Kitigan Zibi is a First Nations reserve of the Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation, an Algonquin band. It is situated at the confluence of the Désert and Gatineau Rivers, borders south-west on the Town of Maniwaki in the Outaouais region of Quebec, Canada. Having a total area of 183.9 square kilometres, it is the largest Algonquin Nation in Canada, in both area and population. Present in the reserve are grocery and hardware supermarkets, gas station and secondary schools with a library accessible to the whole community, gift shops, a community radio station, a day-care, a community hall, a health centre, a police department, a youth centre, a wildlife centre, an educational and cultural centre. Kitigàn means "garden" or "cultivated land." Since Algonquins were not farmers, it may be that, in this case, this name originated as a reference to a clearing made by the Hudson's Bay Company for the establishment of its post and the adjoining garden. The reserve is bounded by the Eagle River along its west side, by the Desert River on the north side, the Gatineau River on the east side.
Most of its development is near Highway 105, while forest still covers much of the reserve. It is home to 13 fresh water lakes with areas in excess of 250,000 square metres and 29 smaller lakes and streams located throughout the territory. Fish species found within these waters are walleye, bass, carp and fresh water sturgeon. Mammals found within the reserve include beaver, fisher, mink, bobcat, cougar, black bear and moose; the history of the reserve is linked to that of the Town of Maniwaki, which developed concurrently. In the first half of the 19th century, Algonquins of the mission at Lake of Two Mountains, under the leadership of Chief Pakinawatik, came to the area of the Désert River. Shortly after in 1832, the Hudson's Bay Company followed them and installed a trading post at the mouth of this river. A decade Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate established the mission of Notre-Dame-du-Desert and, from 1849, they demanded of the authorities the demarcation of a township in order to establish a reserve for the Algonquins.
Chief Pakinawatik, along with other leaders, journeyed by canoe on three separate occasions to Upper Canada and negotiated the terms for the setting aside of the reserve land. The township limits were given the name of Maniwaki by the Oblates at this time. In Algonquin language, the place was identified as Kitigànsìpì or Kitigàn Zìbì, meaning "Garden River."Legally established in 1851, the reserve was demarcated in 1853. In the decree implementing it, the reserve was called "Manawaki" and "River Desert"; the name "Kitigan Zibi" came to replace the other two on September 24, 1994, when the band council gave this title to the reserve. Because of land claim settlements in the late 1990s, small portions of land of the Town of Maniwaki were added to Kitigan Zibi; the federal government concluded 18 March 2019 an agreement to pay the Kitigan Zibi community $116 million, settling 29 claims for Indian reserve land appropriated between 1873 and 1917 for the town site of Maniwaki. The same community filed in December 2016 a claim in Ontario Superior Court, claiming it never surrendered and still owns the land in Ottawa on which Parliament of Canada stands.
Concerned about the disinterest of its youth in their own language, the community has decided to reintroduce the teaching of the Algonquin language in school. As of September 2012, the registered population of the Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg First Nation is 2,988 members, of whom 1,560 live on the Kitigan Zibi reserve, 28 live on another reserve or crown land, 1,400 live off reserve. Canada Census data before 2001: Population in 1996: 969 Population in 1991: 563 Languages: English as first language: 66% French as first language: 13% Other as first language: 21% Chief Antoine Pakinawatik - 1854-1874 Chief Peter Tenasco - 1874-1884, 1890–1896 Chief Simon Odjick - 1884-1890 Chief Louizon Commanda - 1896-1899 Chief John Tenasco - 1899-1911 Chief Michael Commanda - 1911-1917 Chief John Cayer - 1917-1920 Chief John B. Chabot - 1920-1924, 1939–1951 Chief Vincent Odjick - 1927-1933 Chief Patrick Brascoupe - 1933-1936 Chief Abraham McDougall - 1936-1939 Chief William Commanda - 1951-1970 Chief Ernest McGregor - 1970-1976 Chief Jean Guy Whiteduck - 1976-2006 Chief Stephen McGregor - 2006-2008 Chief Gilbert Whiteduck - 2008-2015 Chief Jean-Guy Whiteduck - 2015-present day The Kitigan Zibi Pow Wow is held annually, on the first weekend of June.
