by ZDNet, Windows 7 Beta beat both Windows XP and Vista in several key areas, including boot and shutdown time and working with files, such as loading documents