Seven hills of Iași
Iași, Romania, is claimed to have been built on seven hills. Many other cities of the world have similar traditions and Constantinople, for instance, were said to have been built on seven hills; each hill is populated with monuments, religious buildings, or parks: Cetățuia hill: Cetățuia Monastery, Hlincea Monastery, Frumoasa Monastery. List of cities claimed to be built on seven hills Seven hills Seven hills of Iaşi
Cincinnati is a major city in the U. S. state of Ohio, is the government seat of Hamilton County. Settled in 1788, the city is located at the northern side of the confluence of the Licking and Ohio rivers, the latter of which marks the state line with Kentucky; the city drives the Cincinnati–Middletown–Wilmington combined statistical area, which had a population of 2,172,191 in the 2010 census making it Ohio's largest metropolitan area. With a population of 296,943, Cincinnati is the third-largest city in Ohio and 65th in the United States, its metropolitan area is the fastest growing economic power in the Midwestern United States based on increase of economic output and it is the 28th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the U. S. Cincinnati is within a day's drive of 49.70% of the United States populace. In the nineteenth century, Cincinnati was an American boomtown in the middle of the country. Throughout much of the 19th century, it was listed among the top 10 U. S. cities by population, surpassed only by New Orleans and the older, established settlements of the United States eastern seaboard, as well as being the sixth-biggest city for a period spanning 1840 until 1860.
As Cincinnati was the first city founded after the American Revolution, as well as the first major inland city in the country, it is regarded as the first purely "American" city. Cincinnati developed with fewer immigrants and less influence from Europe than East Coast cities in the same period. However, it received a significant number of German immigrants, who founded many of the city's cultural institutions. By the end of the 19th century, with the shift from steamboats to railroads drawing off freight shipping, trade patterns had altered and Cincinnati's growth slowed considerably; the city was surpassed in population by other inland cities Chicago, which developed based on strong commodity exploitation and the railroads, St. Louis, which for decades after the Civil War served as the gateway to westward migration. Cincinnati is home to three major sports teams: the Cincinnati Reds of Major League Baseball; the city's largest institution of higher education, the University of Cincinnati, was founded in 1819 as a municipal college and is now ranked as one of the 50 largest in the United States.
Cincinnati is home to historic architecture with many structures in the urban core having remained intact for 200 years. In the late 1800s, Cincinnati was referred to as the "Paris of America", due to such ambitious architectural projects as the Music Hall, Cincinnatian Hotel, Shillito Department Store. Cincinnati is the birthplace of the 27th President of the United States. Cincinnati began in 1788 when Mathias Denman, Colonel Robert Patterson, Israel Ludlow landed at a spot at the northern bank of the Ohio opposite the mouth of the Licking and decided to settle there; the original surveyor, John Filson, named it "Losantiville". In 1790, Arthur St. Clair, the governor of the Northwest Territory, changed the name of the settlement to "Cincinnati" in honor of the Society of the Cincinnati, made up of Revolutionary War veterans, of which he was a member; the introduction of steamboats on the Ohio River in 1811 opened up the city's trade to more rapid shipping, the city established commercial ties with St. Louis and New Orleans downriver.
Cincinnati was incorporated as a city on March 1, 1819. Exporting pork products and hay, it became a center of pork processing in the region. From 1810 to 1830 its population nearly tripled, from 9,642 to 24,831. Completion of the Miami and Erie Canal in 1827 to Middletown, Ohio further stimulated businesses, employers struggled to hire enough people to fill positions; the city had a labor shortage until large waves of immigration by Irish and Germans in the late 1840s. The city grew over the next two decades, reaching 115,000 people by the year 1850. Construction on the Miami and Erie Canal began on July 21, 1825, when it was called the Miami Canal, related to its origin at the Great Miami River; the first section of the canal was opened for business in 1827. In 1827, the canal connected Cincinnati to nearby Middletown. During this period of rapid expansion and prominence, residents of Cincinnati began referring to the city as the Queen City. After the steamboats, railroads were the next major form of commercial transportation to come to Cincinnati.