The Kitigan Zibi Cultural Centre has a number of exhibits, cultural artifacts and photographs relating to the Algonquin culture and history. A living museum, Mawandoseg Kitigan Zibi, is dedicated to traditional Anishinaabeg way of life. Algonquin Anishinabeg Nation Tribal Council - Kitigan Zibi Anishinabeg community page
The Ojibwe, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people of Canada and the United States. They are one of the most numerous indigenous peoples north of the Rio Grande. In Canada, they are the second-largest First Nations population, surpassed only by the Cree. In the United States, they have the fifth-largest population among Native American peoples, surpassed in number only by the Navajo, Cherokee and Sioux; the Ojibwe people traditionally speak the Ojibwe language, a branch of the Algonquian language family. They are part of the Council of Three Fires and the Anishinaabeg, which include the Algonquin, Oji-Cree and the Potawatomi. Through the Saulteaux branch, they were a part of the Iron Confederacy, joining the Cree and Metis; the majority of the Ojibwe people live in Canada. There are 77,940 mainline Ojibwe, they live from western Quebec to eastern British Columbia. As of 2010, Ojibwe in the US census population is 170,742; the Ojibwe are known for their birch bark canoes, birch bark scrolls and trade in copper, as well as their cultivation of wild rice and Maple syrup.
Their Midewiwin Society is well respected as the keeper of detailed and complex scrolls of events, oral history, maps, stories and mathematics. The Ojibwe people underwent colonization by Settler-Canadians, they signed treaties with settler leaders, many European settlers soon inhabited the Ojibwe ancestral lands. The exonym for this Anishinaabe group is Ojibwe; this name is anglicized as "Ojibwa" or "Ojibway". The name "Chippewa" is an alternative anglicization. Although many variations exist in literature, "Chippewa" is more common in the United States, "Ojibway" predominates in Canada, but both terms are used in each country. In many Ojibwe communities throughout Canada and the U. S. since the late 20th century, more members have been using the generalized name Anishinaabe. The exact meaning of the name Ojibwe is not known; some 19th century sources say this name described a method of ritual torture that the Ojibwe applied to enemies. Ozhibii'iwe, meaning "those who keep records ", referring to their form of pictorial writing, pictographs used in Midewiwin sacred rites.
Because many Ojibwe were located around the outlet of Lake Superior, which the French colonists called Sault Ste. Marie for its rapids, the early Canadian settlers referred to the Ojibwe as Saulteurs. Ojibwe who subsequently moved to the prairie provinces of Canada have retained the name Saulteaux; this is disputed. Ojibwe who were located along the Mississagi River and made their way to southern Ontario are known as the Mississaugas; the Ojibwe language is known as Anishinaabemowin or Ojibwemowin, is still spoken, although the number of fluent speakers has declined sharply. Today, most of the language's fluent speakers are elders. Since the early 21st century, there is a growing movement to revitalize the language, restore its strength as a central part of Ojibwe culture; the language belongs to the Algonquian linguistic group, is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Its sister languages include Blackfoot, Cree, Menominee and Shawnee among the northern Plains tribes. Anishinaabemowin is referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language.
Ojibwemowin is the fourth-most spoken Native language in North America after Navajo and Inuktitut. Many decades of fur trading with the French established the language as one of the key trade languages of the Great Lakes and the northern Great Plains; the popularity of the epic poem The Song of Hiawatha, written by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow in 1855, publicized the Ojibwe culture. The epic contains many toponyms. According to Ojibwe oral history and from recordings in birch bark scrolls, the Ojibwe originated from the mouth of the St. Lawrence River on the Atlantic coast of what is now Quebec, they traded across the continent for thousands of years as they migrated, knew of the canoe routes to move north, west to east, south in the Americas. The identification of the Ojibwe as a culture or people may have occurred in response to contact with Europeans; the Europeans tried to identify those they encountered. According to Ojibwe oral history, seven great miigis beings appeared to them in the Waabanakiing to teach them the mide way of life.
One of the seven great miigis beings was too spiritually powerful and killed the people in the Waabanakiing when they were in its presence. The six great miigis beings remained to teach; the six great miigis beings established doodem for people in the east, symbolized by animal, fish or bird species. The five original Anishinaabe doodem were the Wawaazisii, Aan'aawenh and Moozoonsii these six miigis beings returned into the ocean as well. If the seventh miigis being had stayed
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Pan-Indigenousism Pan-Indianism, is a philosophy and movement promoting unity among different Indigenous American groups in the Americas regardless of tribal or local affiliations. Some academics use the term pan-Amerindianism to distinguish from other territories called Indian; the movement is associated with Native Americans in the Continental United States, but has spread to other indigenous groups as well. A parallel growth of the concept has occurred in Canada. There, other indigenous people, such as the Inuit and the Métis are included in a wider rubric, sometimes called pan-Aboriginal or some variation thereof. Pan-Indian organizations seek to pool the resources of indigenous groups in order to protect the interests of native peoples across the world. Early steps in the organization effort occurred in 1912 when members of the Creek, Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes, united by their opposition to Allotment, formed the Four Mothers Society for collective political action. In 1912, the Alaskan Native Brotherhood and Sisterhood came together, centering on their shared interest of the protection of Native resources.
In 1934, Congress passed the Indian Reorganization Act, which reversed assimilation and allotment policies. This was an important step for Native American affairs. Among other things, this act granted "legal sanction to tribal landholdings; the Pan-Indian movement grouped all Indians into one dominant culture, rather than recognizing individual tribal culture and practices. Before there were successful national and continental organizations, there were several regional bodies which united multiple nations within the context of post-settlement politics; the Grand General Indian Council of Ontario was organized with missionary assistance in the 1870s and persisted until 1938. The Allied Tribes of British Columbia was created in 1915. In 1911, the first national Indian political organization in the US was created, the Society of American Indians; this organization pursued such things as better Indian educational programs and improved living conditions. This was paralleled by the establishment of League of Indians of Canada in 1919, Canada's first Aboriginal organization, national in scope.
The Society of American Indians was the most influential of the early pan-Indian organizations. It played a critical role in advocating Indian citizenship, granted by the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924. Before World War II and throughout the 1940s and'50s, native activism was less developed and for the most part non-violent. Many leaders made a genuine effort to work with the American government. In 1922, as a symbolic gesture, Deskaheh, a Cayuga chief, traveled to the League of Nations in Geneva in hopes of obtaining recognition of his tribe's sovereignty but his request was denied. In 1939, the Tonowanda Band of the Seneca tribe issued a "Declaration of Independence" to the state of New York, it was ignored and natives who broke state law were arrested. In other cases, American Indian tribes struggled to maintain their sovereignty over tribal land, granted to them by treaties with the federal government. Unrelated Native American groups, Americans in general, began to notice and sympathize with their aims.
For one week in June 1961, 420 American Indians from 67 tribes convened for the American Indian Chicago Conference held at the University of Chicago. After exchanging opinions that covered many aspects of Indian affairs, the Declaration of Indian Purpose was drafted. In 1989, the Indigenous and Tribal Peoples Convention known as the International Labour Organization's Convention No. 169, occurred. To date, this has been the only formally binding international convention that applies to indigenous peoples; the conference recognized the goal of native groups to maintain their position as entities independent of national governments. The Alaska Native Brotherhood and Sisterhood was founded in 1912 with a goal of protecting Native resources; the only organization representing native rights in Alaska for the first half of the 20th century. The organization is opposing the U. S. Federal law that makes the collection and ownership of eagle feathers illegal; the All Indian Pueblo Council, founded in 1922 opposed the proposed Bursum Bill, which legislated rights for squatters on Native grounds along the Rio Grande.
The All Indian Pueblo Council declared that Pueblo Indians had been living in a "civilized condition" long before European Americans came over to America. They appealed to public morality by claiming to have pride in their past; the All Pueblo Council needed public support to help preserve lands and traditions. The American Indian Movement was created in 1968 in Minneapolis by Chippewa Dennis Banks, George Mitchell, Clyde Bellecourt, Lakota-Dakota Sioux Russell Means. AIM is well known for its involvement in the Wounded Knee incident in 1973, the seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in 1972. AIM was famous for the "direct action" approach that it used to protesting and working towards their goals. AIM took an different approach than other American Indian activist organizations, in the context that it was for the assimilation of American Indians into American culture and general lifest
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The Abenaki are a Native American tribe and First Nation. They are one of the Algonquian-speaking peoples of northeastern North America; the Abenaki live in Quebec and the Maritimes of Canada and in the New England region of the United States, a region called Wabanahkik in the Eastern Algonquian languages. The Abenaki are one of the five members of the Wabanaki Confederacy. "Abenaki" is a geographic grouping. As listed below, there were tribes who shared many cultural traits, they came together as a post-contact community after their original tribes were decimated by colonization and warfare. The word Abenaki, its syncope, are both derived from Wabanaki, or Wôbanakiak, meaning "People of the Dawn Land" in the Abenaki language. While the two terms are confused, the Abenaki are one of several tribes in the Wabanaki Confederacy. Wôbanakiak is derived from wôban and aki — the aboriginal name of the area broadly corresponding to New England and the Maritimes, it is sometimes used to refer to all the Algonquian-speaking peoples of the area—Western Abenaki, Eastern Abenaki, Wolastoqiyik-Passamaquoddy, Mi'kmaq—as a single group.