In 1836, the Little Miami Railroad was chartered. Construction began soon after, to connect Cincinnati with the Mad River and Lake Erie Railroad, provide access to the ports of the Sandusky Bay on Lake Erie. Cincinnati acted as a "border town" during the slave-owning period between 1810 and 1863, its location, on the border between the free state of Ohio and the slave state of Kentucky, made it a prominent location for slaves to escape the slave-owning south. Many prominent abolitionists called Cincinnati their home during this period, made it a popular stop on the Underground Railroad. In 2004, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center was completed along Freedom Way in Downtown, honoring the city's past involvement in the Underground Railroad. In 1859, Cincinnati laid out six streetcar lines. By 1872, Cincinnatians could travel on the streetcars within the city and transfer to rail cars for travel to the hill communities; the Cincinnati Inclined Plane Company began transporting people t
Seven Hills, Ohio
Seven Hills is a city in Cuyahoga County, United States. The population was 11,804 at the 2010 census. Seven Hills is located at 41°23′16″N 81°40′31″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.92 square miles, of which 4.91 square miles is land and 0.01 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 11,804 people, 4,989 households, 3,586 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,404.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,167 housing units at an average density of 1,052.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.6% White, 0.8% African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.5% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.3% of the population. There were 4,989 households of which 21.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.2% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.1% were non-families.
24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age in the city was 50 years. 16.3% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.7% male and 51.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 12,080 people, 4,787 households, 3,757 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,411.6 people per square mile. There were 4,883 housing units at an average density of 974.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.18% White, 0.15% African American, 0.02% Native American, 2.12% Asian, 0.11% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.76% of the population. There were 4,787 households out of which 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.2% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.5% were non-families.
19.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city the population was spread out with 18.2% under the age of 18, 5.2% from 18 to 24, 23.4% from 25 to 44, 27.4% from 45 to 64, 25.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $54,413, the median income for a family was $62,520. Males had a median income of $44,500 versus $31,047 for females; the per capita income for the city was $25,014. About 2.0% of families and 2.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.0% of those under age 18 and 2.2% of those age 65 or over. Seven Hills was once part of a golf course, but the residents were upset at the location of the school, so they broke away and started their own village.
Valley View did the same. The starters of the community decided to name their village after the Seven Hills golf course. Notable residents of Seven Hills have included professional wrestler Dana Brooke professional cyclist Joseph M. Papp, accused World War II war criminal John Demjanjuk, former professional football player Jack Squirek, as well as fashion designer and season five Project Runway competitor Stephen "Suede" Baum and New York City chef Andrew Carmellini. Painter and printmaker Julian Stanczak lived in Seven Hills. City of Seven Hills School District Information
Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala
Venkateswara Temple is a landmark Vaishnavite temple situated in the hill town of Tirumala at Tirupati in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India. The Temple is dedicated to Lord Sri Venkateswara, an incarnation of Vishnu, believed to have appeared here to save mankind from trials and troubles of Kali Yuga. Hence the place has got the name Kaliyuga Vaikuntham and the Lord here is referred to as Kaliyuga Prathyaksha Daivam; the temple is known by other names like Tirumala Temple, Tirupati Temple, Tirupati Balaji Temple. Lord Venkateswara is known by many other names: Balaji and Srinivasa. Tirumala Hills are part of Seshachalam Hills range; the hills are 853 metres above sea level. The Hills comprises seven peaks; the temple lies on the seventh peak -Venkatadri, on the southern banks of Sri Swami Pushkarini, a holy water tank. Hence the temple is referred to as "Temple of Seven Hills". Tirumala town covers about 10.33 sq mi in area. The Temple is constructed in Dravidian architecture and is believed to be constructed over a period of time starting from 300 AD.
The Garbagruha is called AnandaNilayam. The presiding deity, faces east in Garbha gruha; the temple follows Vaikhanasa Agama tradition of worship. The temple is one of the eight Vishnu Swayambhu Kshetras and is listed as 106th and the last earthly Divya Desam; the Temple premises had two modern Queue complex buildings to organize the pilgrim rush, Tarigonda Vengamamba Annaprasadam complex for free meals to Pilgrims, hair tonsure buildings and a number of pilgrim lodging sites. It is the richest temple in the world in wealth; the temple is visited by about 50,000 to 100,000 pilgrims daily, while on special occasions and festivals, like the annual Brahmotsavam, the number of pilgrims shoots up to 500,000, making it the most-visited holy place in the world.. In 2016, it was reported, it is around 435 km from Vijayawada, 571.9 km from Hyderabad, 138 km from Chennai, 291 km from Bangalore, 781.2 km from Visakhapatnam There are several legends associated with the manifestation of the Lord in Tirumala.
According to one legend, the temple has a murti of Lord Venkateswara, which it is believed shall remain here for the entire duration of the present Kali Yuga. During Dvapara Yuga, Adisesha resided on earth as Seshachalam Hills after losing a contest with Vayu. According to Puranas, Tirumala is regarded as Adivaraha Kshetra. After killing Hiranyaksha, Adivaraha resided on this hill. Sri Venkatachala Mahatyam is the accepted legend over Tirumala Temple. During Kali Yuga, Narada advised Rishis who were performing Yajna to decide who could be given the fruits of yagna among Trimurtis. Bhrigu was sent to test Trimurtis; the sage who had an extra eye in the sole of his foot visited Lord Brahma and Lord Shiva and went unnoticed in both these locations. At last he visited the lord acts as if he had not noticed Bhrigu. Getting angered by this act, sage Bhrigu kicked Lord Vishnu in the chest, to which Vishnu did not react and instead apologized to the Sage by massaging his feet. During this act, he squashed the extra eye, present in the sole of Bhrigu's foot.
However Lakshmi finds it as an insult and had left Vaikuntam onto Earth to Kolhapur and started meditating. Lord Vishnu bore human form as Srinivasa, left Vaikuntam, in search of Lakshmi, reached Tirumala Hills and started meditating. Lakshmi prayed to Siva and Brahma. Siva and Brahma converted themselves into Cow and Calf and Goddess Lakshmi had handed over the cow and calf to Chola king ruling over Tirumala Hills at that time; the Cow would provide milk to Srinivasa. One day Cowherd saw this and tried to beat the Cow with staff but Lord Srinivasa had borne the injury. Getting angered by this Srinivasa had cursed the Chola king to become a Demon as dharma says Servants sin should be borne by Kings; the king prayed for mercy after which Srinivasa said to him, that the King should take next birth as Akasaraja and should perform marriage of his daughter Padmavati with Srinivasa. Lord Srinivasa stayed there for a while. After curse Chola king took rebirth as Akasaraja and he had a daughter named Padmavati, born in the Padmapushkarini situated at present day Tiruchanur in Andhra Pradesh.
Lord Srinivasa married Padmavati at present day Narayanavanam in Andhra Pradesh and will return to Tirumala Hills. After few months Goddess Lakshmi had come to know about the marriage of Srinivasa with Padamavati and went to Tirumala hills to question Srinivasa, it is said that the Lord srinivasa turns into Stone right when he was encountered by Lakshmi and Padmavathi. Lord Brahma and Shiva appear before the confused queens and explain the main purpose behind all this - The Lord's desire to be on the 7 hills for the emancipation of mankind from the perpetual troubles of Kali Yuga. Goddesses Lakshmi and Padmavathi turn into stone deities expressing their wish to be with their Lord always. Lakshmi stays with Him on His Chest on the left side while Padmavathi rests on His Chest's right side; the first recorded endowment was made by Pallava queen Samavai in the year 966 CE. She donated many jewels and two parcels of land and ordered to use the revenues generated from that land to be used for the celebration of major festivals in the temple.
The Pallava dynasty, the Chola dynasty, Vijayanagara pradhans were com
Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine foresees it as its seat of power. During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times and recaptured 44 times, attacked 52 times; the part of Jerusalem called the City of David shows first signs of settlement in the 4th millennium BCE, in the shape of encampments of nomadic shepherds. Jerusalem was named as "Urusalim" on ancient Egyptian tablets meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the Canaanite period. During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE, in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.
In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian and Muslim Quarters; the Old City became a World Heritage Site in 1981, is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews and 300,000 Palestinians. In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews comprised 497,000, Muslims 281,000, Christians 14,000 and 9,000 were not classified by religion. According to the Bible, King David conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple. Modern scholars argue that Jews branched out of the Canaanite peoples and culture through the development of a distinct monolatrous — and monotheistic — religion centered on El/Yahweh, one of the Ancient Canaanite deities.
These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city was attached to Jerusalem in post-exilic times; the holiness of Jerusalem in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city, after Medina. In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran; as a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres, the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.
During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and annexed by Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and annexed by Jordan. Israel captured East Jerusalem from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory. One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem Law, refers to Jerusalem as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset, the residences of the Prime Minister and President, the Supreme Court. While the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel, Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem. A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt is but not universally, identified as Jerusalem. Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters of Abdi-Heba.
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation of the god Shalem". Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M from which the Hebrew word for "peace" is derived; the name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace", "dwelling of peace", alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city sat on two hills; the form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim first appears in the Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" and "Shalem" the two names were un
Worcester is a city in, the county seat of, Worcester County, United States. Named after Worcester, England, as of the 2010 Census the city's population was 181,045, making it the second most populous city in New England after Boston. Worcester is located 40 miles west of Boston, 50 miles east of Springfield and 40 miles north of Providence. Due to its location in Central Massachusetts, Worcester is known as the "Heart of the Commonwealth", thus, a heart is the official symbol of the city. However, the heart symbol may have its provenance in lore that the Valentine's Day card, although not invented in the city, was mass-produced and popularized by Esther Howland who resided in Worcester. Worcester was considered its own distinct region apart from Boston until the 1970s. Since Boston's suburbs have been moving out further westward after the construction of Interstate 495 and Interstate 290; the Worcester region now marks the western periphery of the Boston-Worcester-Providence U. S. Census Combined Greater Boston.
The city features many examples of Victorian-era mill architecture. The area was first inhabited by members of the Nipmuc tribe; the native people called the region built a settlement on Pakachoag Hill in Auburn. In 1673 English settlers John Eliot and Daniel Gookin led an expedition to Quinsigamond to establish a new Christian Indian "praying town" and identify a new location for an English settlement. On July 13, 1674, Gookin obtained a deed to eight square miles of land in Quinsigamond from the Nipmuc people and English traders and settlers began to inhabit the region. In 1675, King Philip's War broke out throughout New England with the Nipmuc Indians coming to the aid of Indian leader King Philip; the English settlers abandoned the Quinsigamond area and the empty buildings were burned by the Indian forces. The town was again abandoned during Queen Anne's War in 1702. In 1713, Worcester was permanently resettled for a third time by Jonas Rice. Named after the city of Worcester, the town was incorporated on June 14, 1722.
On April 2, 1731, Worcester was chosen as the county seat of the newly founded Worcester County government. Between 1755 and 1758, future U. S. president John Adams studied law in Worcester. In the 1770s, Worcester became a center of American revolutionary activity. British General Thomas Gage was given information of patriot ammunition stockpiled in Worcester in 1775. In 1775, Massachusetts Spy publisher Isaiah Thomas moved his radical newspaper out of British occupied Boston to Worcester. Thomas would continuously publish his paper throughout the American Revolutionary War. On July 14, 1776, Thomas performed the first public reading in Massachusetts of the Declaration of Independence from the porch of the Old South Church, where the 19th century Worcester City Hall stands today, he would go on to form the American Antiquarian Society in Worcester in 1812. During the turn of the 19th century Worcester's economy moved into manufacturing. Factories producing textiles and clothing opened along the nearby Blackstone River.
However, the manufacturing industry in Worcester would not begin to thrive until the opening of the Blackstone Canal in 1828 and the opening of the Worcester and Boston Railroad in 1835. The city transformed into a transportation hub and the manufacturing industry flourished. Worcester was chartered as a city on February 29, 1848; the city's industries soon attracted immigrants of Irish, French and Swedish descent in the mid-19th century and many immigrants of Lithuanian, Italian, Greek and Armenian descent. Immigrants moved into new three-decker houses which lined hundreds of Worcester's expanding streets and neighborhoods. In 1831 Ichabod Washburn opened the Moen Company; the company would become the largest wire manufacturing in the country and Washburn became one of the leading industrial and philanthropic figures in the city. Worcester would become a center of machinery, wire products and power looms and boasted large manufacturers, Washburn & Moen, Wyman-Gordon Company, American Steel & Wire, Morgan Construction and the Norton Company.
In 1908 the Royal Worcester Corset Company was the largest employer of women in the United States. Worcester would claim many inventions and firsts. New England Candlepin bowling was invented in Worcester by Justin White in 1879. Esther Howland began the first line of Valentine's Day cards from her Worcester home in 1847. Loring Coes invented the first monkey wrench and Russell Hawes created the first envelope folding machine. On June 12, 1880, Lee Richmond pitched the first perfect game in Major league baseball history for the Worcester Ruby Legs at the Worcester Agricultural Fairgrounds. On June 9, 1953 an F4 tornado touched down in Massachusetts northwest of Worcester; the tornado tore through 48 miles of Worcester County including a large area of the city of Worcester. The tornado killed 94 people; the Worcester Tornado would be the most deadly tornado to hit Massachusetts. Debris from the tornado landed as far away as Massachusetts. After World War II, Worcester began to fall into decline as the city lost its manufacturing base to cheaper alternatives across the country and overseas.
Worcester felt the national trends of movement away from historic urban centers. The city's population would drop over 20% from 1950 to 1980. In the mid-20th century large urban renewal projects were undertaken to try and reverse the city's decline. A huge area of downtown Worcester was demolished for new office towers and the 1,000,000 sq. ft. Wor
Somerville is a city located directly to the northwest of Boston, in Middlesex County, United States. As of 2010, the United States Census lists the city with a total population of 75,754 people, making it the most densely populated municipality in New England; as of 2010, it was the 16th most densely populated incorporated municipality in the country. Somerville was established as a town in 1842. In 2006, the city was named the best-run city in Massachusetts by the Boston Globe. In 1972, in 2009, again in 2015, the city received the All-America City Award, it is home to Tufts University, which has its campus along the Medford border. The territory now comprising the city of Somerville was first settled in 1629 as part of Charlestown. In 1629, English surveyor Thomas Graves led a scouting party of 100 Puritans from the settlement of Salem to prepare the site for the Great Migration of Puritans from England. Graves was attracted to the narrow Mishawum Peninsula between the Charles River and the Mystic River, linked to the mainland at the present-day Sullivan Square.
The area of earliest settlement was based at City Square on the peninsula, though the territory of Charlestown included all of what is now Somerville, as well as Medford, Malden, Melrose, Woburn and parts of Arlington and Cambridge. From that time until 1842, the area of present-day Somerville was referred to as "beyond the Neck" in reference to the thin spit of land, the Charlestown Neck, that connected it to the Charlestown Peninsula; the first European settler in Somerville of whom there is any record was John Woolrich, an Indian trader who came from the Charlestown Peninsula in 1630, settled near Dane Street. Others soon followed Woolrich; the population continued to increase, by 1775 there were about 500 inhabitants scattered across the area. Otherwise, the area was used as grazing and farmland, it was once known as the "Stinted Pasture" or "Cow Commons", as early settlers of Charlestown had the right to pasture a certain number of cows in the area. John Winthrop, the first colonial governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, was granted 600 acres of land in the area in 1631.
Named for the ten small knolls located on the property, Ten Hills Farm extended from the Craddock Bridge in present-day Medford Center to Convent Hill in East Somerville. Winthrop lived and raised cattle on the farm, it is where he launched the first ship in Massachusetts, the "Blessing of the Bay". Built for trading purposes in the early 1630s, it was soon armed for use as a patrol boat for the New England coast, it is seen as a precursor to the United States Navy. The neighborhood Ten Hills, located in the northeastern part of the city, has retained the name for over 300 years. New research has found that less than a decade after John Winthrop moved to the farm in 1631, there were enslaved Native American prisoners of war on the property; each successive owner of Ten Hills Farm would depend upon slavery's profits until the 1780s, when Massachusetts abolished the practice. In a short time, the settlers began laying out roads in all directions in search of more land for planting and trade with various Native American tribes in the area.
Laid out as early as the mid-1630s, the earliest highway in Somerville was what is now Washington Street, led from present-day Sullivan Square to Harvard Square. In its earliest days, Washington Street was known as the "Road to Newtowne". During the 1700s and early 1800s, Washington Street, together with Somerville Avenue, comprised "Milk Row", a route favored by Middlesex County dairy farmers as the best way to get to the markets of Charlestown and Boston. Laid out in 1636, Broadway was the second highway built in the area. Called "Menotomie's Road", it ran from the Charlestown Neck to the settlement at Menotomy. Bordered by farmsteads, Broadway would come into its own as a commercial thoroughfare after horse-drawn trolleys were introduced to the highway in 1858. Somerville was home to one of the first hostile acts of the American Revolutionary War; the theft of colonial gunpowder by British soldiers, the massive popular reaction that ensued, are considered to be a turning point in the events leading up to war.
First built by settlers for use as a windmill in the early 1700s, the Old Powder House was sold to the colonial government of Massachusetts for use as a gunpowder magazine in 1747. Located at the intersection of Broadway and College Avenue in present-day Powder House Square, the Old Powder House held the largest supply of gunpowder in all of Massachusetts. General Thomas Gage, who had become the military governor of Massachusetts in May 1774, was charged with enforcement of the unpopular Intolerable Acts, which British Parliament had passed in response to the Boston Tea Party. Seeking to prevent the outbreak of war, he believed that the best way to accomplish this was by secretly removing military stores from storehouses and arsenals in New England. Just after dawn on September 1, 1774, a force of 260 British regulars from the 4th Regiment, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Maddison, were rowed in secrecy up the Mystic River from Boston to a landing point near Winter Hill. From there they marched about a mile to the Powder House, after sunrise removed all of the gunpowder.
Most of the regulars returned to Boston the way they had come, but a small contingent marched on to Cambridge, seizing two field pieces from the Cambridge Common. The field pieces and powder were taken from Boston to the British stronghold on Castle Island known as Castle Wi