The Abenaki people call themselves Alnôbak, meaning "Real People" and by the autonym Alnanbal, meaning "men". Ethnologists have classified the Abenaki by geographic groups: Western Abenaki and Eastern Abenaki. Within these groups are the Abenaki bands: The homeland of the Abenaki, which they call Ndakinna, extended across most of northern New England, southern Quebec, the southern Canadian Maritimes; the Eastern Abenaki population was concentrated in portions of New Brunswick and Maine east of New Hampshire's White Mountains. The other major tribe, the Western Abenaki, lived in the Connecticut River valley in Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts; the Missiquoi lived along the eastern shore of Lake Champlain. The Pennacook lived along the Merrimack River in southern New Hampshire; the maritime Abenaki lived around the St. Croix and Wolastoq valleys near the boundary line between Maine and New Brunswick; the English settlement of New England and frequent wars forced many Abenaki to retreat to Quebec.
The Abenaki settled in the Sillery region of Quebec between 1676 and 1680, subsequently, for about twenty years, lived on the banks of the Chaudière River near the falls, before settling in Odanak and Wôlinak in the early eighteenth century. The name "Abenaki" was derived from the terms w8bAn and Aki, which mean "people in the rising sun" or "people of the East". In those days, the Abenaki practiced a subsistence economy based on hunting, trapping, berry picking and on growing corn, squash and tobacco, they produced baskets, made of ash and sweet grass, for picking wild berries, boiled maple sap to make syrup. Basket weaving remains a traditional activity for members of both communities. During the Anglo-French wars, the Abenaki were allies of France, having been displaced from Ndakinna by immigrating English people. An anecdote from this period tells the story of a Maliseet war chief named Nescambuit or Assacumbuit, who killed more than 140 enemies of King Louis XIV of France and received the rank of knight.
Not all Abenaki natives fought on the side of the French, however. Much of the trapping was done by the people, traded to the English colonists for durable goods; these contributions by Native American Abenaki peoples went unreported. Two tribal communities formed in Canada, one once known as Saint-Francois-du-lac near Pierreville and the other near Bécancour on the south shore of the Saint Lawrence River, directly across the river from Trois-Rivières; these two Abenaki reserves continue to develop. Since the year 2000, the total Abenaki population has doubled to 2,101 members in 2011. 400 Abenaki reside on these two reserves, which cover a total area of less than 7 square kilometres. The unrecognized majority are off-reserve members, living in various cities and towns across Canada and the United States. There are about 3,200 Abenaki living in Vermont and New Hampshire, without reservations, chiefly around Lake Champlain; the remaining Abenaki people live in multi-racial towns and cities across Canada and the U.
S. A. in Ontario, New Brunswick, northern New England. Four Abenaki tribes are located in Vermont. On April 22, 2011, Vermont recognized two Abenaki tribes: the Nulhegan Band of the Coosuk-Abenaki and the Elnu Abenaki Tribe. On May 7, 2012, the Abenaki Nation at Missisquoi and the Koasek Traditional Band of the Koas Abenaki Nation received recognition by the State of Vermont; the Nulhegan are located in the Northeast Kingdom of Vermont, with tribal headquarters in Brownington, the Elnu Abenaki are located in southeastern Vermont with tribal headquarters in Jamaica, Vermont. The Elnu Abenaki tribe focuses on carrying on the traditions of their ancestors through their children and teaching about their culture; the chief and political leader of the Nulhegan Band is Don Stevens. The Sokoki are located along the Missisquoi River in northwestern Vermont, with tribal headquarters in Swanton, their traditional land is along the river, extending to its outlet at Lake Champlain. In December 2012, Vermont's Nulhegan Abanaki Tribe created a tribal forest in the town of Barton.
This forest was established with assista
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern